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ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 


3 1833 02937 8384 


Gc 973.74 Aalcoa v.40 

The Confederate Veteran 
magazi ne 




REYNOLDS HISTORICAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 


Gc 

973.74 

AaIcoa 

V.40 

22306SS 


\ 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2016 


https://archive.org/details/confederateveter40cu 


The 

Confederate Veteran 
Magazine 

1932 


Public Ubtary. 


BROADFOOT’S BOOKMARK 

ROUTE 3, BOX 318 
WENDELL, N. 0. 27591 




2 


C;o9federaC^ l/eterai^o 


LEADING ARTICLES IN THIS NUMBER. 

To General Lee. (Poem.) By Philip Stanhope Worsley 3 

The Veteran’s Haven. By Capt. Sam Hargis 4 

Stonewall Jackson. (Poem.) By Eva Hill LeSueur Karling 5 

The Fifty-Nine MacRaes in Gray. By Lawrence MacRae 6 

The Cause Was Not Entirely Lost. By Senator Duncan U. Fletcher 8 

Foreign Relations of the Confederacy. By Mrs. John H. Anderson 13 

The Author of Dixie. By H. A. Smith 17 

Lincoln’s Inconsistences. By C. E. Gilbert 20 

Hazardous Trip in War Days. By Mrs. P. H. Haggard 23 

Songs of the Days of War. By Porter Heaps 35 

Departments: Last Roll 26 

U. D. C 30 

C. S. M. A 34 

S. C. V 36 

ANNOUNCEMENT TO U. D. C. 


Announcement is made by Mrs. W. C. N. Mei'chant, of Chatham, Va., that 
the photographic copies of the large portrait of General Lee, placed at West 
Point by the United Daughters of the Confederacy, are now ready for dis- 
tribution and copies may be procured from her at .$2 each, plus postage 25 
cents — this being the exact cost of photograph. This, so long as the supply 
lasts. 


Ben A. Yates writes from Center- 
ville, Iowa, in renewing subscription: 
“I am inclosing check to take care of 
the Veteran for another year, which 
is eagerly read, having heen reared 
in the Valley of Virginia, where the 
conflict was so impressed on my mind 
that it makes the contents of each 
number very readable to me.” 


Gen. Thomas C. Little, of Fayette- 
ville, Tenn., renews subscription, and 
sends “best wishes for continued suc- 
cess in giving to the world a correct 
history of the War between the 
States. I was a personal friend of 
the founder, and have been a sub- 
scriber from the beginning. The boys 
who wore the gray will soon be gone. 
Lincoln County gave three thousand 
to the Confederate army; only eight 
of us now’ in the county.” 


“I hope to take the Veteran as 
long as I live,” writes Mrs. G. F. At- 
kins, of Saltville, Va., when renew- 
ing, and she also sends subscription 
for a friend. 


FOR SALE. 

GENUINE PAPER SHELL PE- 
CANS. Finest quality. In lots of 
five pounds or more, 25 cents per lb, 
delivered. Also, large grafted pe- 
cans at 18 cents per pound, delivered. 
Write for very low prices on larger 
quantities by' express. T. L. Hurl- 
butt, Point Clear, Ala. 


Alex McMillan, of Dundarrach, 
N. C., renews and writes that he is 
“the only veteran in his county 
(Hoke), all comrades gone, but when 
the roll is called up yonder, I expect 
to hear a hearty response when their 
names are called, for I think they are 
all registered there.” 


At the age of ninety-six a “maid” 
at Menstrie Mains Farm, near Stir- 
ling, England, is still actively en- 
gaged at her duties. The remarkable 
old lady is familiarly known as “Mar- 
garet,” and has been in the employ- 
ment of the Gellatly family for 
eighty-three years. She began her 
connection with the farm at the age 
of thirteen in 1848. She can still 
read newspapers without the aid of 
glasses. — Canadian- American. 


WASHINGTON TREES. 

The New Jersey Committee of the 
National George Washington Tree- 
Planting Project have decided to set 
New Jersey’s quota at one million 
trees to be planted this year and next 
in celebration of the Two Hundredth 
Anniversary of George Washington’s 
birth. 

New Jersey’s tree-planting proj- 
ect calls for the planting of shade 
trees in residential areas and country 
roadsides, as well as more extensive 
use of evergreen seedlings for re- 
forestation purposes. 

New York, with 3,041,373 memorial 


trees to George Washington, leads all 
States in the number of bicentennial 
plantings for 1932. 

Pennsylvania is second with 1,725,- 
368 bicentennial trees. Nearly 8,- 
000,000 have been planted throughout 
the nation. 


A Good Understanding. — A man 
who was a Roman Catholic came to 
Dr. W. T. Grenfell for medical treat- 
ment, and the doctor found it neces- 
sary to amputate his leg. The patient 
made a good recovery, and Dr. Gren- 
fell wrote an appeal for a wooden leg 
to enable him to move about and earn 
his living. The appeal was published 
in an American Congregational pa- 
per, and was read by a Baptist wom- 
an, whose husband, a Methodist, who 
had worn a wooden leg, had just died. 
She sent the leg to Dr. Grenfell. 
“And so,” said the famous Labrador 
medical missionary, “the Methodist 
leg, given by a Baptist woman, in 
answer to a Congregational appeal on 
behalf of a Roman Catholic, is now 
being used as a perfectly satisfac- 
tory interdenominational understand- 
ing.” 


ESSAY CONTEST. 

’A competitive essay designed to 
promulgate interest on the part of 
the school children in the state con- 
stitution has been announced by the 
Virginia Constitutional Society. The 
subject chosen for the essay is 
“George Washington and the Virginia 
Constitution.” All school children in 
the state are eligible to compete for 
the cash prizes, which will be award- 
ed for the best papers submitted on 
the subject. 


A stranger addressed the farmer’s 
boy across the fence. 

“Young man, your corn looks kind 
o’ yellow.” 

“Yes, that’s the kind we planted.” 
“Don’t look as if you would get 
more than half a crop.” 

“Don’t expect to. The landlord 
gets the other half.” 

Then, after a pause, the man said: 
“Boy, there isn’t much difference 
between you and a fool.” 

“No,” replied the boy, “only the 
fence.” 


The use of cotton stationery is one 
of the means adopted to help the 
South dispose of the large cotton sur- 
plusage. 


Qo^federati^ l/eterap 


PUBLISHED MONTHLY IN THE INTEREST OF CONFEDERATE ASSOCIATIONS AND KINDRED TOPICS. 


Entered as second-class matter at the post office at Nashville, Tenn., 
under act of March 3, 1879. 

Acceptance of maiing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec- 
tion 1 103, act of October 3, 1917, and authorized on July 5, 1918. 

Published by the Trustees of the Confederate Veteran, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 



OFFICIALLY REPRESENTS: 

United Confederate Veterans, 

United Daughters of the Confederacy, 

Confederated Southern Memorial Association! 
Sons of Confederate Veterans. 





Though men deserve, they may not win, success; 

The brave will honor the brave, vanquished none the less. 



Price $1.60 Per Year. ) 
Single Copy, 16 Cents. | 

VOL. XL. 

NASHVILLE, TENN., JANUARY, 1932 

No. 1 

fS. A. CUNNINGHAM 
1 Founder. 


UNITED CONFEDERATE VETERANS 

GENERAL OFFICERS. 

Gen. C. a. Db Saussure, Memphis, Tenn Comander in Chief 

Gen. H. R. Lee, Nashville, Tenn. . . Adjutant General and Chief of Staff 
Mrs. W. B. Kernan, 1723 Audubon Street, New Orleans, La. 

Assistant to the Adjutant General 
Rev. Carter Helm Jones, Murfreesboro, Tenn Chaplain General 

DEPARTMENT COMMANDERS. 

Gen. Homer Atkinson, Petersburg, Va. . . r.Armv of Northern Virginia 

Gen. Sims Latta, Columbia, Tenn Army of Tennessee 

Gen. R. D. Chapman, Houston, Tex Trans-Mississippi 


TO GENERAL LEE. 

The most stainless of living commanders, and, 
except in fortune, the greatest. 

This volume is presented with the writer’s earn- 
est sympathy and respectful admiration. 

The grand old bard that never dies. 

Receive him in our English tongue. 

I send thee, but with weeping eyes. 

The story that he sung. 


DIVISION COMMANDERS. 


ALABAMA — Tuscaloosa 

Arkansas— Russellville 

Florida — 

Georgia — S avannah 

Kentucky — R ichmond 

Louisiana — LaFayette 

Maryland — 

Mississippi — 

Missouri — S t. Louis 

North Carolina — A nsonville 

Oklahoma — Okmulgee 

South Carolina — S umter. . . . 

Tennessee — U nion City 

Texas — F ort Worth 

Virginia — R ichmond 

West Virginia — L ewisburg.. 
California — L os Angeles .... 


Gen. John R. Kennedy 
. Gen. J. P. McCarther 
Gen. W. E. McGhagin 
Gen. William Harden 
Gen. N. B. Deatherage 
Gen. Gustave Manton 


Gen. W. R. Jacobs 

Gen. W. A. Wall 

Gen. W. A. Smith 

. Gen. A. C. De Vinna 

Gen. N. G. Osteen 

Gen. Rice A. Pierce 

Gen. M. J. Bonner 

Gen. William McK. Evans 
. Gen. Thomas H. Dennis 
Gen. S. S. Simmons 


HONORARY APPOINTMENTS. 

Gen. W. B. Freeman, Richmond, Va Honorary Commander for Life 

Gen. M. D. Vance, Little Rock, Ark.. . . Honorary Commander for Life 
Gen. R. a. Sneed, Oklahoma City, Okla. . Honorary Commander for Life 
Gen. L. W. Stephens, Coushatta, La.. . Honorary Commander for Life 
Rev. B. Cooke Giles, Mathews, V a. Honorary Chaplain General for Life 


Thy Troy is fallen, thy dear land 
Is marred beneath the spoiler’s heel ; 

I cannot trust my trembling hand 
To write the things I feel. 

Ah, realm of tears ! but let her bear 
This blazon to the end of time : 

No nation rose so white and fair. 

None fell so pure of crime. 

The widow’s moan, the orphan’s wail. 

Come round thee; but in truth be strong! 

Eternal Right, though all else fail. 

Can never be made wrong. 

An angel’s heart, an angel’s mouth. 

Not Homer’s, could alone for me 

Hymn well the great Confederate South — 
Virginia, first, and Lee. 


MRS. SIDNEY LANIER. 

Mrs. Mary Day Lanier, widow of Sidney La- 
nier, Southern poet and musician, died at the 
home of her son, Charles D. Lanier, in Green- 
wich, Conn., on December 29, at the age of eighty- 
seven years. 


This poem was written on the fly leaf of a copy 
of the “Translation of Homer’s Iliad by Philip 
Stanhope Worsley, Fellow of Corpus Christ! Col- 
lege, Oxford, England,” which was sent to Gen- 
eral Lee by the author, who inscribed the volume 
as above in prose and verse. 


4 


(^opfederat^ l/eterai). 


Qo^federat^ l/eterai>. 

OflBce: Methodist Publlshins House Building, Nashville, Tenn. 
E. D. POPE, Editor. 


THE VETERANS' HAVEN. 

The following letter from Capt. Sam H, Har- 
gis, who recently entered the Confederate Home at 
Ardmore, Okla., shows fine appreciation of the 
comforts and conveniences which surround our 
veterans in these Homes. His letter was pub- 
lished in the News, of Ada, Okla., his former 
home, and the Veteran reproduces it as some- 
thing of general interest: 

“Dear Comrades and Friends : I have now been 
living almost a month in this Home, established 
by this State for the Confederate veterans. It 
has been many years since I introduced the bill 
in the State legislature to pay from our State 
treasury a regular pension to the boys of the Con- 
federacy. Little did I know at that time that I 
would one day be drawing that pension and be liv- 
ing in this wonderful, good Home, also supported 
by the State for the veterans. I did not then con- 
ceive the full humanitarian virtues of such a ges- 
ture. But since coming to this Home I do realize 
the true significance, and want my friends and old 
comrades to know about my new home and the 
splendid care taken of us here. 

“This Home seems to me like one of our great 
modern hotels. It has all the conveniences of any 
hotel in Oklahoma. Warmth, cleanliness, attrac- 
tive surroundings, kind and efficient employees, 
wholesome and abundant food (although plenti- 
ful it is balanced by a dietitian, the superintend- 
ent an excellent manager, and his wife a lovely 
matron. Everything is furnished. In other 
words, all bills paid, even to the tobacco. And 
besides this, a veteran who is making his home 
here is given $12.50 a month as a pension. Quite 
different from the dark, closing days of the war. 

“There are three residential buildings. The 
main building is for old vets and their wives who 
are in good health. The annex close by for old 
soldiers only. The third and largest building is 
the hospital. Here live those who are in bad 
health, unable to wait on themselves at the table, 
or too feeble to get around. Also, if anyone liv- 
ing in the other buildings becomes ill, he is trans- 
ferred to the hospital. There one receives the 
best of medical care. The nurses are on duty day 
and night. I dare say that the meals are the best 
of any sanitarium in Oklahoma. 


“George W. Lewis is the superintendent. He 
has been in charge here for several years. He is 
certainly a wonderful choice for a hard job to fill. 
His personality is the cause of the smooth run- 
ning of this Home. The members of the Home 
would possibly have no other after his years of 
success. He is well known to the Sons and Daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy over the State and the 
entire South. I wish some of my old friends 
might visit here, and I extend them a cordial in- 
vitation to stop off to see this Home and to visit 
at their first opportunity.” 


AN OPEN LETTER TO AN AUTHOR. 

The popular form of biographic writing tempts 
the author to make his characters more or less 
without fault or failure. An example of the kind 
came to the attention of Mr. Frank Hough, Su- 
perintendent of the High School at Shaw, Miss., 
who sent the following letter to Mr. Joseph Herg- 
sheimer, popular writer of popular articles in a 
popular publication, as follows: 

“In your very interesting sketch of General 
Sheridan — Saturday Evening Post, June 27 — ^the 
following statement appears : 

“ ‘General Sheridan was, as well as highly en- 
dowed for the profession of arms, a fortunate 
commander. He never, finally, lost a battle.’ 
“Just a bit of friendly comment. Undoubted- 
ly, the General was a fortunate commander, for- 
tunate in that in each of his battles he invariably 
met an enemy inferior in numbers. To state that 
he never lost a battle is to ignore the engagement 
at Trevilian Station, Va. There, on June 11 and 
12, 1864, Wade Hampton, with about 5,000 men, 
repulsed Sheridan, who had not less than 8,000 ef- 
fectives. So decisive was the repulse that Sheri- 
dan retreated rather precipitately, leaving some 
of his wounded behind. See the extract from 
Sheridan’s report given on page 234, Vol. 4, ‘Bat- 
tles and Leaders of the Civil War.’ In fact, there 
are grounds for believing that only the tardiness 
of Fitzhugh Lee in arriving with his division 
saved Sheridan’s force from a complete rout.” 


In renewing his subscription, J. E. Millner 
writes from Lithonia, Ga. : “Long live the Con- 
federate Veteran! I wish to subscribe for it 
as long as I can. I am not a veteran, nor the son 
of one, but my father was Captain of Home 
Guards, and if the war had lasted longer he and 
his men would have been called into the Confed- 
erate army.” 


^opfederat^ l/eteraij. 5 


STONEWALL JACKSON. 

BY EVA HILL LE SUEUR KARLING. 

Within that old historic State 
Where rugged mountains rise, 
Where the Valley of Virginia 
In verdant beauty lies, 



THOMAS JONATHAN JACKSON AS A SECOND LIEUTENANT 
U. S. A., DURING THE MEXICAN WAR. 


Was born the noble Jackson, 

A spirit stanch and bold. 

Heroic as some valiant knight 
In ancient annals told. 

Sprung from that race of patriots 
Who gave our nation fame. 

With sturdy heart and purpose true. 
He to young manhood came. 

As soldier of the Union first. 

He fought in Mexico, 

And proved his worth in warfare bold 
Against a tyrant foe. 

But when the sable clouds of war 
Obscured our Freedom’s light. 

He stood with Davis and with Lee 
For his State’s Sovereign Right. 


And with bold tactics, wise and sane. 
The enemy he flayed. 

At Harper’s Ferry and Bull Run, 

They sorely were dismayed. 

Across the Rappahannock’s banks 
He drove the hosts of Pope, 

And all the Southland spoke his praise, 
And hearts beat high with hope. 

At Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville 
His valor was the same ; 

And throughout all the land there spread 
The glory of his fame. 

It was the second day of May, 

In eighteen and sixty-three. 

He led his men in battle last. 

And won great victory. 

And then that tragic night came down! 

Death reconnoitered there — 

And laid his hand upon his brow; 

The South bowed in despair ! 

From our own ranks came the fell shot 
That laid the loved form low ; 

Ah ! mournful, tragic accident 
That filled all hearts with woe. 

And like an omen of defeat 
Was death of that great chief. 

And every Southern eye grew dim. 

And hearts were numb with grief ! 

But as the shades of twilight fell 
That dimmed his mortal sight. 

He saw across the Silent Stream 
A scene of peace and light. 

And with his faint and waning breath. 
His last low words were these : 

“Let us pass across the River 
And rest beneath the trees !’’ 

So “Stonewall” Jackson lived and died, 

A nobleman of earth! 

And we who hold tradition dear 
Pay honor to his w'orth. 


[This picture of Jackson is from the “Photo- 
graphic History of the War,” and is used by 
courtesy of the Review of Revieivs.'] 



6 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 


THE FIFTY-NINE MACRAES IN GRAY. 

[Contributed by Lawrence MacRae, Assistant 
Adjutant in Chief, S. C. V., and Past Commander 
Third North Carolina Brigade, S. C. V., Greens- 
boro, N. C.] 

The following list of fifty-nine names embraces 
the contribution of the MacRae family of North 
Carolina to the defense of the Confederate States 
of America in its struggle against its invaders 
and is taken from the records of the War between 
the States compiled by Judge Walter Clark, late 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of North 
Carolina, with the one exception, viz.: Robert 
Strange MacRae, of Fayetteville, who, at the age 
of fourteen, became a cabin boy on board private- 
ly owned blockade runners out of Wilmington, 
bringing in supplies from Nassau for the Confed- 
erate forces. 

The Clan Society of Scotland spell the name 
“MacRae,” and I understand this is the generally 
accepted and proper spelling of the name. How- 
ever, like many other family names, “MacRae” 
has been abbreviated and misspelled in different 
ways. For instance, McRae, McRea, McCray, 
MacCae — and I found such to be the practice 
among those who fought for the Confederate 
Union. In many cases, it is true, the adjutants 
were responsible for the misspelling of soldiers’ 
names. So I have adopted the spelling “MacRae” 
throughout the list as suitable identification for 
each clansman. 

This unusual list of fifty-nine names is proba- 
bly the largest number of any one family entering 
the Confederate service from North Carolina, and 
certainly contributes more than any other family 
to high official rank, as you will observe the list 
includes a general, a surgeon, a chaplain, and all 
other officials down the line. 

They came from the blood of Scotch Highland- 
ers referred to in ancient writings as the “wild 
McRas,” on account of their warlike propensities 
and their vigor and valor in battle. 

The four thousand of the MacRae Clan who 
fought with the Allied Armies during the great 
World War evidenced the spirit and loyalty of 
their forefathers, as did the fifty-nine heroes from 
North Carolina who wore the gray. Their clan 
was founded by Fionula Duth MacGillehriosd (or 
Black Finley, son of Christopher), who died in 
1416, and their forefathers were followers of the 
Earls of Seaforth, supporting the Royal Stuart 
family and Kipg James VIII, called Jacobites. 
Their principal habitations were in Kintail, Ros- 


shire, and Invernesshire, and their principal bury- 
ing grounds were along the shores of Lake Duich. 

For several hundred years their clan chiefs oc- 
cupied Ellandornan Castle, on an island in Lake 
Duich, and defended northwest Scotland from in- 
vading Danes and other foes seeking plunder. 
Ellandornan Castle is now owned by Col. John 
MacRae-Gilstrap, President of the Clan MacRae 
Society of Scotland, whose address is Otter Ferry, 
Ballimore, Argyle, Scotland, and his brother, 
Stuart MacRae, of Couchra, is the Chief of the 
Clan, twenty-first in line. 

I am submitting this introduction to these 
fifty-nine immortals, and their names, rank, and 
residence, feeling that it will be of particular in- 
terest to members of the Clan MacRae widely and 
in large numbers scattered throughout the South 
and West, and of general interest to students and 
readers of records of our War between the States. 

MacRaes in North Carolina Forces, C. S. A. 

Alexander MacRae, Captain 1st Battalion, 
Company C; promoted Major. New Hanover 
County. 

A. D. MacRae, Company 1, 72nd Regiment, 
Junior Reserves. Cumberland County. 

A. B. MacRae, Company C, 48th Regiment. 
Iredell County. 

Archibald L. MacRae, Company F, 18th Regi- 
ment. Robeson County. 

Alexander MacRae, Company H, 26th Regi- 
ment. Moore County. 

Alexander MacRae, Company B, 36th Regi- 
ment. Moore County. 

B. MacRae, Company A, 73rd Regiment. Ala- 
mance County. 

Colin MacRae, Company — , 63rd Regiment. 
Cumberland County. 

C. MacRae, Company C, 5th Battalion. New 
Hanover County. 

Clinton MacRae, Company I, 26th Regiment. 
Chatham County. 

Cameron Farquhar MacRae, Chaplain, 15th 
Regiment. Northampton County. 

D. G. MacRae, 4th Corporal Company E, 38th 
Regiment (Private to Captain). Richmond Coun- 
ty. 

D. R. MacRae, Company D, 48th Regiment. 
Moore County. 

D. A. MacRae, Adjutant 28th Regiment. Mont- 
gomery County. 

Duncan Kirkland MacRae, Colonel 5th Regi- 
ment. Cumberland County. [Consul General to 
Paris, France under President Pierce, and Sec- 


7 


^opfederat^ l/eterap. 


retary to the Astend Council of Foreign Minis- 
ters]. 

George A. MacRae, Company — , 63rd Regi- 
ment. Chatham County. 

George M. MacRae, Company A, 21st Regi- 
ment. Montgomery County. 

H. MacRae, Company I, 72nd Junior Reserve. 
Cumberland County. 



H. G. MacRae, Company I, 26th Regiment. 
Chatham County. 

Henry MacRae, Captain, 8th Regiment (Pri- 
vate to Major) . New Hanover County. 

John MacRae, Guidon, Company B, 5th Bat- 
talion. Cumberland County. 

J. Burgwyn MacRae, Company B, 5th Battalion. 
Cumberland County. 

John MacRae, Company D, 41st Regiment. 
Harnett County. 

J. B. MacRae, 2nd Lieutenant Company B, 73rd 
(85) Senior Reserves. Hobeson County. 

Jackson MacRae, Private promoted Sergeant 
Company E, 38th Regiment. Anson County. 

J. A. MacRae, Company K, 38th Regiment. 
Robeson County. 

James MacRae, Company K, 48th Regiment. 
Alamance County. 

John MacRae, Jr., 2nd Lieutenant Company F, 
20th Regiment. Cumberland County. 


John MacRae, Company I, 26th Regiment. 
Chatham County. 

James L. MacRae, 2nd Lieutenant Company E, 
28th Regiment. Montgomery County. 

James W. MacRae, Company K, 30th Regiment. 
Mecklenberg County. 

James MacRae, Company K, 30th Regiment. 
Mecklenberg County. 

James L. MacRae, Company K, 34th Regiment. 
Montgomery County. 

James A. MacRae, Surgeon, 5th Regiment. 
Cumberland County. 

James H. MacRae, Company H, 15th Regiment. 
Alamance County. 

James Christopher MacRae, Lieutenant Com- 
pany D, 5th Regiment (Private to Captain Ma- 
jor). Cumberland County. 

Laughlin MacRae, Company B, 8th Senior Re- 
serves, 73rd Regiment. Robeson County. 

M. H. MacRae, Company H, 1st Battalion. 
Robeson County. 

M. J. MacRae, Company A, 1st Battalion. 
Robeson County. 

M. M. MacRae, 2nd Sergeant Company H, 46th 
Regiment. Moore County. 

Malcolm W. MacRae, Company D, 51st Regi- 
ment. Robeson County. 

Malcolm L. MacRae, Company D, 51st Regi- 
ment. Robeson County. 

Niel MacRae, Company H, Bethel Regiment. 
Cumberland County. 

Norman MacRae, Company E, 40th Regiment. 
Robeson County. 

Philip MacRae, Company E, 41st Regiment. 
Harnett County. 

Roderick MacRae, 2nd Lieutenant Company I, 
18th Regiment. New Hanover County. 

Roderick S. MacRae, Company G, 24th Regi- 
ment. Robeson County. 

Robert MacRae, Company K, 34th Regiment. 
Montgomery County. 

R. M. MacRae, 5th Sergeant Company C, 35th 
Regiment. Moore County. 

Robert B. MacRae, Captain Company C, 7th 
Regiment (promoted Major). New Hanover 
County. 

Robert S. MacRae, Cabin Boy on Blockade 
Runner “Owl.” Cumberland County. 

Thomas R. MacRae, 1st Sergeant Company A, 
63rd Regiment. Cumberland County. 

Thomas A. MacRae, Company I, 36th Regiment. 
Bladen County. 

William MacRae, 2nd Lieutenant Company B, 
73rd Reserves. (Continued on page 29) 



8 


^oi)federat^ l/etera^* 


THE CAUSE WAS NOT ENTIRELY LOST. 

[Address by United States Senator Duncan U. 
Fletcher before the United Daughters of the Con- 
federacy in Convention at Jacksonville, Fla., His- 
torical Evening, November 19, 1931.] 

One could render no greater disservice to the 
country than by going about arousing sectional 
feeling, reviving antagonisms, and kindling the 
fires of bitterness generated by the conflict of 
1861-65 and the outrages of reconstruction dur- 
ing the eleven years that followed. 

It is true the “bloody shirt” is still doing a 
diminishing business in certain regions of the 
country. It is still the mendacious banner of the 
demagogue and ambitious office-seeker in those 
regions. But its effectiveness has greatly waned. 

I would avoid even the appearance of a purpose 
to awaken sectional resentment or animosity 
while I must refer to certain truths which are 
matters of record and not subject to dispute. 

Keeping in mind the sound rule announced by 
Cicero, long ago, that “It is the first and funda- 
mental law of history that it should neither dare 
to say anything that is false or fear to say any- 
thing that is true, nor give any just suspicion of 
favor or disaffection,” I feel disposed, in address- 
ing this body of noble women, one of whose pur- 
poses is to see, as far as they can, that the facts 
in connection with the experiences of those try- 
ing years and the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, shall be preserved to pos- 
terity, to refer to some of those outstanding veri- 
ties. 

History is but the story of human behavior. 
Giving an account of the behavior involves a con- 
sideration at times of the motives back of it. In 
the interest of truth and correct history, there- 
fore, I mention certain matters which I think 
ought to be stated in this presence, particularly 
in view of certain rude, unjust, and uncalled-for 
aspersions, which I dismiss without dignifying 
by further reference. 

You aim to correct false representations, main- 
tain the truth, and render what aid you can to 
those who suffered and sacrificed in defense of the 
homes and firesides of the Southland in times 
which tried human souls. You represent, in a 
way, the devoted and consecrated women who 
supported the noble manhood of the South in the 
struggle for liberty and independence, driven to 
such struggle by the thunder of events, sustained 
by sublime faith in the righteousness of the cause 
and devotion to the principles for which they 


stood. No decent individuals should offer criti- 
cism for that attitude. 

Your mothers and you, in your ideals and pur- 
poses, represent “the pure in spirit,” for whom 
there is vouchsafed the blessings of heaven. 

Suppose we say the cause was secession, and 
that was lost by the arbitrament of the sword. 

The South was outnumbered in military 
strength four to one, and in resources greater 
than that. 

The South, after four years of heroic defense, 
unparalled in all the world, was obliged to sur- 
render. 

But what was the cause of secession? We must 
go to the underlying conditions. Some say slav- 
ery was the cause. We will examine that briefly. 

A recent writer, Hollis, in his American Her- 
esy, says slavery was not abolished in America 
by or as a result of the war, only slaveholders. 

The truth is, the vital question involved, the 
real cause, was the South’s insistence upon the 
Constitutional rights of the State. 

When I say the Cause was not entirely lost, as 
claimed, I refer to the doctrine of States Rights. 

Just exactly as Southern leaders contended, 
those rights have been declared by the Supreme 
Court of the United States, the highest authority 
in the land, as sound, constitutional, and valid 
then, and by later decisions since. 

The Dred Scott decision, the Milligan case, and 
numerous others of recent date have emphasized 
and construed the meaning of State Sovereignty 
and Rights of the States, in principle, as the 
South contended in and before 1861. 

So, I say, the Cause was not entirely lost. 

A modern, disinterested writer, Hollis, in his 
book on The American Heresy, says in 1816 the 
South was dominant in this country, and in 1828 
the right of secession was taken for granted ev- 
erywhere. “The old South,” he asserts, “was not 
beaten and persuaded — she was beaten and mur- 
dered.” 

We shall see that there was a resurrection day 
— the spirit lives on ! 

In his life of Webster, Henry Cabot Lodge, his- 
torian and lately United States Senator from 
Massachusetts, says : “When the Constitution was 
adopted by the votes of States at Philadelphia and 
accepted by votes of States in popular conven- 
tions, it was safe to say there was not a man in 
the country, from Washington and Hamilton on 
the one side to George Clinton and George Mason 
on the other, who regarded the new system as 


9 


^opfederat^ l/eterar>. 


anything but an experiment entered upon by the 
States and from which each and every State had 
the right to peacefully withdraw — a right which 
was very likely to be exercised.” 

The contemporary opinion of Northern publi- 
cists and leading journals considered coersion out 
of the question. The New York Tribune, Horace 
Greeley editor, said, November 9, 1860: “If the 
cotton States shall decide they can do better out 
of the Union than in it, we insist on letting them 
go in peace. The right to secede may be a revo- 
lutionary one, but it exists nevertheless, and we 
do not see how one party can have a right to do 
what another party has a right to prevent. We 
must ever resist the asserted right of any State 
to remain in the Union and nullify or destroy the 
laws thereof ; to withdraw from the Union is quite 
another matter.” 

This was precisely the position of Jefferson 
Davis. The South did not take a stand for nulli- 
fication, but did exercise the right to withdraw 
when the North refused to he hound by the Con- 
stitution. 

Similar statements appeared in the press, and, 
after Mr. Davis had been inaugurated as Presi- 
dent at Montgomery, the Tribune published: “We 
have repeatedly said, and we once more insist, 
that the great principle embodied by Jefferson 
in the Declaration of American Independence that 
governments derive their just powers from the 
consent of the governed is sound and just, and 
that if the slave States, the cotton States, or the 
Gulf States only choose to form an independent 
nation, they have a clear moral right to do so.” 

Secession had been preached and threatened in 
various sections, and the Northern stand for it 
and against extension of the Union was quite com- 
plete. In Congress and in conventions, when Jef- 
ferson was annexing Louisiana, they declared 
they were not bound. The same when Texas was 
annexed. The same when the Mexican War was 
being fought. 

The truth is that, if we consider it an open 
question in 1861, it is equally true that “it had 
never been denied until recent years. The right 
had been proclaimed upon the hustings, enun- 
ciated in political platforms, proclaimed in the 
Senate and House of Representatives, embodied 
in our literature, taught in schools and colleges, 
interwoven into the texts of jurisprudence, and 
maintained by scholars, statesmen, and constitu- 
encies of all States and sections of the country.” 
Tucker, Rawle, and DeTroquevillo taught it. 


The South had led in the establishment of the 
Union. 

Southern leaders had never urged secession; 
they loved the Union. Such was the attitude of 
Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jack- 
son, Stephens, Ben Hill, and others. 

Ben Hill, that great statesman, when usurpa- 
tion was taking place, the Constitution being 
trampled upon, sought to rally his people “to save 
their civilization.” He declared : “The Constitu- 
tion is my client, and the preservation of its pro- 
tection is the only fee I ask.” 

His was the last speech for the Union in Con- 
gress — but when the bugle called his people to the 
field he cast his lot with them, and in the Confed- 
erate Senate, the youngest member, he was the 
spokesman for the Administration and made the 
last speech for the continuance of the war. When 
the Constitution became effective again, he was 
in the Senate of the United States, and there, in 
that historic answer to Blaine, in words “as sub- 
lime as those that fell from the lips of Paul on 
Mars’ Hill,” he declared, “We are in our Father’s 
house and we have come to stay.” 

Pursuing the thought a moment concerning the 
leadership of the South and its accomplishments 
and its love for American institutions, reflect — 

Who wrote the Declaration of Independence? 

Who uttered the challenge, “Liberty or death” ? 

Who presided over the convention that framed 
the Constitution? 

Who was the chief author of it? ' 

Who became its great interpreter? 

Who wrote the Bill of Rights? 

Whose sword defended the young republic? 

Every schoolboy must answer Jefferson, Henry, 
Madison, Marshall, Mason, and Washington — all 
men of the South ! 

We were then, at the close of the Revolution, 
thirteen States straggling along the Atlantic Sea- 
board. How and by whom was this national do- 
main extended ? 

Jefferson gave us the territory stretching from 
the Gulf of Mexico across the Rocky Mountains 
to Oregon. 

President Madison, assisted by John C. Cal- 
houn, Andrew Jackson sealing the victory, led us 
through the second war of independence in 1812. 

Samuel Houston achieved Texas independence, 
admitted to the Union under James K. Polk. 

The Northern Territory, north of the Ohio 
River, embracing Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michi- 
gan, and Wisconsin, was conquered by George 
Rogers Clark, a soldier of Virginia. “By Vir- 


10 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 


ginia’s gift and Southern votes this mighty land 
was made the dowry of the nation.” 

Then why should the South be driven from this 
Union she had done so much to create? That 
brings us to the principal cause for assailing by 
the North the foundation upon which the republic 
was built — a proper recognition, under the Con- 
stitution, of the Sovereign Rights of the States. 

Slavery was that cause, and we must refer 
briefly to the salient truths in that connection. It 
became a very unpopular institution for senti- 
mental reasons. The material interests of the 
North and East became antagonistic. Abolition- 
ists aroused much feeling against it. Self-seeking 
politicians seized upon it to serve their ends. 
Jealous of the South’s power, they sought to so 
direct affairs as to overcome the South and control 
the government, and particularly the offices. This 
finally led to a revolution against the Constitution 
by those agitators, selfish and party interests. 
This forced the South into a revolution to sustain 
and uphold the Constitution and laws of the coun- 
try. We may call that secession. 

An unbiased writer recently, looking over 
events, declares : “The Southern States had every 
legal right to retain slavery and to demand the 
return of fugitive slaves, and the Constitutional 
right to secede was incontestable.” 

I agree with Jay Hamilton. This is the abso- 
lute truth. It is unfair and unjust to blame the 
South for slavery. When independence was de- 
clared, slavery was in existence in every State. 
When the Constitution was adopted in 1789, the 
institution still existed in every State except 
Massachusetts. Every State united in its recog- 
nition in the Federal compact. Three-fifths of the 
slaves were counted in the basis of representation 
in Congress; property in slaves was protected by 
rigid provisions regarding the rendition of slaves 
escaping from one State to another. 

“Thus embodied in the Constitution, thus inter- 
woven in the very integrants of our political sys- 
tem, thus sustained by the oath to support the 
Constitution, executed by every public servant, 
and by the decisions of the Supreme tribunals, 
slavery was ratified by the unanimous voice of the 
nation and was recognized as an American insti- 
tution and as a vested right by the most solemn 
pledge and sanction that man can give.” 

It would be tedious to consider factors in the 
development and the changes in the institution, 
unsupported by any change in the Constitution 
or laws, and this probably states the case in the 
end: 


“But it was not hatred of the Union or love of 
slavery that inspired the South, nor love of the 
negro that inspired the North. Profounder 
thoughts and interests lay beneath these. The 
rivalry of cheap negro labor, aversion to the 
negro and to slavery alike, were the spurs of 
North action; that of the South was race integ- 
rity. Free white dominion! The question of 
slavery was one for the States.” 

It will be remembered that in the original draft 
of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson in- 
cluded an indictment of King George for his de- 
termination “to keep open a market where men 
could be bought and sold,” and it was 'stricken 
out, because New England was then profitably 
operating slave ships and practically all the 
colonies owned slaves. 

After the war was over, after the South had 
been subjugated, the Constitution was amended 
in a way to support the contention of the North 
before it was changed. 

The Thirteenth Amendment, abolishing slavery, 
was adopted December 18, 1865. 

The Fourteenth Amendment, containing Sec- 
tions 3 and 4, prohibiting, in effect, secession, was 
adopted July 18, 1868. 

The Fifteenth Amendment was adopted March 
30, 1870, after all the plans and activities in con- 
nection with reconstruction had been by force put 
into effect. 

The terms of surrender had been ignored; the 
South was treated by those in power as conquered 
provinces; and although they had waged war on 
the claim that the States could not leave the 
Union, they proceeded to deny the Southern States 
the status of States, and to impose on them the 
rule of Federal bayonets, supporting gross igno- 
rance, incompetency, rascality, carpetbag cor- 
ruption, and the rankest possible oppression; in 
fact, all the horrors, atrocities, crimes, and suffer- 
ing of which human nature is capable. 

Let the present-day historian speak: “This, 
then, was the combination against the peace of 
a fallen people — the soldiers inciting the blacks 
against their former masters, the Bureau agents 
preaching political and social equality, the white 
scum of the North fraternizing with the blacks in 
their shacks, and the thieves of the Treasury 
stealing cotton under the protection of Federal 
bayonets. And in the North, demagogic politi- 
cians and fanatics were demanding immediate 
negro suffrage and clamoring for the blood of 
Southern leaders. Why was not Jeff Davis 
hanged, and why was not Lee shot ? they said ! 


11 


QoQfederat^ l/eterap. 


I am tempted to call some names of these South 
haters, usurpers, and oppressors. A few of them 
have statues about Washington. They ought not 
to be there. It is the only way posterity will know 
of them. Very few of them are in Statuary Hall, 
if any — ^the Parthenon of the Great of the United 
States. But there will be found today Jefferson 
Davis, James Z. George, Robert E. Lee, J. Kirby- 
Smith, and others of their type. 

You will not find Thad Stevens there — that 
club-footed Caliban from Pennsylvania, who led 
in the Radical Republican movement which 
brought about the conditions mentioned. Three 
days before the deplorable death of Lincoln, 
Stevens had denounced the terms of Grant with 
Lee, said they were too easy, and that he would 
“dispossess those participating in the rebellion of 
every foot of ground they pretended to own.” 
Supporting him were such delectable characters 
as Ben Wade, Ben Butler, Seward, Charles Sum- 
ner, Stanton, Grant (note particularly his use of 
Federal troops in Louisiana, South Carolina, and 
Florida), Chase (who favored negro suffrage), 
Schurz, Oliver P. Morton, Roscoe Conkling, and 
Zack Chandler (the last three being Grant’s 
“three musketeers”), Don Cameron, W. E. Chand- 
ler, and Stanley Matthews (who did such dirty 
work in Florida), supported also by Robert G. 
Ingersoll, James G. Blaine, and Sheridan. 

It is worth while to observe that Jay Cooke and 
Henry Clews were close to the Grant Administra- 
tion, and urged that if he and the Republican 
Party prevailed in the national election, it meant 
the country would continue prosperous and a 
bright future of increasing prosperity would fol- 
low. 

This was in 1873. 

In 1874 both of these failed, and Grant himself, 
who had acquired a desire for wealth, was finan- 
cially involved in the crash. 

Associated with these men were their agents 
and representatives in the Southern States, like 
Hunnicutt in Virginia, Holden in North Carolina, 
Scott, Moses, and Patterson in South Carolina, 
Bullock in Georgia, Stearns and Littlefield in 
Florida, Ames in Mississippi, Powell Clayton in 
Arkansas, Warnmouth in Louisiana, Brownlow in 
Tennessee, Pease in Texas, Harrington and Spen- 
cer in Alabama — all spokesmen and practically all 
carpetbaggers. 

It may be mentioned that Harper’s Weekly, the 
Chicago Tribune, and the Union League of Phila- 
delphia did their best for the Radical Republican 


cause. They were joined by the Grand Army of 
the Republic — even then, in 1868, a political ma- 
chine. 

This disgraceful, outrageous work disgusted 
the decent people of the North, as well as all por- 
tions of the country. Public opinion revolted. 
This cruel, wicked, atrocious treatment of the 
South was about to come to an end. 

It did when Vance became Governor of North 
Carolina, Hampton of South Carolina, Drew of 
Florida, Nichols of Louisiana, followed by other 
changes in the same direction — in 1876. 

The States were free again, and each State be- 
gan to rule itself — in 1876 — after eleven years of 
humiliating, torturing, harrowing experience. 

No country ever suffered as did the South ex- 
cept Poland — just one hundred years ago — and 
she did not survive. 

She has at last risen again ! 

The South was no longer needed by the Re- 
publican Party, and that may help to account for 
relaxing its grip. 

There are some people and some events we can- 
not forget — while we harbor no grudges. 

The South raised no question about the validity 
of the Amendments — accepted them, and it is to- 
day insisting upon standing by the Constitution. 

Ben Hill’s stirring declaration is sound today: 
“Tinkers may work, quacks may prescribe, and 
demagogues may deceive, but I declare to you that 
there is no remedy for us but in adhering to the 
Constitution” — the Constitution of the United 
States ! 

Slavery went by the board. Secession was de- 
termined against her. The South did not fight 
against amending the Constitution ; she fought to 
uphold the Constitution as it was. 

The South fought to preserve race integrity. 
Did we lose that? 

We fought to maintain free white dominion. 
Did we lose that? 

The States are in control of the people. 

Local self-government, democratic government, 
obtains. That was not lost. 

The rights of the sovereign States, under the 
Constitution, are recognized. We did not lose 
that. 

See what a Republican Senator, the distin- 
guished Senator and scholar from Connecticut, 
Senator Hiram Bingham, said in the Senate, 
January 17, 1928, to wit: “The Democratic Party 
has no monopoly of a belief in State rights. Many 
of us who sit on this side of the aisle are earnest 


12 


^opfederat^ l/eterai). 


followers of the doctrine of local self-government 
and of State rights as laid down by Thomas Jef- 
ferson and the fathers.” 

And again : “Were I not so deeply interested in 
preserving to the States the rights guaranteed to 
them under the Constitution, rights which they 
never surrendered when they adopted the Con- 
stitution, I would not place myself in the unfor- 
tunate position of being one of those who are 
accused by the Senator from Missouri as being 
‘partners in crime.’ ” 

Again he said in the Senate, December 12, 1926 : 
“They say that State Rights disappeared sixty 
years ago. They seem to overlook the fact that 
the strength of our States and the responsibility 
have silenced the diverse wishes of self-respecting 
of our liberty and freedom. Otherwise, the great 
power of the Central Government would long ago 
have silenced the diverse wishes of self-respecting 
communities and crushed individual initiative and 
self-reliance.” 

James Bryce, the greatest authority on popular 
government in our generation, said: “The best 
school of democracy and the best guaranty for its 
success is the practice of local self-government.” 

In the Spring of 1926 President Coolidge said : 
“No method of procedure has ever been devised 
by which liberty could be divorced from local self- 
government. No plan of centralization has ever 
been adopted which did not result in bureaucracy, 

tyranny, inflexibility, reaction, and decline 

Unless bureaucracy is constantly resisted, it 
breaks down representative government and over- 
whelms democracy.” 

Mr. John H. Fahy, former President of the 
United States Chamber of Commerce, Publisher, 
of Worcester, Mass., in an address on the “Prin- 
ciples of Thomas Jefferson,” April 13, 1931, said: 
“Jefferson demonstrated not only that sound and 
stable government must rest on the will of the 
people, but that real prosperity depended upon it. 
.... He saw that too great centralization of 
power in the Federal Government would not only 
lead to inefficiency, waste, bureaucracy, and abuse 
of authority, but that the varied interests of the 
people of different sections were such that if con- 
centration were carried too far, it would invite 
the breakdown of government ” 

He concluded by the statement : “But we cannot 
bring about, within a reasonable period, that more 
equitable distribution of the results of men’s labor 
to which the people of the United States are 
entitled unless we insist uncompromisingly upon 
the application of those principles of government 


which Thomas Jefferson made the supporting pil- 
lars of the Temple of Democracy.” [Note: I am 
quoting from leading men of the North.] 

A united and free government at Washington 
is assured for all time, but the rights and liberties 
of the people can be preserved only through the 
independent sovereignty of the States. 

If you would remain assured as to the vital 
principles of our republic, the preservation of the 
States in all the completeness of their independ- 
ence and power must continue with us for all time 
to come. 

There is a strong appeal from all portions of 
the country to get back to the principles of 
Thomas Jefferson and to the Constitution, de- 
claring, “The powers not delegated to the United 
States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it 
to the States, are reserved to the States, respec- 
tively, or to the people.” 

The issue of State rights was vital to the Con- 
federacy. It was the mountain peak. It still 
stands ! 

I submit that what is called “The Lost Cause” 
was not so much “lost” as is sometimes supposed. 

The right of secession at that time under the 
Constitution, as they said, is recognized by the 
best authorities. 

The rights of the States, in principle, survive, 
although ignored, disregarded, and denounced as 
treason for a while, when it suited those in power. 

The independent, unashamed spirit of the peo- 
ple survives. 

Race integrity survives. 

Free white dominion survives. 

The vitality of the Constitution exists. 

Representation in Congress is now based, as it 
has always been based, upon the population, and 
not upon the voting or qualifled electors. The suf- 
frage is still with the States, unrestrained and 
uncontrolled by the Federal Government, except 
that, under the amendments to the Constitution, 
the States cannot make any discrimination on 
account of race, color, or previous condition of 
servitude, or sex. With those exceptions, the 
States have full power over suffrage. 

The South, strengthened, rather than discour- 
aged, by burdens borne and overcome, grew in 
patience as a result of long-suffering; made weak 
by great misfortune, increased in power by con- 
quering difficulties and overcoming distress as 
great as ever afflicted a people; inherited and 
cherished the ideals and patriotism of her mighty 
men of her mighty past; pressed on in her self- 
reliance and faith in her resources and confidence 


13 


^opfederat^ l/eterai). 


in her strength, in the direction of industrial and 
economic progress, all of which combine to make 
her once again a wise leader of national thought 
and national achievement. 

During the last thirty years the wealth of the 
South has increased from $10,000,000,000 to 
$80,970,000,000. 

In population, in resources and industrial de- 
velopment, the South surpasses entire nations in 
other parts of the world. 

The South leads the most of the country in 
population growth. 

If you are not subject to the dangers of high 
blood pressure, I recommend that you read and 
keep in your libraries that enlightening, authori- 
tative historical treatise by Mr. Claude G. Bowers, 
entitled, “The Tragic Era,” and the powerful 
speech by Major John W. Daniels, delivered be- 
fore the General Assembly of Virginia on the sub- 
ject of “Jefferson Davis.” 

Truth and honor are the pillars which sustain 
your organization. Justice to those who nobly 
sacrificed, comfort to those who survived, prompt 
you. May you find abundant happiness an ever- 
lasting reality. 

“Thine own wish 
Wish I thee in every place!” 


FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE CON- 
FEDERACY. 

BY MRS. JOHN H. ANDERSON, PRIZE ESSAY OF NORTH 
CAROLINA DIVISION, U. D. C., 1931. 

The Confederacy adopted a flag and a seal of 
its own, but more important than flag or seal was 
its army that won the admiration of the world. 
However, it had no navy strong enough with 
which to open the blockade and give its govern- 
ment that assurance which was necessary to se- 
cure European recognition. For over three years 
the vast armies of the United States unsuccess- 
fully beat against its strongholds. 

The Confederacy, while embarrassed by politi- 
cal conditions, was also handicapped by lack of 
resources and of communication with the world. 
There was no official recognition with Europe, 
though efforts were made even before 1862. 

The Confederate government resorted to all 
possible expedients in financial measures, and, in 
order to secure cotton as a basis of the foreign 
loan, it was sometimes found necessary to en- 
force a tax. The chief object of the diplomacy 
of the Confederate States was to secure recog- 
nition of their independence, and the Provisional 


Congress ordered that immediate steps be taken 
for settlement between the Confederate States 
and their late confederation of the United States. 
In obedience to this requirement. President Davis, 
February 25, 1861, appointed Messrs. Martin J. 
Crawford, of Georgia, John Forsyth, of Alabama, 
and A. B. Roman, of Louisiana, to proceed to 
Washington and make known their mission. 
These commissioners made an official presentation 
of their purpose, addressing Secretary of State 
William H. Seward, stating their wish to make to 
the government of the United States overtures 
for opening of negotiations to the effect that the 
people of the Confederate government earnestly 
desired peaceful solution of all pending ques- 
tions. It was their wish “not to do anything not 
founded on strictest justice, nor to do any act 
to injure their late confederation.” Secretary 
Seward declined to receive the commissioners in 
any official way or personally. But, through J. 
A. Campbell, of Alabama (of the Supreme Court), 
they finally held semiofficial intercourse. The un- 
friendly attitude of Secretary of State Seward 
showed great discourtesy to the commissioners, 
who returned home much offended. All this time 
the Lincoln administration was secretly prepar- 
ing for sending vessels of War to Fort Sumter. 

Right here it may be well to state at least six 
efforts for peace overtures were made by the 
Confederate government during the four years of 
war, none of which met with a successful re- 
sponse from the United States. 

To maintain the position assumed by the Con- 
federate government as a separate power among 
the nations, it was necessary to have friendly 
communications with other nations. When the 
Southern States formed this confederation, they 
made such organic changes in the constitution 
as to require official notice in compliance with the 
usages of nations. For this purpose the Pro- 
visional Government of the Confederacy took 
early measures. 

James L. Orr, Chairman of the Confedrate 
House Committee on foreign relations, once said 
that the Confederacy never had a foreign policy, 
and never attempted any higher diplomacy. How- 
ever, the failure of European recognition was cer- 
tainly not due to any opportunity on the part of 
the Confederate government to negotiate trea- 
ties or to press Confederate interests. 

Hon. R. H. Rhett, who had made a study of 
commerce and revenues, had discussed in the se- 
cession convention of South Carolina a policy of 
commercial agreements with the important states 


14 


Qoi)federae^ l/eterai). 


of Europe. At Montgomery, he was chosen chair- 
man of the committee of foreign relations, and, 
before the inauguration of President Davis, had 
brought in a report authorizing the latter to send 
the commission to Europe to secure recognition 
and to make treaties, offensive and defensive. 
His plan of diplomacy proposed that a treaty of 
commercial alliance be formed to enjoy the privi- 
leges of the coasting trade free for twenty years 
or more, during' which the Confederacy would 
impose no import duty higher than 20 per cent 
ad valorem. That the commissioners of the Con- 
federacy would have power (as did Franklin in 
1778) to form' alliances with European powers 
and guarantee their North American possessions. 
However, the general feeling was that the friend- 
ship of Europe should first be secured, and that 
the policy toward the United States should depend 
upon circumstances. 

Mr. Seward, Secretary of State of the United 
States, in charge of foreign affairs, had on the 
9th of March addressed a circular letter to all the 
ministers of the United States in foreign nations 
urging them to “counteract the designs of those 
who would invoke foreign aid in their attempts 
to overthrow the Republic.” This diplomatic cor- 
respondence exhibits the early anxiety of the 
United States concerning the attitude of these 
great nations. The correspondence with Great 
Britain was not pleasing to Secretary Seward, 
and Lord Russell’s remark to the United States 
minister, Adams, about the first of April that the 
matter was not ripe for decision one way or an- 
other, was by no means satisfactory. 

France was disposed to take no hasty action, 
but intimated quite early in April, 1861, that the 
Confederate government might be able to claim 
belligerent rights as a nation de facto; finally 
saying that the commercial interests at stake were 
so great that France was compelled to join with 
Great Britain in meeting the condition of things 
which imperiled those interests. Mr. Dayton, 
the new minister, was promptly instructed to 
protest against any, even unofficial, intercourse 
between Confederate agents and the French gov- 
ernment, and to declare that the United States 
could not be content with any concert among 
foreign nations to recognize the insurgents as a 
belligerent power. 

The Confederate government had sent Major 
Caleb House to Europe to make contracts for the 
manufacture of arms, and Captain Semmes had 
also gone into the Northern markets to make pur- 
chases of munitions of war. 


The Provisional government took early meas- 
ures for sending to Europe commissioners 
charged with the duty of visiting the capitals of 
the different powers and making arrangements 
for opening of more formal diplomatic inter- 
course. "William L. Yancey (who had been spoken 
of for the Presidency) was asked by Davis to 
head the Commission to Europe. He possessed 
the gift of remarkable eloquence and had often 
discharged positions of public trusts. With Yan- 
cey were appointed P. A. Rost and A. Dudley 
Mann, both men of diplomatic experience. 

Before this commission sailed the Confederate 
Congress and the Executive were urged to adopt 
a foreign policy similar to that by which Frank- 
lin, Deane, and Lee secured money and supplies 
during the American Revolution, but the com- 
missioners only received power to encourage 
practical reciprocity to aid them over a crisis. 
The opposition afterwards complained that though 
the ports were open for a year, cotton was left 
on the plantation “while waiting for the United 
States to fall into bankruptcy.” 

Instructions to the commission directed them 
to inform Europe that secession violated no al- 
legiance, that the South, with abundant re- 
sources, was able to win, and was willing to accept 
the treaties between the United States and for- 
eign powers. This Commission sailed March 
31, and were in midocean when news arrived 
from Washington that an armed fleet had been 
sent to Fort Sumter. A call for troops by Lin- 
coln followed, and other Southern States seceded. 

After Sumter fell, the commissioners were ad- 
vised that war was unavoidable, but that unre- 
stricted intercourse with friendly nations was 
desired, and soon they were authorized (May 18) 
to issue commissions for privateers. It was now 
seen that the large navy of the United States 
made it necessary for the Confederacy to adopt 
this method of warfare. At this same time. Cap- 
tain Bullock was sent to secure war vessels in 
Europe. 

Before the last instructions had been received, 
the three commissioners had reached London, 
and, on May 3, through Mr. Gregory of the House 
of Commons, had obtained a formal interview 
with Lord Russell. They stated that a new gov- 
ernment in America had been formed without 
shedding a drop of blood and was prepared to 
maintain its independence — and they emphasized 
the commercial advantages which England would 
obtain by recognition. 

Mr. Rost received more encouragement in Paris, 


15 


Qopfcderat^ l/eterar), 


for the French felt that recognition was a mere 
matter of time, though France and England had 
agreed to pursue the same course. On the 13th 
of May, the decision of Great Britain to main- 
tain strict neutrality and to accord to both con- 
tending parties the rights of warfare was an- 
nounced by the proclamation of Queen Victoria. 
France had been inclined to help adjust American 
troubles, but now simply adopted the course of 
England, neutrality. 

Secretary Seward now directed all his efforts 
to prevent any foreign encouragement to the Con- 
federate cause, assuring Europe that it was “a 
mere insurrection,” such as European govern- 
ments could not afford to encourage.” 

Spain and Portugal published brief proclama- 
tions of neutrality, but the Emperor of Russia, 
through a letter to the Russian minister at Wash- 
ington, expressed his unfriendliness to secession, 
and conveyed his assurance that the American 
nation could count on his most cordial sympathy. 

So stood the two contending governments with 
the European nations. The Confederacy had won 
its right to be known as a government and to be 
treated as a lawful belligerent. Its able commis- 
sioners were in position to present its cause with 
statesmanship. However, it was at disadvantage 
in European courts in being classed among revo- 
lutionary governments and was to a great extent 
debarred public sympathy because of the slavery 
question. The great military strength of the 
United States showed its ability to crush the un- 
prepared government of the Confederacy. 

The proclamation of President Lincoln practi- 
cally recognized warfare on the part of the Con- 
federate government, when he pronounced a 
blockade of her ports, in July, 1861. 

Due greatly to the visit of the Prince of Wales, 
in 1860, to the Northern portion of the United 
States, England favored the cause of the United 
States government. But many of the aristocracy 
of England stood for the South, and prominent 
English papers endeavored to mold England in 
favor of the Southern Confederacy. In October, 
1862, Gladstone said that Jefferson Davis had 
made an army, a navy, and a nation, and Lord 
Russell spoke of “the late United States.” 

Having practically recognized the Confederacy 
as a warring people. Lord Russell, on May 18, in- 
structed Lord Lyons, at Washington, to take steps 
to secure the consent of the Confederate officials 
to the rules of 1856 in regard to a neutral flag, 
neutral goods, and blockades. The Confederate 
commissioners abroad were still watching the 


popular pulse. They found that while France was 
ready to join the other powers in Europe in an 
effort for peace in America, she must look first 
to her interests at home. The Commissioners felt 
that Spain, Belgium, and Denmark were friendly 
and ready to extend recognition to the Confeder- 
acy as soon as France should do so. 

After the Confederate victory at Manassas in 
July, the Commissioners were encouraged to re- 
new their efforts with England, giving reasons 
for immediate recognition. They explained why 
it was necessary for the agricultural South to use 
privateering in order to injure American com- 
merce, stating that the English law as to neutral- 
ity favored the United States. This information 
made a good impression on Lord Russell, and 
there was strong feeling in the cabinet in favor 
of recognition, but England suggested that France 
take the initiative in European recognition. It 
was learned that Louis Napoleon had officially 
asked England to co-operate with him in recog- 
nizing the Confederacy and breaking the blockade 
against it, but that England had refused. Eng- 
land knew that the recognition of the Confederacy 
would place England in the attitude of an ally 
against the United States, and she did not desire 
to assume this position. 

The Confederate Commissioners urged that the 
European powers should enforce the Declaration 
of Paris on the subject of the blockade, declaring 
that a war shutting up cotton was directed against 
Europe as well as against the South, and said that, 
since transit routes had been made neutral, cotton 
could be made so. They declared that the block- 
ade should be made ineffective, for the interests 
of mankind as well as for those of the Confeder- 
acy, and that real neutrality called for a' rigid 
observance of International Law on the subject 
of blockades. Neutral Europe received our 
remonstrances and submitted in almost unbroken 
silence to all the wrongs that the United States 
chose to inflict on our commerce. In a word, 
every idea of maritime law and every right of 
neutral nations to trade with a belligerent were 
persistently violated by the United States. (The 
blockade was really a constructive, or “paper” 
blockade, since the great powers had declared in 
1856 that blockades in order to be binding, must 
be effective — that is, they must be enforced and 
maintained by a force sufficient to prevent access 
to the enemy’s coast, which removed all uncer- 
tainty as to the principles upon which settlement 
of prize claims proceed.) 


16 


^opfederat^ l/eterai). 


In accordance with the authority of the Con- 
federate Congress, Janies M. Mason and John 
Slidell, two of the South’s ablest statesmen, were 
appointed diplomatic agents in October, 1861, 
with power to enter into treaties with England 
and France. They were commissioned to secure 
from these European powers recognition of the 
Confederate government as a nation, based on its 
vast territory, its population, its ample resources, 
its importance as a commercial nation, and the 
justice of its separation from the United States 
government. They were forced to charter a ves- 
sel for $10,000 out of Charleston, and ran the 
blockade to Havana, for which port they sailed on 
a British mail steamer, the Trent, for Liverpool, 
on November 7. This is one of the most exciting 
stories of the foreign relations in the Confed- 
eracy, and its result was far-reaching. Captain 
Wilkes, of the United States warship San Jacinto, 
sighted the Trent on the high seas and fired a 
shot across the bow of this vessel, which caused 
it to display the British colors without arresting 
its onward speed. A shell from the United States 
ship across her course stopped the Trent, and 
Captain Wilkes sent his executive officer and a full 
armed boat crew to board the British ship. In 
spite of the protest of the English captain against 
this breach of international law, the Federal offi- 
cer arrested the two Confederate Commissioners, 
Mason and Slidell, and took them aboard the 
United States man-of-war. They were forcibly 
taken from under the English flag at the point of 
bayonets, and the San Jacinto steamed away with 
her prisoners to Fortress Monroe. Captain Wilkes 
received the hearty praise of the Congress of the 
United States and was hailed as a hero. How- 
ever, the boarding of the Trent was an outrage 
on national friendship which could not escape the 
indignation of other nations, and it produced a 
sensation for a while which seemed to threaten 
the United States government with England. 
Lincoln himself is said to have remarked that “we 
fought England for insisting by theory and prac- 
tice on the right to do exactly what Captain 
Wilkes has done.” There was an outburst of in- 
dignation over England, and the government be- 
gan preparations to fight. Great Britain framed 
a formal demand, and the United States govern- 
ment immediately made sufficient apology, stating 
that “what has happened has been simply inad- 
vertence.” The illustrious Confederate prisoners 
were released at England’s request and placed un- 


der British protection, and Captain Wilkes was 
left to enjoy as best he could the unpleasant affair. 
Many felt that the United States government did 
not wish to have the Confederate diplomats reach 
Europe, and it was not averse to the seizure of 
these men. 

When Mason and Slidell finally reached Eng- 
land that country and France were suffering from 
lack of cotton, and on account of the blockade the 
South was suffering from a congestion of it. 

Napoleon III was planning to realize the dream 
of his predecessors by founding an American 
Empire. The War between the States was his 
opportunity ; he was anxious to win glory by play- 
ing the role of mediator in favor of the South. 
He at once granted an interview with Slidell, for 
the current of feeling in France ran against the 
North. Just at this time Slidell was instructed 
by the Confederate government to offer Napoleon 
seven million dollars in cotton to indemnify him 
for the expense of a fleet to relieve the Confed- 
eracy and establish communication with Europe. 
The Emperor said he was ready to act in co- 
operation with England by sending a fleet to the 
mouth of the Mississippi to demand free entrance 
for merchant vessels. Disraeli of England con- 
curred in the Emperor’s view, not suspecting a 
secret understanding between Lord Russell and 
Secretary Seward. Napoleon thought that the 
best course was to make a friendly appeal to the 
United States to open the ports, at the same time 
accompanying it with a proper demonstration of 
force, ready to act in case the United States failed 
to take New Orleans. In the meantime, the 
Federal guns opened fire and New Orleans fell. 
Napoleon was still waiting. Mason wrote the 
Confederate government that he thought it inex- 
pedient to renew the request for recognition in 
England, unless done as a demand of right, to be 
followed by his retirement to the continent as 
a matter of Confederate dignity. 

News of the defeat of McClellan’s army before 
Richmond reached London and Paris by July 17, 
and Confederate efforts were pushed by her Com- 
missioners. Napoleon said that it was difficult 
to find a way to give effect to his sympathies for 
the Confederacy. That he regretted that France 
had ever respected the blockade of the North, and 
said that Europe should have recognized the Con- 
federacy in the summer of 1861, when Washing- 
ton was menaced and Southern ports not all 
closed. 


(Continued in February) 


17 


QoQfederat^ l/eterai). 


THE AUTHOR OF “DIXIE.” 

BY H. A. SMITH IN TAYLOR’S MAGAZINE. 

At the inauguration of Jefferson Davis as Presi- 
dent of the Confederacy, February 18, 1861, Her- 
man Arnold was called upon to arrange the pro- 
gram, and, on the suggestion of a young woman, 
he included a new song that had been used not 
long before on the stage in Montgomery. The 
young lady called it a “pretty, catchy air.” When 
Mr. Davis started from the old Exchange Hotel 
toward the Capitol building, the band led off with 
the new song “Dixie,” which became one of the 
great assets of the South during the four years 
of war that followed. Today the old tune still 
retains its power to thrill whenever played. 

Strange as it may seem, this song which fur- 
nished such inspiration for the South was writ- 
ten in New York City, far from “de land ob cot- 
ton,” and by an Ohio man. It was first sung in 
the North, as a “negro melody,” by Daniel De- 
catur Emmett, a member of one of the first black- 
faced minstrel troupes. 

Mr. Emmett was frequently called upon to 
write “hoedowns” and “walk arounds” for the 
use of his company. Indeed, the contract he had 
signed with Manager Bryant required him to 
write such compositions when they were needed. 
“Dixie,” however, is the only one of his numer- 
ous productions dating between 1859 and 1868 
which survived the first few weeks of use. 

The writer of what became the almost sacred 
anthem of the South led a remarkably checkered 
career, and at the close of a long life of real 
ability there was only an obscure death to crown 
it all. 

He was born October 29, 1815, at Mount 
Vernon, Ohio, and grew to young manhood along 
with the Sherman brothers, John and William. Of 
William, Emmett once said, “He was always 
ready for any escapade that promised sport” — 
and his military career attests that he never out- 
grew his zest for adventure. 

In those early days there was no public school 
system, but that did not prevent either Dan or 
his brother, Lafayette, seven years younger, from 
laying the basis of a good education. The young- 
er brother later held important Federal offices in 
the Territory and then the State of Wisconsin. 
Dan helped his father in the blacksmith shop, 
and, at the age of thirteen, began work in the 
printing office of the Huron Reflector at Norwalk, 
Ohio. Later he returned to Mount Vernon to en- 
ter the office of the Western Aurora, where he re- 
mained until he was seventeen years old. 


At a very early age, he took great interest in 
music, a gift inherited from his mother. He liked 
to set tunes to words and to compose both. In 
1830, when fifteen years old, he composed the 
famous old song, “Old Dan Tucker,” making its 
title from his own name and that of his favorite 
dog Tucker. 

He fell in the fire and kicked out a chunk.” 
“Old Dan Tucker, he got drunk. 

The tune is only less familiar than that of “Dixie.” 
Two years later, he entered the army and 
served a full enlistment as fifer. He was first 
stationed at Newport, Ky., and afterwards at 
Jefferson Barracks, St. Louis, Mo. In the serv- 
ice, he improved his opportunity to study music, 
and later wrote a textbook on drumming and fif- 
ing, which he evidently designed for publication. 
The title page reads: 

Emmett’s 

Standard Drummer 

Being the regular school for the U. S. Army 
containing all the beats and routine duty for the 
DRUM and Fife 

According to the “Ashworth Mode,” 

The whole rendered plain and concise 
By 

Daniel D. Emmett. 

After his discharge from the army, the young 
drummer traveled throughout the United States 
with various circus bands. Among his employ- 
ers were the famous showmen of the first half of 
the nineteenth century — Spalding & Rogers, Seth 
Howe, and Dan Rice. It was during this period 
of his life that he acquired the expression very 
common among show-people on a cold day in the 
North, “I Wish I was in Dixieland.” 

In the early forties, being now an experienced 
and practiced drummer, fifer, and violinist, as well 
as a singer of no small ability, he organized the 
first black-faced minstrel troupe. With three 
companions, he planned his entertainment and ar- 
ranged a trial performance at the Branch Hotel, 
on the Bowery, New York City, in 1843. Dan 
Emmett played the violin, Billy Whitlock the ban- 
jo, Frank Brower, the bones, and Dick Pelham, 
the tambourine. In striking costumes and with 
black faces, they appeared before Nathan Howes, 
the leading circus man of that day, and many 
lesser lights of that profession. 

As Emmett tuned his violin, the crowd jeered. 
The white trousers and the sky blue calico cut- 
away coats of the troupe aroused derision rather 
than hope of entertainment. It was the first at- 
tempt at this subsequently popular form of en- 


18 


QoQfederat^ l/eterai). 


tertainment, but these young men were de- 
termined to demonstrate to the old showmen pres- 
ent a new trick in their own business, and would 
not be hooted from the stage. They had experi- 
ence and plenty of practice, which saved the situa- 
tion. At the close of the opening chorus, the au- 
dience was attentive. Brown then sang and called 
forth “howls of delight.” Whitlock went on with 
equal effect, and when Emmett concluded with a 
comic song, the room went into an “uproar of 
applause,” the record says. 

They had arrived. The performance was at 
once called to the stage, and the Virginia Min- 
strels, as Emmett named the quartet, enjoyed a 
successful season in New York, Boston, and other 
cities and towns. English London, however, was 
not so cordial, and the little company was soon 
stranded. The failure at least had the virtue of 
being complete. The English, unlike the Ameri- 
cans, had no taste for negro humor. They lacked 
the necessary background for its appreciation, 
having no knowledge of negro villages and their 
environments. 

When Emmett returned to America he found 
his idea had been adopted by many black-faced 
comedians, and all meeting with favor as indi- 
cated by the box office receipts. His three friends 
were widely separated, so he traveled alone with 
a circus band to recoup the losses incurred on the 
ill-advised foreign expedition. 

In 1857, he was again on the stage, this time 
with the Bryant Minstrels of 410 Brodway, New 
York City. Among his duties was the compo- 
sition of negro melodies and plantation “walk 
arounds.” He gave evidence of genius in his abil- 
ity to catch and translate the spirit and atmos- 
phere of the Southern negro groups while living 
in the bustle and confusion of the largest city of 
the North. He stayed on this job for eight years, 
a long time for one with the zest of roving. 

Late one Saturday night in the fall of 1859, the 
manager, Mr. Jerry Bryant, called Emmett aside, 
so tradition says, and asked him to write a new 
song for the Monday morning rehearsal. The 
tune had to be catchy and the words something 
the boys in the street could pick up, a great “hoo- 
ray song,” or “walk around.” The task seemed a 
bit heavy when he tried to compose the music 
that same night, so he let it go until the next day. 
The next day it rained, and a cold rainy day in 
New York City requires an Emmett or a Love- 
man to overcome its dispiriting effects. When he 
looked out of the window on the dreary scene — 
so he told friends in Mount Vernon many years 


afterward — an old negro melody he had heard in 
the South years before kept running through his 
mind. And almost unconsciously he said to him- 
self, “I wish I was in Dixie land.” This thought 
proved to be an inspiration, and taking up his 
violin, he hummed and played the old negro air 
into definite form and fitted the words of the re- 
frain, “I wish I was in Dixie land” to it. The 
stanzas were soon prepared, for Emmett always 
composed rapidly, and the song was complete. 
When a title was discussed with his wife, who had 
been called in for the first rehearsal, she sug- 
gested “Dixie Land,” and “Dixie Land” it became, 
later shortened to “Dixie.” 

“Dixie” was the only production of Emmett’s 
which lived, but it is one of the great songs of 
America. It grew out. of the negro life of the 
South before the war, and its music is classed 
among the negro folk songs. Like all such folk 
songs, the sense is subordinated to sound. This 
is illustrated in the negro camp meeting hymns 
and songs. The music is all-important, the words 
often having very little meaning for either the 
singer or the listener, the purpose being simply 
to stir the emotions. The music of the song 
“Dixie” is an old negro melody which found its 
way back to its native haunts, where it remained 
to inspire a harassed and wearied people through 
a trying period of history. 

The words of the song are of little moment 
except as they were the means of preserving in 
permanent form one of our beautiful melodies. 
They do reveal something of the thinking of that 
day. The first stanza as originally written (omit- 
ted at the suggestion of the manager, Mr. Bryant, 
since it might offend some orthodox folk when 
published), is typical of the religious atmosphere 
of negro life: 

“Dis worl’ was made in just six days. 

And finished up in various ways; 

Look away, etc. 

Dey den made Dixie, trim and nice. 

But Adam called it Paradise. 

Look away, etc.” 

This stanza has a still further interest in that 
it refers to Dixie as a place, the name of a section 
of country. The origin of the word “dixie,” it has 
been suggested, is derived from the French word 
dix, which appeared on French Bank notes issued 
during the French occupation of Louisiana. These 
notes were called “dixies,” and the name came to 
be applied to the section of country from which 
they came. The name evidently was in common 
use among a large group of people when the song 


19 


Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 


was written, and, later, when the song became 
popular, the name Dixie was universally applied 
to the Southland. 

The song first became popular in the North, 
and it is an ironic fact that the year following its 
publication a Republican slogan was set to the 
tune and used during the campaign of Abraham 
Lincoln. It went from the music hall to the 
streets and then into the homes of the people. 
Everywhere it was sung and played, and today 
in almost every phonograph cabinet is a “Dixie” 
record. 

At the outbreak of the war, the song attained 
still wider popularity when it was adopted by the 
Southern troops and people. On July 4, 1861, a 
Northern and a Southern army were camped with- 
in sound of each other. Early in the morning 
the Northern army fired a salute in celebration 
of the national holiday, but in the Southern army 
powder was too precious, so General Kirby-Smith 
ordered the bands to play “Dixie.” To its stir- 
ring measures the men in gray marched many, 
long weary miles, or charged the enemy. The 
song came from the South and found its destiny 
there. 

When it was learned that the writer was an 
Ohio man, some zealous Northerners seriously 
advised violent measures be taken against him as 
a traitor. The fact is that the song was written 
by one to whose nature war was utterly foreign, 
and who never faced the armies that used it as a 
battle cry. Mr. Emmett was far from writing a 
battle hymn when he adapted the old negro melody 
to the words of the showman’s complaint on a 
cold day. 

Very soon after the song became popular, there 
arose a dispute as to its ownership. It was origi- 
nally published under the title, “I wish I was in 
Dixie Land,” in New York City, in 1860, and soon 
afterward in New Orleans under the title “Dixie.” 
The New Orleans publisher was notified by the 
original publishers of New York City that the 
song had been copyrighted and that the rights 
would be defended. After considerable corres- 
pondence, the New Orleans publisher “gave his 
case away” by offering Mr. Emmett five dollars 
for his copyright! (Toward the close of his life 
Mr. Emmett told some friends he had never re- 
ceived more than $600 from the song “Dixie.”) 

Later, at a convention of music dealers held in 
New York City, the attorney for Emmett’s pub- 
lishers called upon him to relate the circum- 


stances under which the song had been written, 
as evidence of his authorship. His claim was 
acknowledged by the whole company, and the of- 
fending publisher from New Orleans came for- 
ward to acknowledge his error. A plan was ar- 
ranged by which the New Orleans man was per- 
mitted to sell the copies already printed, and when 
the new edition of the song came out it was under 
the title of “Dixie.” 

Another dispute arose shortly after Emmett’s 
death in 1904. A correspondent of the Baltimore 
Sun set forth the claims of Harry McCarthy, who 
died in Arkansas in 1874. This claim was easily 
refuted by reference to the records of the Register 
of Copyrights, who wrote under the date of Au- 
gust 20, 1904: 

“The earliest entry of the musical composition, 
‘Dixie,’ appeared to be' by Faith, Pond & Co., 
June 21, 1860, under the title, ‘I Wish I Was in 
Dixie Land,’ written and composed expressly for 
Bryant’s Minstrels by Dan D. Emmett.” 

During the war, words other than those writ- 
ten by Mr. Emmett were set to the music of 
“Dixie,” in both the North and South. General 
Albert Pike published a very warlike song, in the 
Natchez Courier, April 30, 1861. The chorus re- 
peated the words : 

“To Arms! To Arms! And conquer peace for 
Dixie.” 

The famous blind hymn writer, Frances J. 
Crosby, was given permission to use the music 
for a Union song, and wrote words no less warlike 
than those of the Southern general. Her song is 
an illustration of how gentle, peaceful spirits are 
swept off their feet by the popular enthusiasm for 
war. The refrain of her song was : 

“Then away, then away, then away to the 
fight.” 

Today the strife is long over and the old song 
is truly American, Southern as of old, yet truly 
American, one of the one hundred per cent Ameri- 
can institutions of which we may be justly proud. 
The tourist who stands before the great bas-re- 
lief on Stone Mountain and does not hear the old 
song and is not thrilled by it, should search his 
soul for mislaid patriotism. The men behind Gen- 
eral Lee will sing “Dixie” for those who have ears 
to hear so long as Stone Mountain stands. 

After the war, Dan Emmett went to Chicago 
to make his home, and there he remained until 
1888, when he retired near Mount Vernon, Ohio. 
In a cozy house about a mile from the little city. 


20 


^opfederat^ l/eterai). 


located oil ‘what is now designated on the road 
map as the “C. C. C.” Highway, about forty miles 
from Columbus, he lived for sixteen years. He 
became a well-known figure about town, especially 
in cold weather, when he always wore a brightly 
colored Indian blanket wrapped about his shoul- 
ders. 

It was known that he had once traveled with a 
circus, but no one for a number of years had any 
suspicion that he had ever done anything worthy 
of special notice. One day in the early nineties, 
Mr. Al. G. Field came to Mount Vernon and in- 
quired for a man by the name of Dan Emmett. 
Everyone knew “Uncle Dan,” but no one would be- 
lieve the story that this picturesque old man, who 
raised chickens and spent much of his time tramp- 
ing through surrounding wood lots, was the au- 
thor of “Dixie.” Mr. Field was taken, neverthe- 
less, to the little house where Emmett lived, and 
old friends were united again. It was a debt of 
gratitude that Field was paying, for Emmett, dur- 
ing the seventies when he was a manager, had 
given Mr. Field his first job in a music hall in 
Chicago. 

The result of this visit was a last triumphal 
trip with the Al. G. Field troupe by the aged min- 
strel, then over eighty years of age. The tour 
began in Newark, Ohio, and everywhere, especial- 
ly in the Southern cities, he was accorded great 
ovations when introduced as the author of 
“Dixie.” He had never before appreciated the 
magnitude of his contribution to the South, and 
the gratitude expressed by the Confederate vet- 
erans was at times bewildering to the old man. 

Some amusing and characteristic events hap- 
pened during this last tour. Taking a walk one 
day, in Topeka, Kans., he went into a political 
meeting, which he mistook for a service of re- 
ligious worship. He soon discovered his mis- 
take, and was about to leave when the voice of the 
speaker drew his attention : he was saying, “What 
show has any one ? What show have you ? What 
show has this city?” Emmett rose and in a loud, 
clear voice replied, “The best show on earth, and 
I belong to it,” and walked quietly out of the 
room. 

Through the efforts of Mr. Field and of Vaughn 
and Paul Kester, whose native city is Mount Ver- 
non, Ohio, a small pension was granted Mr. Em- 
mett by the Actor’s Fund. This was a great as- 
sistance to the aged minstrel. At the age of eighty- 
eight, in June, 1904, the pension was no longer 
needed. The burial expenses were met by the lo- 


cal order of Elks and a small stone, in the Mount 
Vernon cemetery, marked the last resting place 
of the writer of “Dixie.” 

[Some years after this article was published 
in a Southern magazine, a handsome stone was 
placed at Dan Emmett’s grave by Mr. James 
Henry Lewis, a wealthy citizen of Ohio, a tablet 
of “imperial blue” Vermont granite, eight feet 
high, bearing this inscription: 

“To the Memory of 
Daniel Decatur Emmett 
1815-1904 

Whose Song, ‘Dixie Land,’ inspired the courage 
and Devotion of the Southern People and now 
Thrills the Hearts of a Reunited Nation.” 

A large bowlder bearing a handsome bronze 
tablet with suitable inscription was placed on the 
Court House lawn at Mount Vernon, Ohio, by the 
United Daughters of the Confederacy of that 
State in 1931, in tribute to the composer of 
“Dixie.] 


LINCOLN’S INCONSISTENCIES. 

BY C. E. GILBERT, HISTORIAN S. C. V. 

Sometime ago the daily press reported that a 
member of the Georgia legislature proposed to 
introduce a resolution in that body to make 
Abraham Lincoln’s birthday a legal holiday in 
that State, and this was deemed of sufficient im- 
portance to be telegraphed over the country and 
of such interest as to gain it entry into the news 
columns of the daily papers; yet, when I wrote 
an article on “Why Should the South Honor a 
President Responsible for the War?” it was not 
deemed of sufficient interest or importance as to 
gain a place in those papers. So it is very often : 
Propaganda lauding Lincoln as a great man is 
accepted and published as “news,” but an article 
which discusses the actual record of the public 
official is rejected because it is “an effort to fight 
the war over.” In other words, the fighting of the 
war over must come all from one side only. 

George Washington’s official acts are often pub- 
lished, and no one is ashamed to have them pub- 
lished and republished. Jefferson Davis’s official 
acts and public record are as often proudly pub- 
lished and republished, and nobody objects to 
that. Robert E. Lee’s public life is an open book, 
and publication of pages of it never brings blush 
or protest. But when the real acts of Abraham 


21 


^opfederat^ l/eteraij. 


Lincoln are offered to be discussed, our daily pa- 
pers and a few public-life men, for some reason 
it is difficult to understand, talk of “agitation,” 
“war hate,” and “trying to keep alive animosities 
of the war,” etc., etc. 

“Abraham Lincoln made his own record,” as 
a citizen of his home town wrote me, “and it is 
just to him to suppose that he was honest in it 
and, were he alive, would not deny it.” Then 
why should any admirer of his now so strenuously 
object to discussing the truth as to his official 
acts? 

Our historians and newspapers discuss history 
and pride themselves on acquaintance with it as 
far back as the Roman Empire, and nobody pro- 
tests. They discuss the causes of the war with 
England, and the great victory of the American 
armies under such adverse circumstances that the 
War between the States is often compared to it. 
But no one protests and suggests that Great 
Britain will be offended. 

If Mr. Lincoln and his acts should be discussed 
on the other side of the line, there would be little 
objection; but his overzealous admirers persist in 
trying to “put him over” on the South. We have 
no objection to the idolatry of the negroes, as 
they have (erroneously) been taught that he was 
the author and promoter of their emancipation; 
when, in fact, Mr. Lincoln frequently declared 
that he was not fighting for the emancipation of 
the negro, and that he “had no power or desire 
to interfere with slavery,” and he so wrote Alex- 
ander H. Stephens soon after his nomination. 
True, he issued the emancipation proclamation 
in 1863, but he knew it was without authority 
and would be null and void ; and in that proclama- 
tion he especially exempted from its operation the 
States where Federal authority had been estab- 
lished, which clearly showed an entire lack of 
motive from a humanitarian standpoint. 

Lincoln can be quoted on both sides of every 
question which agitated the mind of the people 
from 1855 to 1865, including slavery, secession. 
State Rights, power of the Union to coerce a 
State, the Constitution, etc. He accepted nomina- 
tion on a platform which declared the Federal 
government had no power to coerce a State, and 
yet one of his first acts was to coerce a State — 
even before his inaugural — when he sent word 
to Major Anderson to hold Fort Sumter, and to 
General Scott to be ready as soon as he was inau- 
gurated to be ready to take and retake the forts 
of the South. In 1860 he declared the slaves were 
legitimate property under the Constitution and 


entitled to protection, and yet signed the procla- 
mation in 1862 to free three-fourths of them. 

He took a solemn oath to uphold the Constitu- 
tion of the United States, and yet one of his first 
acts was to violate it by sending an armed fleet 
into South Carolina waters to menace a friendly 
nation. Another violation of the oath to support 
the Constitution was his call for 75,000 volunteers 
to invade the South, and he started them into 
Virginia, an invasion of a State still in the Union. 
Another violation of his oath of office was his sus- 
pension of the writ of habeas corpus, which the 
Constitution provides may be exercised only by 
Congress ; and under that suspension he proceeded 
to have arrested and thrown into prisons more 
than 38,000 men and women of Northern States, 
on mere suspicion of sympathy with the Southern 
cause, or rather out of sympathy with the cause 
of the leaders of the Republican party in power; 
and because of Vallandingham’s criticism of his 
unconstitutional usurpation of power. President 
Lincoln had him arrested and tried by military 
court, in violation of constitutional guarantees, 
convicted and sentenced to imprisonment in a 
dungeon in Boston harbor, but, upon the protest 
of Governor Seymour and other leading men of the 
North, the sentence was changed to one of exile 
and “delivery to the commander of the Confeder- 
ate army (Bragg) at Murfreesboro, Tenn.” 

Even after all this persecution, Vallandingham 
returned to Ohio and came near being elected 
Governor, despite the influence of the administra- 
tion. During the campaign of 1860, Lincoln (bor- 
rowing from Webster) declared “that this was 
a government of the people, for the people,” and 
yet his Secretary of State (Seward), while re- 
ceiving a call from the British Ambassador, Lord 
Lyons, said to the lord: “I can touch this bell 
and order the arrest of the most prominent man 
in Ohio, and again can order the arrest of a State 
official of New York, and have both thrown in 
prison, and no power except the order of the 
President can release them; can your Queen of 
England do as much?” The British lord had to 
admit that the Queen of Great Britain had no 
such power. 

Lincoln said during that terrible war that “his 
heart yearned for peace,” and yet he issued a 
dozen orders for the organization of two war 
fleets to go into peaceful Southern waters to sup- 
port two garrisons there, by his orders (at Fort 
Sumter and Pickens), during the twenty-three 
days he repeatedly promised two Supreme Court 
judges to withdraw the garrisons, which the 


22 ^o^federat^ Uetcrap, 


judges assured him were there without any 
authority or just claim. In these frequent war 
acts, Lincoln took the position, first in his inau- 
gural, that the States could secede, “but he would 
not assail them”; then, the States could not se- 
cede ; next, that they were out of the Union ; and 
later, when it suited his purpose, that they were 
still in the Union and could not withdraw from 
it, contrary to his position in 1846 in the (House) 
case where he contended the State had that right. 
These violations of the Constitution need not have 
been surprising, as in his campaign for President 
he uttered this significant warning : “When a peo- 
ple become dissatisfied with a government (or 
Constitution), there are two alternatives; one to 
change it (which he knew they could not do), 
and the other to overthrow it.” This was in line 
with his appeal to Seward’s “Higher law,” and 
other like expressions such as “this government 
cannot exist half slave and half free,” though for 
more than a hundred years this government not 
only had “existed,” but had been the most thrifty, 
prosperous, and happiest in the world. He de- 
clared before he was a candidate for president 
that “the negro is an inferior race and not fit for 
citizenship or the ballot,” and yet he proposed 
in a letter to Governor Michael Hahn, “the first 
free-State Governor of Louisiana,” he suggested 
that “some of the colored people” be “let in,” as 
they might “help, in some trying time to come, to 
keep the jewel of liberty within the family of 
freedom.” And he also proposed to Andrew 
Johnston, his appointee as Military Governor of 
Tennessee, that he (Johnston) organize negro 
regiments for the Union army, with his procla- 
mation of 1863, forerunner of citizenship, that 
“50,000 negro troops along the Mississippi River 
would end the war in thirty days.” Now, let the 
imagination play around this proposal for a mo- 
ment: When 700,000 of the best white troops he 
could collect from the Northern States had failed 
for two years to end the war, how could he expect 
that 50,000 untrained and semi-savage troops 
could accomplish the desired end within thirty 
days? He must have designed to turn the five 
hundred companies of armed and equipped ne- 
groes loose on the unprotected women and chil- 
dren of the South while their husbands and fa- 
thers were in the Confederate armies, thus de- 
moralizing the Confederate army and requiring 
the soldiers to return to their homes. What else? 
This letter was written in Lincoln’s own hand- 
writing and is now in Morgan’s collection in New 
York. 


Again, let me add one more reason why the 
Southern people owe no honors to Lincoln: Just 
before John Brown’s raid into Virginia, follow- 
ing his murder of several Southern men in 
Kansas, Brown was organizing a force for his 
expedition and collecting funds, and Abraham 
Lincoln subscribed one hundred dollars for the 
purchase of pikes and other weapons with which 
to arm the Virginia negroes against the white. 
(New York Herald, 1864.) Brown had several 
large contributions from New England societies 
and individuals, and Lincoln’s headed the list. 
And yet one Georgia legislator thinks Lincoln was 
so good and great that his birthday should be a 
legal holiday in Georgia. 

Csesar Borgia was another great man. His 
biographer admitted that his genius was little 
more than lack of principle, which allowed no 
scruple to stand in the way of his design. Bor- 
gia, too, was idolized by his following ; a Cardinal 
at seventeen, he convulsed the country at thirty, 
and was killed at thirty-two. 

The truth about Lincoln (or some of it) is that 
his nomination was conceded to secure the pioneer 
vote of the West and the labor vote of the cities, 
where strength was needed for the new party — 
where his style of campaigning might appeal. It 
was hardly expected that he would be elected, but 
might draw to the Republican Party certain 
strength for the future. He would not have been 
elected but for the split in the Democratic Con- 
vention at Charleston. As Lunt, the Massachu- 
setts historian, says, “He was incapable of a wide 
range of thought,” depending largely on the supe- 
rior minds of his advisers. I will mention only 
one of several incidents which tend to show that 
in selecting his cabinet he did not act upon his 
own judgment. He selected Seward and Don 
Cameron for cabinet places, both having been can- 
didates for President ; and, for the very important 
position in the events to follow, he selected Edwin 
M. Stanton, a few months later. Stanton was a 
great civil lawyer of Cincinnati, and a firm there 
had engaged him as counsel in an important law- 
suit. Being just after Lincoln’s election, the firm 
thought it would be advisable to employ Lincoln 
in the case and, without consulting Stanton, wired 
Lincoln to come down and join counsel. Lincoln 
was elated, and he entered the office of the firm 
just in time to hear Stanton in the adjoining 
room loudly and profanely declaring that “Lin- 
coln was a fool, knew no law, and if he came into 
the case, he (Stanton) would go out of it.” Lin- 
coln was quick to take in the situation and con- 


Qopfederat^ \/eterai). 


eluded the best way out of the embarrassment was 
to quietly retire ; so he left for his hotel, where he 
wrote a note to the firm thanking them for the 
invitation, but regretting that circumstances 
would not permit him to accept it. Who told this 
to Historian Gregg, I do not know, but it was apt 
to have been Lincoln himself, just as he told an- 
other similar story on himself — and Stanton. But 
the main point is that Lincoln, knowing Stanton’s 
feeling toward him and his opinion of him, would 
select him for the important post of Secretary 
of War — evidently the preference of his advisors 
as an admirable man for Secretary of War in 
event of war. 

Lincoln received a million and a quarter votes 
less than his Democratic opponents, but by the 
plurality vote he secured the electoral vote of the 
larger Northern States in the electoral college. 
Though he was elected by the State Rights prin- 
ciple of the Constitution, he immediately began a 
war on State Rights. His whole life was a bundle 
of inconsistencies. 

Isn’t it right and just that all the truth of 
history of so important an era in this country 
should be preserved and the growing generation 
have the privilege of knowing it? Why should 
half of it be suppressed and misrepresentation be 
substituted? No man should be afraid or 
ashamed of the truth. The record of a public 
man’s acts is public property. Neither he nor his 
friends should be afraid of the truth. 

We are no less loyal to the Union and the flag 
when we insist upon doing honor to the men who 
fought so gallantly for what they knew was right. 
That they were defeated by superior numbers 
and resources does not affect the principles in- 
volved — for instance, on the question of State 
Rights, a majority of the States North are now 
clamoring for it. Appomattox was a battle field, 
not a forum. 


HAZARDOUS TRIP IN WAR DAYS. 

[From Reminiscences of Mrs. P. H. Haggard, 
Fort Worth, Tex., as written in 1908, and con- 
tributed by Miss Lorena Diggs, Amarillo, Tex.J 
(Continued from December) 

After the departure of the robbers, the most 
difficult task yet remained. I must needs replace 
the team stolen, and decided to procure oxen. 
Searching far and near, we finally located and 
purchased the much-desired animals and returned 
in triumph to the camp. 


23 

We were now equipped and ready to take up 
our line of march on the morrow. I was nervous 
that night, sleeping but little, not knowing just 
how I was to manage those oxen. Many and 
varied experiences had been mine since the war 
began, but this was a new and untried field of 
endeavor. Even now I recall with what trepida- 
tion I approached them. It was hard to tell of 
which end I was the more afraid, the heels or the 
horns. Being resolute and always equal to an 
emergency, I managed with the aid of others to 
yoke and hitch my oxen to the wagon. Not know- 
ing gee from haw, I placed a rope around the 
horns of the leader, hoping by this means to be 
better able to govern them. All things being in 
readiness, some one led the way, all falling into 
line, myself about midway the caravan, swinging 
on the rope and holloaing gee and haw and some- 
times gee-haw with as much importance as a 
well-trained ox-driver. I managed to keep them 
in the road until we had gone about four miles, 
when all at once they became unmanageable and 
broke the wagon tongue. All halted and went 
into camp. The unanimous decision was that 
we would have to get a workman to make a new 
tongue, when Sam, my crippled negro boy, said, 
“Miss Thena, if we had a long pole, we might be 
able to fix it ourselves,” and explained how it 
could be done. Some of us started in search of 
a suitable pole. After chopping down a sapling, 
we trimmed off the limbs and cut the pole to the 
required length, and then we girls dragged it into 
camp, where, under the direction of Sam, we had 
the tongue made and attached to the wagon before 
the sun set. 

We were now ready to take up our line of 
march again. Nothing of any special interest 
occurred for several days. Our next serious trou- 
ble occurred in Arkansas. When we reached the 
old camp ground eight miles west of Fayetteville, 
known as Mount Comfort, one of sister Lizzie’s 
horses, being crippled, was about played out, and 
my wagon was on the verge of collapse, so we 
decided to consolidate our outfits, leaving the 
crippled horse and my wagon, from which we 
transferred a trunk and my bedding. We were 
soon on the move again with lighter spirits as 
well as baggage. The country was very rough 
and rocky and grew worse the nearer we ap- 
proached the Boston mountains, which we found 
almost impassable, and by the time we had 
crossed over them, we had two or three broken 


24 


^opfederat^ l/eterar). 


wheels. This country had been the battle ground 
for both armies, and, consequently, was destitute 
of both men and shops. Experience and circum- 
stances had taught us much. Instead of camping 
and scouting the country for help when we had 
the misfortune to break a wheel, we would cut 
down a long pole and attach it to the front axle, 
allowing it to extend twelve or fourteen feet 
behind, the spindle resting on the pole, then 
would drive on until we came to a shop and could 
get the wheel mended. We reached Van Buren in 
pretty good shape, and there had to cross the 
Arkansas River. We drove through the town 
and down to the river, halting on a sand bar. 
The river was very low, but all felt a little shaky 
and uncertain about crossing, being unacquainted 
with the ford, and knowing the quicksand was 
constantly changing it. All had crossed in safety 
except Mrs. Chenoweth and myself, who were 
to bring up the rear. When we reached deep 
water about midway the stream, her team re- 
fused to go forward, and, despite all efforts the 
driver could bring to bear, they continued in their 
course until they had broken every spoke of the 
front wheel. My team, true to their instinct, 
followed in their wake, and as my efforts to stop 
them were unavailing, I leaped into the water 
about waist deep and, by using my whipstock 
freely over their heads, succeeded in stopping 
them in their mad career, but not before they 
had broken three or four spokes. The only thing 
left for us to do was to return to the bank from 
which we had entered the river. This I was able 
to do, but Mrs. Chenoweth was not so fortunate. 
Her three daughters and I carried the things out 
of the wagon to the bank, hitched the team to the 
hind axle, and dragged the wagon out. Our com- 
panions who had crossed over went into camp on 
the opposite bank to await our repairs. The 
town was occupied by a battalion of Federal sol- 
diers, and we soon located a man who undertook 
to fill the wheels. While awaiting our repairs, 
one of my oxen sickened and died. As soon as we 
got our wheels, we crossed over the river, with 
the help of a team to pull my wagon over, and at 
last we joined our companions. 

Having so many trials and difficulties, it is 
only natural to suppose we would be discouraged, 
but so many laughable, ridiculous things hap- 
pened that most of us really found enjoyment, 
for we were young and full of fun, always looking 
on the bright side of things. I recall one incident 
that will serve to illustrate. While we were 


camped on the south side of the Arkansas River 
we had to lead our stock back and forth to water. 
The river being very low, we had to cross a wide 
sand bar. The girls often joked me about my 
single team. On one of these daily trips, they 
still teasing me, I replied, “He is a horned horse,” 
and proceeded to mount him. Finding that he 
would allow such familiarity, I continued doing 
this each day, always dismounting on reaching 
the water’s edge, until one fatal day the mis- 
chievous girls gave him a few sharp raps with 
their whips, sending him forward at a rapid gait. 
Ere I could dismount, he plunged in and was 
soon in deep water. The now thoroughly alarmed 
girls looked helplessly on, but after slaking his 
thirst he returned safely with me to the shore, 
I riding triumphantly back to camp. We must 
needs have the other ox for my team, and finally 
located one and exchanged the horse for the ox. 

We had been camped here about a week. All 
were jubilant that night with the prospect of 
being able to move next morning. Our teams 
rested and the roads being reasonably good, the 
second day’s travel brought us into the Indian 
Territory, which we entered with fear and trem- 
bling, not knowing much about Indians. Indeed, 
very few of us had ever seen one, and all the 
knowledge we had of them had been obtained 
from reading their history. Well do I remember 
the first night we spent in the Territory. We 
camped in a beautiful little valley surrounded 
by hills and bluffs, rather a picturesque place. 
We made our fires alongside an old tree that had 
fallen down, cooked and ate our supper, chatted 
awhile, prepared our beds, and most all had re- 
tired for the night. Suddenly we heard a strange 
whoop not far away. All was excitement now. 
This strange whoop was repeated at intervals, 
getting nearer and encircling our camp. Soon a 
voice called out in broken English: “Who make 
fire?” Mrs. Dr. Chenoweth, be it said to her 
credit, was the only one in camp who had the 
courage to speak, and she answered, “Some wom- 
en and children.” The reply came back: “Who 
are you?” She answered as before: “Some wom- 
en and children.” Then came the decisive ques- 
tion: “Are you North or South?” She asked in 
a low tone: “What must I say?” We hesitated, 
knowing the Indians were divided on the war 
question, and the small Northern faction fought 
under the black flag. Finally we decided to have 
her tell the truth. “Oh, me your friend, me your 
friend!” he exclaimed, and as he came up to our 


25 


^OQfederat^ Ueterap. 


camp fire our fears vanished, for he was dressed 
in Confederate uniform. The old log was burn- 
ing brightly, and the light had attracted his at- 
tention. The night was chilly, and he asked per- 
mission to warm himself by our fire, which was 
cheerfully granted. Observing our cooking ves- 
sels, he made signs that he was hungry. Mrs. 
Chenoweth soon satisfied his appetite with such 
things as we had left over. He told us they had 
encountered a force of Federals that day at 
Skullyville and had routed them, they retreating 
to Fort Smith. Next day we passed through 
Skullyville and his report was verified, as they 
had left in such haste they failed to take their 
tents or cooking outfits. Indeed, we found the 
camp literally strewn with dead horses, corn, hay, 
and all kinds of army rations, and we helped our- 
selves to such things as we needed. 

Continuing our journey, nothing of interest 
happened for several days. We were making 
good progress, in fine spirits, and camped for the 
night within fifteen miles of a Confederate en- 
campment. Next morning we found to our great 
consternation both of Mrs. Chenoweth’s oxen 
sick, not able to travel. We held council and 
unanimously agreed that the best and only thing 
we could do was to leave Mrs. Chenoweth and 
push on to the Confederate soldiers for aid. She 
heartily concurring in this decision, we all moved 
out except Mrs. McKay, who volunteered to re- 
main with Mrs. Chenoweth. We reached the 
Confederate camp on the second day and called 
for the commanding officer, who proved to be 
Colonel Martin, of McKinney, Tex. Making 
known to him our troubles, he responded by or- 
dering a wagon and team and two men to go back 
after our companions. Their goods were soon 
transferred to the big Confederate wagon, and 
Mrs. Chenoweth’s wagon was lashed on behind, 
and they soon rejoined us. 

While we were camped here my other Missouri 
ox died, again leaving me with a single team. 
Colonel Martin sent some of his men out and 
bought from the Indians three steers, as wild as 
bucks, to replace our teams, and detailed two men 
to drive them, one by the name of Thomas Rector, 
a distant relative of mine ; the other by the name 
of Morris, who lived in McKinney, Tex. Fully 
equipped, we again took up our line of march. 

As I have stated, my mother and family pre- 
ceded me three months. My father joined them 
in Arkansas and they went on to Texas and were 
located four miles west of Bonham, Fannin 
County. News reached them that some Missouri 


families were camped in the Indian Territory 
without teams and in destitute circumstances. 
Father, ever ready to render assistance to South- 
ern women, and thinking, too, possibly, that Sis- 
ter Lizzie and I might be in the company, bor- 
rowed a yoke of large oxen, and, with his faithful 
servant Bill, started at once to give succor, trav- 
eling all that day and night. They met our cara- 
van about sixty miles from his starting point, and 
instead of finding us sitting dolefully by the road- 
side, we were, with the aid of our new-found 
friends, traveling gaily on. We had been in dis- 
tress, but were not discouraged. Had all other 
means failed, we would have formed a company 
of infantry and marched on to Dixie. We knew 
no such word as fail. 

We reached our final destination without fur- 
ther delay or serious impediment on October 28, 
1863, a genuine Norther introducing us. Since 
early morning a warm drizzly rain had been fall- 
ing, when about two o’clock we noticed blue 
clouds rising in the north. Suddenly the wind 
veered to the north, coming down upon us like 
a wolf upon the fold, holding us in its icy clutches. 
In an incredibly short time, it was freezing every- 
thing and covered with sleet and ice. Hattie 
Chenoweth and I had been walking all day, as we 
had much of the way from Missouri. I don’t be- 
lieve I rode more than twenty miles. Our clothes 
were wet, and in all my life I never came so near 
freezing as on that day. When we reached a fire 
after night, all our clothes were frozen on us. 
Our whole company was suffering, but, notwith- 
standing our icy induction into the State, we re- 
ceived a warm welcome, such as is given only by 
the frontiersman, at the home of Mr. Allen Mar- 
low, where father had taken us, and, upon their 
generous invitation, we spent the night. 

Our company now disbanded, all who had rela- 
tives or acquaintances going to them for the pres- 
ent. Mrs. Chenoweth and Mrs. McKay went with 
us to my father’s home, staying there until they 
could locate their husbands, who, like all other 
Southern men, had been compelled to leave Mis- 
souri. Our arrival brought joy to my mother and 
family. While I was making my somewhat peril- 
ous journey south, my husband was following his 
leader. General Shelby, on a raid north. After 
his return south, he obtained a furlough and came 
to Texas to pay me a visit, we having been sepa- 
rated fifteen months, seldom hearing from each 
other, mail facilities being cut off between the 
opposing armies. 


26 


^OQfederat^ l/eterai). 



Sketches In this department are given a half column of space without 
charge extra space will he charged at 20 cents a line. Engravings, 
$3.00 each. 


Asleep ! At rest ! 

How calm and sweet thy weary sons repose, 
Safe from all grief, all danger, and all foes, 
0 Dixie, on thy breast ! 


Gen. Pinckney Rayburn Young, U. C. V, 



Brig. Gen. Pinckney R. Young, Commander of 
the Fourth Brigade, North Carolina, United Con- 
federate Veterans, died suddenly on November 5, 

1931, at Canton, 
N. C., a few days be- 
fore his 88th birth- 
day. Services con- 
ducted by his pastor. 
Rev. William Russell 
Owen, assisted b y 
Rev. George Floyd 
Rogers, of Trinity 
Episcopal Church, 
were held in the First 
Baptist Church in 
Asheville, on No- 
vember 7th. Follow- 
ing brief services 
held in Hominy Bap- 
tist Church, at Cand- 
ler, by Dr. Bennett, 
the pastor, and Rev. R. A. Sentell, an old 
friend of General Young’s, burial was in the ad- 
joining cemetery. Grouped at the head of the 
grave were Mrs. R. T. Underwood, bearing a 
Confederate flag ; Mrs. Gash, supporting the iron 
Cross of Honor; and Miss Bettie LaBarbe, hold- 
ing a sheaf of red bloom. The beautiful Con- 
federate Ritual was read by Mrs. Underwood, and 
the flnal rites were by Masonic Orders of Ashe- 


GEN. P. R. YOUNG, U. C. V. 


ville and Canton. 

Pinckney Rayburn Young, son of William and 
Polly Rayburn Young, was of distinguished and 
aristocratic English ancestry. John Davidson, 
one of the authors of the Mecklenburg Resolu- 
tion, and a Revolutionary officer of distinction, 
and his maternal grandfather. Col. Hodge Ray- 
burn, who was a noted lawmaker and statesman. 


were two illustrious forbears. General Young 
was a native of Buncombe County, N. C., having 
been reared in the beautiful Hominy Valley, birth- 
place of many other sturdy and loyal men who 
bore arms for the Southland. In^ the early part 
of the conflict of the sixties, he enlisted in Com- 
pany I, of the valiant and famous 25th North 
Carolina Regiment, which engaged in many 
epochal battles, including Chancellorsville, Fred- 
ericksburg, the Seven Days, flghting around Rich- 
mond, etc. Twice wounded, Pinckney R. Young 
lived to help re-establish the fortunes of his fer- 
vently and sentimentally beloved Southland. Al- 
ways brave and obedient to the call of duty as a 
Confederate soldier, he was afterwards true to 
his country and his God, serving as a teacher, a 
Baptist preacher, and in other capacities until 
the day God released him to a brighter, higher 
sphere. Bouyant good spirits animated him, love 
for his kind burned within his breast, a zeal for 
righteousness in civic administration, and oppo- 
sition, since boyhood, to liquor traffic, were pre- 
dominating characteristics of this erect, black- 
eyed, eloquent, and intellectual gentleman, of 
whom I cannot write without a tribute of tears 
because he has gone away, and joyous gratitude 
because I knew him. 

General Young is survived by his wife, Mrs. 
Kate Young, and by two daughters of a former 
marriage. Misses Leona and Charlotte Young, 

(Mrs. R. T. Underwood). 

Robert A. Rembert. 

On January 30, 1931, Robert Abijah Rembert 
died at the home of his daughter, Mrs. L. C. 
Bridges, Pleasant Hill, La., at the age of eighty- 
four years, following some years of invalidism. 
He was born in Selma, Ala., October 6, 1846, and 
went to Louisiana when a small child with his 
father and mother. Dr. Abijah Richard and Emily 
Rembert. The first home was at old Pleasant Hill, 
the family later moving to Mansfield, where they 
lived until both parents had passed away. 

Robert A. Rembert was married to Miss Sallie 
Chapman on December 30, 1864, and to this union 
were born five sons and two daughters. 

As a Confederate soldier, Robert Rembert en- 
listed in the spring of 1863, at the age of sixteen 
years, and served with Company B, 2nd Louisiana 
Cavalry, under Colonel Vincents, Brent’s Brigade. 
He fought in the battle of Mansfield, and was 
honorably discharged at Shreveport. 

Funeral service was conducted by an old friend. 
Rev. Sam Holliday. 




Qoi^federat^ l/etera9. 


Capt. T. a. Roberts. 

Capt. Thomas Algernon Roberts died at his 
home in Salem, Va., in November, at the age of 
ninety-four years. Funeral services were from 
the Salem Presbyterian church with interment in 
East Hill cemetery. 

Captain Roberts was born in Kanawha County, 
West Virginia. He helped to organize the Border 
Riflemen at the beginning of the War between 
the States, but was soon transferred to Company 
A, 22nd Virginia Regiment, and served on Gen- 
eral Echols’ staff. In November, 1862, he was 
made a captain and assigned as quartermaster 
22nd Virginia Regiment, and served in this ca- 
pacity until the surrender. 

He fought in the battles of Cedar Creek, Cloyd’s 
Mountain, Gauley Bridge, Droop Mountain, New 
Market, Crater, fought in the skirmish with Lew 
Wallace at Mountain Lake in Giles County, and 
at the battle of Fayetteville, the hardest fought 
battle in West Virginia, and numerous others. 

He was presented the Stone Mountain gold 
medal by the United Daughters of the Confeder- 
acy of Roanoke and Salem as a special mark of 
honor. 

Captain Roberts was married to Miss Elizabeth 
Payne, of Newport, Giles County, in 1865. He 
had been an elder in the Presbyterian churches 
at Blacksburg and Salem since early life. He 
moved to Salem in 1886, and here made his home 
since that time. 

He is survived by a daughter and three sons. 
John Abner Texts. 

John A. Tetts, who died at the home of his 
daughter, Mrs. J. D. Williams, in Many, La., on 
September 15, was born in Sumter, S. C. in 1847. 
As a schoolboy of sixteen, he joined the Con- 
federate army, remaining in service to the close 
of the war. He served with Company C, 4th Ten- 
nessee Cavalry, and took part in some of the ma- 
jor engagements of the war. 

Comrade Tetts was married to Mrs. Charity 
Crosby Rabb, of Crosbyville, S. C., and they 
moved to Louisiana in the seventies, settling at 
Unionville, in Lincoln Parish, later moving to 
Ruston, where he took an active part in all pro- 
gressive movements of the time. He was editor 
of the Progressive Age, and was one of the first 
organizers of the Farmers’ Union, being the first 
vice-president of the national organization. Dur- 
ing the lottery fight in Louisiana, he was editor 
and business manager of the Vidette of Alexan- 
dria, which was active in helping to destroy the 


27 

lottery. He located at Many in 1898, where he 
was in the newspaper business for many years. 

Comrade Tetts is survived by two sons and 
three daughters, also by two step-children and 
many grandchildren and great-grandchildren. 

(Mrs. Williams would be glad to hear from her 
father’s nieces, who were the Misses Cumpsty, of 
Columbia, S. C., before marriage, one of them 
now being Mrs. Ethel Cumpsty Burrows, of At- 
lanta, Ga.) 

Gen. Robert C. Crouch, U. C. V. 

Robert Chester Crouch, born at Jonesboro, 
Tenn., April 14, 1844, died at Morristown, Tenn. ; 
May 2, 1931, after some years of failing health. 
Funeral services were from Bethesda Church, 
near Morristown, and in that churchyard he was 
laid to rest. 

Robert Crouch enlisted at the beginning of the 
War between the States as a private of Company 
B, 19th Tennessee Regiment, of which he was 
elected 1st lieutenant, this company being a part 
of Walker’s battalion. Francis M. Walker be- 
came Colonel of the regiment, and this “fighting 
19th Tennessee” followed General Zollicoffer in 
his Kentucky campaign, was with Albert Sidney 
Johnston at Shiloh, with Bragg at Murfreesboro, 
Chickamauga, and Missionary Ridge, then with 
Joseph E. Johnston to Atlanta, where Colonel 
Walker was killed; and with Strahl at Franklin, 
then again with Johnston to the surrender in 
North Carolina. Young Crouch was captured on 
September 11, 1863, shortly before the great bat- 
tle of Chickamauga, and was sent to Johnson's 
Island, where he remained a prisoner to the end 
of the war. 

During this imprisonment, a comrade used a 
makeshift picture equipment and made a picture 
of Lieutenant Crouch in his uniform, which 
was reproduced in the Veteran of January, 
1909, with the story of how it was made on tin 
from an oyster can. 

After the war. Comrade Crouch returned home 
and followed farming for the greater part of his 
life, being a successful farmer of Hamblen Coun- 
ty. He retired some years ago and made his 
home in Morristown. He was a member of the 
W. B. Tate Camp, U. C. V., and interested in the 
welfare of his Confederate comrades, serving for 
several years on the State Board of Pensions. He 
was twice married, both wives and the little 
daughter of the first marriage having preceded 
him to the spirit land. He is survived by a num- 
ber of nieces and nephews. 


28 


QoQfederat^ l/eterai). 


Bird Smith 

Bird Smith was born in Shelby County, Ky., in 
May, 1836, and died in his ninety-fifth year at 
Lexington, Ky., in March, 1931. 

As a young man, he made his home in Clay 
County, Mo., where he taught school, and among 
his pupils were Frank and Jesse James. At the 
opening of the War between the States he re- 
turned to Shelby County, Ky., where he enlisted 
in Company 26, 8th Kentucky Cavalry, command- 
ed by Col. Leroy Cluke, as a part of Gen. John 
H. Morgan’s command. At the time of General 
Morgan’s famous raid through Indiana and Ohio, 
Company H, having been recruited in Shelby and 
Oldham Counties, east of Louisville, was sent to 
those counties to make a demonstration to divert 
attention as much as possible from General Mor- 
gan, who crossed the Ohio River west of Louis- 
ville at Bradenburg. 

Company H was prevented by a gunboat from 
crossing the Ohio River and rejoining Morgan, 
but succeeded in escaping south and joined the 
Confederate army, keeping up the fight to the end. 

After the war. Bird Smith returned to Shelby 
County, where he farmed until late in life. He 
was a member of the Methodist Church, and as a 
singer he loved to take an active part in all 
musical features of his church. 

Six of his grandsons were pallbearers, and he 
was laid to rest in the Masonic Cemetery at Simp- 
sonville, Ky. 

[Graham Brown, for Camp John H. Waller, 
No. 237 U. C. V., Shelbyville, Ky.] 


John Wesley Linton. 

The end of a useful life came with the death of 
John Wesley Linton on July 4, 1930, at the home 
of his brother, Ben T. Linton, near Russellville, 
Ky. 

He was born in Muhlenberg County, Ky., in 
November, 1843. Entered the Confederate Army 
at age of seventeen, enlisting in Company D, Ken- 
tucky Cavalry, N. B. Forrest Command ; was cap- 
tured and imprisoned at Camp Chase, Columbus, 
Ohio; was exchanged near the close of the war, 
rejoined his command, and served to the end. 

He was a lifelong member of the Methodist 
Church, ever loyal to all that was good and true. 

He is survived by one brother, three sisters 
and four manly sons. A loving father and brother 
and a friend to all in need might fittingly be in- 
scribed as his epitaph. 

[C. W. Coleman, Devereux, Ga.] 


Gen. John T. Pearce, U. C. V. 

Gen. John Timothy Pearce, Commander of the 
Leroy Stafford Camp, U. C. V., of Shreveport, 
and Assistant Inspector General on the staff of 

Gen. C. A. De- 
Saussure, Com- 
mander in Chief, 
U. C. V., died at 
the home of his 
daughter, Mrs. 
John McWilliams 
Ford, in Shreve- 
port, La., on Sep- 
tember 26, 1931, 
at the age of 
eighty-nine 
years. He was 
one of the five ac- 
t i V e members 
left of his Camp, 
and one of the 
best known and 
most widely be- 
loved citizens ,of 
Shreveport. Ever 
devoted to the 
principles for 
which he had fought in the sixties, he loved to 
meet with his comrades in arms and had been a 
regular attendant on Confederate reunions for 
the past forty years. He had also served on the 
staff of Gen. L. W. Stephens when Commander 
in Chief, U. C. V. 

The following sketch was prepared by a friend 
and fellow Churchman, Professor Pierce Cline, of 
Centenary College: 

John Timothy Pearce was born July 25, 1842 
in Paulding County, Ga., and when he was two 
years of age, his father and mother moved to 
Benton County, Ala., where his youth and young 
manhood were spent on the farm. At the age of 
nineteen, he enlisted as a private in Company D, 
13th Alabama Regiment, under command of Capt. 
James Aiken. With this regiment, he was or- 
dered to Richmond, Va., in August, 1861, later 
being ordered to historic Yorktown, where he was 
made a special courier to General Raines. 

In the battle of Seven Pines, June 1, 1862, 
young Pearce was severely wonded and sent to 
a hospital in Richmond. When sufficiently re- 
covered, he was placed in charge of a large ward 
in Winder Hospital, where he remained about 
six months. He then returned to Alabama and 
assisted in raising a company of younger men. 



GEN. JOHN T. PEARCE, U. C. V. 


29 


^opfederafc^ l/eterai>. 


and was elected 1st Lieutenant of the company. 
This company was made a part of the 62nd Ala- 
bama Regiment, and was captured by General 
Canby’s overwhelming odds. With this company 
Lieutenant Pearce was sent as a prisoner of war 
to Ship Island, near New Orleans, where he was 
guarded by negro soldiers under white officers. 
After one month, he was transferred to New Or- 
leans, thence to Vicksburg, thence to Jackson and 
Meridian, where he was paroled, and walked most 
of the five hundred miles home. 

After the war. Lieutenant Pearce engaged in 
the mel"cantile business in Oxford, Ala., for more 
than forty years. In 1869, he was married to 
Miss Susan George Samford, daughter of the re- 
nowned W. F. Samford and Susan Lewis Dow- 
dell Samford, and sister to Alabama’s great Gov- 
ernor, W. J. Samford. In 1905, he and his wife 
removed to Louisiana and dwelt with their sons at 
Belcher, La., after whose deaths they removed to 
the home of their daughter, Mrs. Ford, where 
they were overtaken by death, Mrs. Pearce having 
died in 1923. He is survived by three sons, two 
daughters, twenty grandchildren and six great- 
grandchildren, also by a sister. 

General Pearce was a devout Christian gentle- 
man. As a citizen of his community, he was ac- 
tive for righteousness. His character was strong 
and rugged. His courage never fiagged. His 
honesty and loyalty were beyond all question. His 
personality was compelling. He was at all times 
and on all occasions pre-eminently John Timothy 
Pearce. He was loved for his piety and spirit of 
self-sacrifice, and was honored for his integrity. 
Transeat in Exemplum. 


A TRIBUTE. 

To the memory of Miss Augusta Celeste Rob- 
ertson, a member of Albert Sidney Johnston 
Chapter No. 79, United Daughters of the Confed- 
eracy, of San Francisco, Calif., who died October 
20, 1931. 

* 4: :|c 

When General Butler established his despotic 
government of New Orleans in 1862, the mother 
of the subject of this article, then very recently 
widowed, appealed to the British authorities at 
Washington — since she was of English birth — 
and General Butler was ordered to allow her and 
her three children to leave New Orleans. They 
came to San Francisco. Augusta, the eldest liv- 
ing child, was ih her “teens.” Immediately upon 
reaching legal age, she entered the public schools 
of San Francisco as a teacher, and thousands of 


its useful men and women pay tribute to her 
ability as an instructor and her tireless, loving 
guidance during the fifty-eight continuous years 
of her service, mainly as vice-principal of the 
Pacific Heights and Rincon Schools. Her ex- 
quisite manners and high morale gained her a pet 
name, and her teacher associates honored her as 
“The Lady Augusta.” 

The dearly loved mother was a helpless invalid 
for many, many years; the brother, a brilliant 
young man, succumbed to tuberculosis; the de- 
voted sister, from whom she was never separated, 
was widowed; all responsibilities, whether of the 
home, the school, or the community, were accepted 
and carried cheerfully by our “Lady Augusta.” 
Her own health was perfect; when she was re- 
tired from the school department in 1925, she left 
the remarkable record of never having been ab- 
sent because of her own illness. This wonderful 
condition continued to the end. 

Albert Sidney Johnston Chapter, U. D. C., the 
first established outside the Confederate States, 
received its charter in 1896. Her father and 
members of his family had rendered full service 
in the Southern cause, so Miss Robertson early 
became an enthusiastic member. Every secretary 
and every historian received from her many clip- 
pings of useful material, and, on October 14, she 
accepted the office of Corresponding Secretary of 
the Chapter. Six days later, death claimed her, 
without a moment’s warning, as she and her sister 
sat together awaiting the daily visit from the 
latter’s son, her nephew. 

Her accomplishments cannot be measured. 
Only those who have been privileged to enjoy her 
companionship, to receive her instruction, and to 
witness her beautiful example of a life truly lived, 
know how much they owe to her and how the debt 
grows. 

[Ivey Douglas Ostrom, President.] 


THE FIFTY -NINE MACRAES IN GRAY. 

(Continued from page 7) 

W. F. MacRae, Company H, 48th Regiment. 
Davidson County. 

Walter G. MacRae, Captain Company G, 7th 
Regiment. New Hanover County. 

William MacRae, Company G, 13th Regiment. 
Wake County. 

William MacRae, Captain Company B, 15th 
Regiment (promoted Brigadier General). New 
Hanover County. 

William MacRae, Lieutenant Company B, 78th 
Regiment Reserves. Robeson County. 


30 


Qo^federat^ l/eterai). 

mniteb S)auQbters of the ConfeberaciP 

9^aAr0s 

Mrs. William E. R. Byrne, President General 

Charleston, W. Va. 


Mrs. Amos H. Norris First Vice President General 

City Hall, Tampa, Fla. 

Mrs. Chas. B. Faris Second Vice President General 

4469 Westminster Place, St. Louis, Mo. 

Mrs. R. B. Broyles Third Vice President General 

6721 Fifth Court, South, Birmingham, Ala. 

Mrs. W. E. Massey Recording Secretary General 

738 Quapaw Avenue, Hot Springs, Ark. 

Mrs. L. U. Babin Corresponding Secretary General 

903 North Boulevard, Baton Rouge, La. 


Mrs. George Dismukes Treasurer General 

1409 Chickasha Avenue, Chickasha, Okla. 

Mrs. John H. Anderson Historian General 

707 West Morgan Street, Raleigh, N. C. 

Mrs. a. S. Porter, Hotel Monroe, Portsmouth, V a. . Registrar General 

Mrs. J. W. Goodwin, Allendale, N. J Custodian of Crosses 

Mrs. j. L. Medlin Custodian of Flags and Penrcant 

1541 Riverside Avenue, Jacksonville, Fla. 


All communications for this Department should be sent direct to Mrs. R. H. Chisley, Official Editor, 11 Everett Street, Cambridge, Mass. 


FROM THE PRESIDENT GENERAL. 

To the United Daughters of the Confederacy : 
In this my first letter to you, I wish to thank you 
for bestowing upon me the highest gift that can 
come to a Southern woman, and to pledge to you 
the very best that is in me in the service of the 
Cause that is so dear to all our hearts. 

It was the good fortune of your former Presi- 
dent General, Mrs. L. M. Bashinsky, to bring to a 
happy conclusion many projects undertaken by 
the Organization, and many Committees, having 
completed their work, were discharged. 

These Committees are as follows: 

The Committee to represent the United Daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy in relation to Publishers 
of “Women of the South in War Times.” 

The Matthew Fontaine Maury Prize Commit- 
tee. 

The Faithful Slave Memorial Committee. 

The Matthew Fontaine Maury Scholarship 
Committee. 

The Department of Records. 

Committee to Prepare Rules and Recommend 
Designs for Decoration Veterans Spanish- Ameri- 
can War of Confederate Ancestry. 

Matthew Fontaine Maury Bust Committee. 

Business Office Committee and Subcommittee. 

Committee Lee Memorial Sword for United 
States Military Academy. 

Committee on Flag for Louvain Library. 

Committee to Decide upon Feasibility of Plac- 
ing a Bust of Jefferson Davis in Hall of Nations, 
Asbury Park, N. J. 

Committee on Jefferson Davis Bust for Transyl- 
vania College. 

The following new work was undertaken, and 
the President General authorized to appoint Com- 
mittees for the same. 

To Advance the Name of Sidney Lanier for the 
Hall of Fame.' 


Committee for the Manufacture of Correctly 
Designed Battle Flag of the Confederacy. 

Committee on Bowlder to Matthew Fontaine 
Maury to be placed in the Westminster Abbey of 
the South, Fletcher, N. C. 

Committee to Act with the Custodian of Crosses 
in preparation of a form of presentation to be 
observed on Historical Evening at the time of 
award of Crosses. 

Committee composed of ex-Treasurer Gen- 
erals serving the Organization between the years 
1919-1929. 

Committee to secure a Phonograph Record of 
the “Rebel Yell,” to be Preserved for Posterity. 

This is the year to appoint the Committee on 
Folder of Information, and this has been done. 

Immediately upon the adjournment of the Con- 
vention, the newly elected Executive Committee 
met and elected the following Finance Commit- 
tee: 

Mrs. P. H. P. Lane, 186 Bethlehem Pike, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., Chairman. 

Mrs. L. B. Newell, 603 North Church Street, 
Charlotte, N. C. 

Mrs. B. A. Blenner, Box 556, Richmond, Va. 

Mrs. H. C. Booth, 843 Oxford Street, Berkeley, 
Calif. 

Mrs. J. D. Taylor, Keytesville, Mo. 

Mrs. Thomas W. Reed, University of Georgia 
Campus, Georgia, will continue as Chairman of 
Education. 

Mrs. William Newman, 925 Elliott Street, 
Evansville, Ind., will continue as Chairman of 
Stationery. 

Your President General wishes to call your at- 
tention to the two projects which she hopes to 
see completed not only by the time of the next 
Convention, but at an early date: First, the Lee- 
Stratford Memorial Fund ; second, the Mrs. L. H. 
Raines Memorial Scholarship Fund. 


31 


Qo9fe<Jerat^ \feterzT). 


Mrs. Oscar McKenzie, Montezuma, Ga., is the 
Chairman of the Central Committee of the Lee- 
Stratford Memorial. 

May I urge those Chapters which have not 
completed the quota of a Dollar a Daughter to do 
this just as soon as possible? 

Mrs. T. W. Reed, Chairman of Education, has 
the Mrs. L. H. Raines Memorial Fund under her 
jurisdiction. 

The next dates for the bestowal of Crosses of 
Honor and Service will be January 19 and 21, 
Lee and Jackson’s birthdays. All Divisions and 
Chapters should see that the veterans in their 
territory are honored by the bestowal of these 
Crosses. 

At the close of the Convention, it was the pleas- 
ure of your President General, together with Mrs. 
Roy W. McKinney, Mrs. Frank Harrold, Mrs. 
Cordelia Powell Odenheimer, Mrs. L. M. Bashin- 
sky, and Mrs. Oscar McKenzie, to be the guest of 
Mrs. Alexander B. White at the home of her 
charming daughter, Mrs. J. R. Wells, at Daytona 
Beach, Fla. 

On Monday afternoon, Mrs. White entertained 
the Daytona Beach Chapter with a tea in honor of 
her house guests, at which time each of the guests 
spoke on some phase of the work of the United 
Daughters of the Confederacy. 

En route home, your President General stopped 
in Richmond, where she and Miss Annie Mann, 
President of the Virginia Division, were the 
honor guests at a reception given by the six Rich- 
mond Chapters of the United Daughters of the 
Confederacy — ^the Richmond Chapter, the Ches- 
terfield Chapter, the Lee Chapter, the Stonewall 
Chapter, the Elliott Gary Chapter, and the Janet 
Randolph Chapter. 

In Memoriam. 

It is with deep regret that we record the death 
of Mrs. James Macgill (Lucy Lee Hill), daughter 
of Gen. A. P. Hill, who died November 24, 1931, 
after an illness of several weeks. Her funeral 
took place from St. Paul’s Episcopal Church the 
afternoon of Thanksgiving Day. Her casket was 
covered with the Confederate Flag she loved so 
well. Mrs. Macgill had been a member of the 
Richmond Chapter for years. 

When this letter reaches you the New Year will 
have begun. Your President General is wishing 
for you a year of happiness, prosperity, and serv- 
ice. Faithfully yours, 

Amanda Austin Byrne. 


REGISTRATION FOR 1932. 

Monroe Hotel, Portsmouth, Va. 

December 10, 1931. 

My dear Coworkers: Again I greet you as the 
Registrar General, United Daughters of the Con- 
federacy, having been re-elected at the General 
Convention in Jacksonville, Fla. 

It has been a pleasure to serve the Organiza- 
tion for the past two years. I am sure the com- 
ing year will be none the less pleasant. I have 
enjoyed my work with you, and feel that our as- 
sociation during the coming year will bind the 
ties of friendship. 

This is a most opportune time to express to you 
my appreciation for the splendid co-operation 
you have given me. It is through your efforts of 
perfect team work that the Department of Regis- 
tration has risen to a degree of efficiency never 
known before in the history of registration. This 
could not have been done without your aid. 

To the Registrars who have recently assumed 
their duties as Registrars for their respective Di- 
visions, I greet you and extend to you the glad 
hand of fellowship, and wish for you success in 
your work. I am sure that our association during 
the coming year will be most cordial. The little 
book of “Instruction for Correct Registration for 
Use of Chapter and Division Registrars” will be 
a guide and help to you, I am sure. Some changes 
have been made in the By-Laws which are not in- 
corporated in the instructions, the change having 
been made since it was printed. You will please 
instruct your Chapter Registrars of these changes, 
as they are very important. 

The following amendments to the By-Laws 
were adopted : 

One Dollar and twenty-five cents will be re- 
quired as an initiation fee. The price of certifi- 
cate will remain the same, making the cost to a 
new member one dollar and fifty cents, plus the 
per capita tax of twenty cents. The initiation 
fee and the per capita tax for each new member 
must be sent to the Treasurer-General through 
the Division Treasurer, with the name of the new 
member listed on the per capita blanks. The 
money for the certificate if membership must be 
sent to the Registrar General, through the Di- 
vision Registrar, as formerly. 

One dollar will be required as a transfer fee 
from each member requesting a demit from the 
Chapter in which she is a registered member to 
some other Chapter U. D. C., fifty cents to be paid 
to the Chapter at the time the demit is issued, and 


32 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 


fifty cents to be sent to the Division Registrar 
with the demit when presented to the Chapter 
she is demitted to, to be sent to the Registrar 
General. No demit will be released until money 
is received by the Registrar General for the 
privilege of being transferred. 

An amendment was offered to extend the col- 
lateral line to “nieces of the remotest degree.” 
This amendment was lost. Members may be ad- 
mitted as nieces and great-nieces. 

I am sending you a sufficient supply of the 
books on “Information for Correct Registration,” 
and ask that you please send a copy to each Chap- 
ter Registrar. The reason I am asking this favor 
of you is that many Chapters have changed 
Registrars during the year. Correct addresses 
are not given in the General Minutes. You are in 
direct contact with Chapter Registrars. It is 
most important that each Registrar have a copy. 

To Registrars 

Please send out the following notice to all Chap- 
ter Registrars. [Approved by the President Gen- 
eral, U. D. C., Mrs. William E. R. Byrne.] 

All applications for membership accepted by 
the Chapter and all demits issued by Chapters 
prior to January 1, 1932, will be accepted under 
the old ruling. (See By-Laws, Asheville Minutes.) 

Applications for membership and demits is- 
sued by and received in Chapters after this date 
must conform to the amended By-Laws, which re- 
quire that an initiation fee of $1.25 be paid by 
each person making application for membership 
in the United Daughters of the Confederacy, plus 
the price of certificate, 25 cents, and the per capita 
tax of 20 cents. Total, $1.70. 

A member of any Chapter U. D. C., in good 
standing, who desires a transfer of membership, 
must pay one dollar for this privilege, fifty 
cents to be paid the Chapter issuing the demit, 
and fifty cents to be paid the Chapter receiving 
the demitted member, which shall be sent to the 
Division Registrar to be transmitted by her to 
the Registrar General with each demit sent, this 
expense to be paid by the member requesting the 
demit. 

With best wishes for a successful year’s work, 
and with greetings for the Christmas Season, I 
am, faithfully yours, 

Mrs. Albert Sidney Porter, 
Registrar General, U. D. C. 


THE NEW EDITOR. 

My dear Co-ivorkers : Again it is my privilege 
to greet you as your official editor, and to wish 
each one of you a happy year, brimful of worth- 
while work for our wonderful organization. 

To assure success, we must work together, 
with thoughtful consideration of each other. May 
I ask that you remember the following requests 
in sending your reports; for each state must be 
given the same consideration, and the space for 
these contributions is limited. 

1. Please mail your reports so that they will 
reach me by or before the 1st of the month to ap- 
pear in the number for following month. 

2. If possible, please have them type-written. 
This will be a great help to me, for it prevents my 
making mistakes in having to read so many dif- 
ferent kinds of writing. 

3. Do not send newspaper clippings. We want 
accounts of your Division and Chapter activities 
compiled by you — ^the Director! 

4. The Confederate Veteran is not a society 
paper. So please do not send detailed accounts of 
social events. 

Thanking you for your co-operation in the past, 
and assuring you of my continued interest in this 
work. 

Yours fraternally, Mary C. Chesley. 


MESSAGE OF HISTORIAN GENERAL, 1932. 
To Division and Chapter Historians: A Happy 
New Year to you all ! 

In accepting the office of Historian General, 
I pledge to the United Daughters of the Confed- 
eracy an abundance of love and enthusiasm for 
the first object of our beloved organization, His- 
torical, and with your assistance I shall endeavor 
to “keep history straight.” 

With this message to you goes a suggested pro- 
gram for 1932. Copies have been sent to all 
Division Historians, who will in turn distribute 
them to Chapter Historians and to anyone in her 
Division requesting these. 

The retiring Historian General, Miss Salley, 
has continued her program through January, 
1932, so you see this one begins with February. 
In preparing this and the program for the Chil- 
dren of the Confederacy, I have tried not to dupli- 
cate those of the past Historians General, and I 
hope that these few “historical highlights” may 
prove interesting and instructive to you all. 

The use of the Confederate songs is stressed. 


33 


Qoi>federat^ l/eterai). 


together with a bit of their history. Please have 
copies mimeographed from your songbooks, that 
every Daughter may learn those dear songs our 
mothers and grandmothers loved to sing “long, 
long ago.” 

Emphasize anniversaries of Southern heroes 
and events by using your nearest radio station 
with short, attractive programs of “song and 
story.” As the nation is celebrating the Bicen- 
tennial of George Washington, our great South- 
ern patriot, this is a wonderful opportunity for 
us to set forth the history of our Southland, when 
attention is called to this section of our land. So 
“Daughters,” let’s make this a Banner Year for 
our historical activities. 

Above all things, subscribe to and use the offi- 
cial organ of the U. D. C., the Confederate Vet- 
eran, Nashville, Tenn. The Veteran is our 
greatest factor in preserving Southern history, 
and without it the historical work of Chapters 
cannot properly function. You are urged to make 
use of the Veteran as reference material for your 
programs, for in its files is much valuable his- 
torical information. Make up a club of four sub- 
scribers with a special rate of $5. Do it "right 
now,” please. 

In order to reach the youth of our land, we 
must make greater effort for historical work 
among our college students. Will those of you 
who are near such institutions use every means 
to set forth Southern history? In our list this 
year are prizes offered especially to attract boys 
and girls in colleges. See that they are interested 
in writing on these subjects. 

In the next issue of the Veteran will be the list 
of prizes offered, and I hope many of the U. D. C. 
will compete by writing essays. This list goes 
with the folder sent out on January 1 to Division 
Historians, Please keep monthly reports of your 
activities, so that you may the more readily pre- 
pare your annual report for the Raines Banner 
and Weinmann historical cup. Read and reread 
the outlined annual report for these two general 
contests and keep it before you throughout the 
year. 

Note the suggestions under “Do” and “Don’t,” 

Please have the prize list published in your local 
paper, and give it all the publicity possible. 

We know that General Lee was anxious that the 
truth of history, pertaining to the South should 
be written, and in a letter to General Beauregard 
in December, 1865, he wrote: “Everyone should 
do all in his power to collect and disseminate the 


truth in the hope that it may find a place in his- 
tory and descend to posterity,” 

Let us put our hearts into the historical work 
for the coming year, and I promise you whatever 
assistance I may give in advancing the knowledge 
of Southern history. 

Will you not join hands with me in giving ac- 
tive service to your historical work? 

Faithfully and with love for the “Cause,” 

(Mrs. John H.) Lucy London Anderson, 
Historian General, U. D. C. 


TO DIVISION AND CHAPTER HISTORIANS. 
READ, MARK, LEARN! 

Do— 

Subscribe to the Confederate Veteran. Use 
it as special reference. 

Contribute to Jefferson Davis Historical Foun- 
dation and to Stratford. 

(Continued on page 38) 

i^iatoniral Irparlmcnt, IL i. <i. 


Motto: “Loyalty to the Truth of Confederate History.” 
Keyword: “Preparedness.” Flower: The Rose. 
Historian General: Mrs. John Huske Anderson. 

Aims for 1932: To know your work — a fuller knowl- 
edge of the facts of our Confederate history. 


HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS OF THE CONFED- 
ERATE PERIOD. 

With Southern Songs. 

February, 1932. 

Radio Talks: Bicentennial Observance of the Birth of 
George Washington, Southern Patriot. Dedication of 
Memorial trees. 

Songs: “America,” “Dixie.” 

Why Stratford on the Potomac Should Become a Na- 
tional Shrine. 

Birthplace of Washington’s Favorite General, Light- 
horse Harry Lee. 

Birthplace of the Knight of the Confederacy, Robert E. 
Lee. 

Its Preservation a Sacred Duty. 

Reading: “The Knights of Stratford Hall.” (Material 
secured from the Lee Memorial Foundation, 34 East Put- 
nam. Avenue, Greenwich, Conn.) 

Song: “Carry Me Back to Old Virginny.” 


CHILDREN OF THE CONFEDERACY. 

February, 1932. 

Pictures of the South. 

Song: “America.” 

Radid Talks: Bi-Centennial Year of a Great South- 
erner, George Washington. Dedication of Memorial Trees 
(co-operate with Highway Commissions). 

Guessing Contest on Southern Leaders and Events. 

Tales of Girl Heroines of the Confederacy, Emma San- 
son, Lola Sandrez, Belle Boyd, and others from your own 
State. 


34 


QoQfederat^ l/eterai) 


Confebetateb Soutbecn /Iftemorial Hssociation 


Mrs. a. McD. Wilson President General 

209 Fourteenth Street, N. E., Atlanta, Ga. 

Mrs. C. B. Brvan First Vice President General 

1640 Peabody Avenue, Memphis, Tenn. 

Miss Sue H. Walker Second Vice President General 

Fayetteville, Ark. 

Mrs. J. T. Right Treasurer General 

Fayetteville, Ark. 

Miss Daisy M. L. 'AoT>G%on..,, Recording Secretary General 
790Q Sycamore Street, New Orleans, La. 

Mrs. Bryan Wells Collier Historian General 

College Park, Ga. 

Miss Willie Fort Williams Corresponding Secretary General 
Atlanta. Ga. 

Mrs. Viroinia Frazer Boyle Poet Laureate General 

653 South McLean Boulevard, Memphis, Tenn. 

Mrs. Belle Allen Ross Auditor General 

Montgomery, Aia. 

Rev. Giles B. Cooke Chaplain General 

Mathews, Va. 

Mrs. L. T. D. Quinsy National Organizer 

Atlanta, Ga. 



STATE PRESIDENTS 

Alabama — M ontgomery Mrs. R. P. Dexter 

Arkansas Little Rock Mrs. Sam ^Fassell 

District of Columbia — W ashington Mrs. N. P. Webster 

Florida— G ainesville..-, Mrs. Townes R. Leigh 

Georgia— A tlanta Mrs. William A. Wright 

Kentucky — 

Louisiana — N ew Orleans Mrs. James Dinkins 

Maryland Mrs. D. H. Fred 

Mississippi— B iloxi Mrs. Byrd Enochs 

Missouri— S t. Louis Mrs. G. K. Warner 

North Carolina— A sheville Mrs, J. J. Yates 

Oklahoma — O klahoma City Mrs. James R. Armstrong 

South Carolina— C harleston Mrs. S. Cary Beckwith 

Tennessee — M emphis Mrs. Mary H. Miller 

Texas — 

Virginia — R ichmond Mrs. B. A. Blenner 

West Virginia — H untington Mrs. D. D. Geiger 


All communications for this Department shonld be sent direct to Mrs. Ada Ramp Walden, Editor, Box 692, Augusta, Ga. 


THE NEW YEAR’S MESSAGE. 

BY ADA RAMP WALDEN, EDITOR. 

The old year with its many blighted hopes and 
aspirations has gone forever, but a new one with 
much in prospect is with us. During the year 
1931, many have “gone down the valley, one by 
one,” who will be forever enshrined in Southern 
hearts ; but we, who carry on, know that “to live 
in hearts we leave behind, is not to die.” 

Macaulay, one of the greatest of historians, 
said : “It is a poor nation that does not memorial- 
ize its creators.” And surely those who gave 
their lives in the interest of the Confederacy de- 
serve place in the memory of those who live and 
of those who will read history in years to come. 

One of those who passed into the rest eternal 
during the year that is past was she who con- 
ceived the idea of federating the memorial asso- 
ciations into one body, and which thought mate- 
rialized at Louisville, Ky., in 1900. This was 
Mrs. Julia Garside Welch, of Fayetteville, Ark. 
Another was Mrs. John B. Gordon, widow of the 
famous Confederate general. Mrs. Gordon 
passed away at the home of her daughter, Mrs. 
Frances Gordon-Smith, in Augusta, Ga., at the 
age of ninety-two. Until the last, she retained 
her faculties and delighted in relating her experi- 
ences when, as the young wife of the General, she 
was “among those present” at a number of the 
battles in which he was engaged, particularly the 
battle of Winchester. 

Every patriotic organization of Augusta was 
represented in the procession that accompanied 
her remains to the depot for the journey to 
Atlanta, where the final obsequies were held, Mrs. 
Elizabeth McAllister, President Ladies’ Memorial 


Association, and Mrs. Ada Ramp Walden, First 
Vice President, representing that association. 

So now, in this New Year that has come to us, 
let us every one bear in mind that memory must 
be ever with us; that those who builded that we 
might live must not be forgotten. 

And the editor, in sending her New Year greet- 
ing, is going to borrow Tiny Tim’s Christmas 
message : “God bless us every one !” 


Mrs. Julia Garside Welch. 

At a meeting of the Southern Memorial Asso- 
ciation of Fayetteville, Ark., on Thursday, No- 
vember 12, resolutions of regret, expressing the 
loss to this Association in the death of Mrs. Welch, 
were passed, and the President of the Association 
was requested to prepare a tribute for the local 
press and for the C. S. M. A. department of the 
Confederate Veteran. 

No member has given more devoted service to 
the Memorial work than Mrs. Welch. Coming 
to Fayetteville from her home in Memphis, Tenn., 
in 1876, she became an active member of this 
Association, and, in 1900, conceived the idea of 
federating all Memorial Associations into one 
general body. In June of that year she assisted 
in organizing the Confederate Southern Memo- 
rial Association at Louisville, Ky., at the time of 
the United Confederate Veterans’ reunion there. 
The Commander in Chief, Gen. John B. Gordon, 
and the veterans assembled warmly welcomed the 
organization and gave cordial consent that its 
annual conventions be held at the same time and 
place as their reunions. Mrs. Welch was made 
chairman of the Committee on Constitution and 
By-Laws, and elected Treasurer General; later 


35 


Qoi)federat^ l/eterap. 


she succeeded the late Mrs. J. D. Walker as State 
President for Arkansas, which office she held 
until the convention at Little Rock, Ark., 1928, 
when she was made Honorary State President for 
life. In her local association she has held office 
as President, Vice-President, Secretary, and Cus- 
todian of the Quorum Court fund for care of 
cemetery. Until failing health prevented, she 
was active in all work of this Association, never 
absent from Memorial Day exercises until June 
3 of this year. Her regard for Confederate vet- 
erans amounted to reverence! Her husband, the 
late Dr. W. B. Welch, was a surgeon in the Con- 
federate service; and his blood-stained surgeon’s 
sash was one of her most cherished possessions. 
Not only the veterans of the War between the 
States held place in her regard, but the American 
Legion of the World War were recipients of her 
esteem and bounty. Her beautiful peony garden, 
her pride and delight, each year yielded up its 
wealth of blossoms for a considerable sum, which 
she divided equally between the Legionnaires and 
the City Hospital some years — at other times, the 
Legion and her church. We of the local Southern 
Memorial Association will miss her in our coun- 
cils, miss her enthusiasm, her never-waning ef- 
forts for the beautification of our silent “city of 
the dead,” where rest the heroes we delight to 
honor, and yet — 

“We chant no requiem where she’s sleeping. 

Nor cry, alas ! with sorrow’s breath. 

We send our triumph song to Heaven, 

And this its music — faithful unto death.” 

Sue H. Walker, 

President S. M. A., Fayetteville, Ark. 


SONGS OF THE DAYS OF WAR. 

A letter has come to the Veteran from a grad- 
uate student of Northwestern University, Chi- 
cago, making inquiry for songs of the South in 
the days of the War between the States. The sub- 
ject of his thesis is “Songs of the Civil War,” and 
he wishes “to show how the spirit of the time was 
manifested in its popular songs.” He sends a 
list of songs for which he wishes the music, which 
he needs for the sake of completeness. Perhaps 
some of the Veteran readers can help him out in 
this. His address is Porter Heaps, 1130 Church 
Street, Evanston, 111. 

In giving this list of Southern songs compiled 
by this young man, there is more than the wish 


to serve him, for it falls in line with the sugges- 
tion made at a recent Confederate gathering that 
our old books and these old songs with the music 
be collected and placed where they will be pre- 
served — in some museum or other safe place — for 
we don’t want them to pass out forever. Some of 
these we know through having heard a Confed- 
erate soldier relative sing them in days long past, 
and while some of them are already in collections 
of Southern songs, the idea is to get them in the 
original form with the sheet music. Every Chap- 
ter of United Daughters of the Confederacy 
should be interested in this and should urge its 
music committee to try to locate some of these 
songs. The new Historian General, U. D. C., is 
urging the use of old songs at our meetings and 
refers to collections which should be procured for 
chapter use. The name, composer, and author are 
given. 

“Alabama,” J. W. Groschel. 

“Boys, Keep Your Powder Dry.” 

“By the Banks of the Red River,” La Hache, 
E. E. Kidd. 

“Camp Fire Song,” Edward 0. Eaton. 

“Carolina,” A. E. Blackmore, Mrs. C. A. B. 
(Bell). 

“Cheer, Boys, Cheer” (Morgan’s War Song). 

“The Confederate Flag,” Sig. G. George, Mrs. 
C. D. Elder. 

“The Conquered Banner,” A. E. Blackmore, 
Father Ryan. 

“Dar’s Always Somethin’ Wantin’. 

“Dear Mother, I’ve Come Home to Die,” Henry 
Tucker, E. Bowers. 

“The Dutch Volunteer.” 

“The Faded Gray Jacket,” Charlie Ward, Mrs. 
C. A. Bell. 

“Farewell to the Star-Spangled Banner,” Mrs. 
E. D. Huntley. 

“The Gallant Girl That Smote the Dastard 
Tory, Oh I” Dude Diamonds. 

“Gay and Happy.” 

“I Remember the Hour,” G. F. Thompson, G. E. 
Sawyer. 

“Ise Gwine Back to Dixie,” C. A. White. 

“I Would Like to Change My Name,” Thomas 
Von La Hache. 

“It Is My Country’s Call,” Harry McCarthy.” 

“The Jacket of Gray,” G. F. Thompson, C. C. 
Sawyer. 

“Missouri,” Harry McCarthy. 

“Mother, Is the Battle Over?” 

“Mother Would Comfort Me,” C. C. Sawyer. 

(Continued on page 38) 


36 


^oi)fedcrat^ l/efcerai). 


Sons of Confeberate Deterans 

Dr. George R. Tabor, Commander in Chief, Oklahoma City, Okla. 


GENERAL OFFICERS. 

Walter L. Hopkins, Richmond, Va Adjutant in Chief 

J. Edward Jones, Oklahoma City, Okla. ../napecf or in Chief 
Maj. Marion Rushton, Montgomery, Ala. Judge Advocate in 
Chief 

C. E. Gilbert, Houston, Tex Historian in Chief 

Dr. W. H. Scudder, Mayers ville. Miss... .Surgeon in Chief 
Edward Hill Courtney, Richmond, Va.. .Quartermaster in 
Chief 

Arthur C. Smith, Washingrton, D. C. . Commissary in Chief 
Maj. Edmond R. Wiles, Little Rock, Ark.. Publicity Director 
in Chief 

Rev. Nathan A. Seagle, New York. . ..Chaplain in Chief 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 

Dr. George R. Tabor, Chairman. 

John Ashley Jones, Secretary 

Dr. William R. Dancy 

Robert S. Hudgins 

Judge Edgar Scurry 

John M. Kinard 

Walter H. Saunders 

COMMITTEE CHAIRMEN. 


Arthur H. Jennings, Historical Lynchburg, Va. 

A. W. Taber, Relief Austin, Tex. 

H. K. Ramsey, Monument Atlanta, Ga. 

Lucius L. Moss, Finance Lake Charles, La. 

Dr. Mathew Page Andrews, Textbooks Baltimore, Md. 


Rufus W. Pearson, Manassas Battle Field. .Washington D. C. 


VICE COMMANDERS IN CHIEF. 

Dr. William R. Dancy, Savannah, Ga. . . Army of Tennessee 
Robert S. Hudgins, Richmond, Va. 

Army of Northern Virginia 
Walter H. Saunders, St. Louis, Mo. 

Army of Trans>Mississippi 

DIVISION COMMANDERS. 


Maj. Jere C. Dennis, Dadeville .Alabama 

J. S. Utley, Little Rock Arkansas 


Eujah Funkhouser, 7622 East Lake Terrace, Chicago, 

Illinois 

Fred P. Myers, Woodward Building, Washington, D. C„ Dis- 
trict of Columbia and Maryland 
H. B. Grubbs, 320 Broadway, Eastern Division, New York 


John Z. Reardon, Tallahassee Florida 

Dr. Wiluam R. Dancy, Savannah Georgia 

James B. Anderson, Glengary Farm, Lexington . . Kentucky 

Joseph Roy Price, Shreveport Louisiana 

W. F. Riley, Sr., Tupelo Mississippi 

James H. White, Kansas City Missouri 

J. M. Lentz, Winston-Salem North Carolina 

J. O. Parr, Oklahoma City Oklahoma 

Dr. John Parks Gilmer, Pacific Division, San Diego, 

California 

William J. Cherry, Rock Hill South Carolina 

Claire B. Newman, Jackson Tennessee 

C. E. Gilbert, Houston Texas 

R. M. Colvin, Harrisonburg Virginia 

George W. Sidebottom, Huntington West Virginia 


Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Atlanta, Ga. 
Savannah, Ga. 
Richmond, Va. 
Wichita Falls, Tex. 
Newberry, S. C. 
St. Louis, Mo. 



All communications for this department should be sent direct to Edmond R. Wiles, Editor, 1505 W. 22nd St., Little Rock, Ark. 


NOTES AND COMMENT. 

A Survivor of the First Battle in War be- 
tween THE States. 

The Arkansas Central Leader, published at Mc- 
Crary, by Hon. Walter W. Raney, recent Post 
Commander Arkansas Division, S. C. V., a loyal 
Son, who has possibly done as much as or more 
than any other citizen of the State for the veter- 
ans and widows, in the matter of increased pen- 
sions, secured during his long service in the Ar- 
kansas Legislature, carries a column devoted to 
“What Every Son of the South Should Know.” 
The attention of the writer was recently attracted 
to a letter appearing in this Confederate column 
of Senator Raney’s paper from Col. Alfred H. 
Baird, Springdale, Ark., correcting the statement 
made that the first battle in the War between the 
States was fought at Manassas, Va. (called Bull 
Run by the Federals), July 21, 1861. Colonel 
Baird in his‘ letter, which is given in full here- 
with, because of its unusual historical value, 
makes the claim that the engagement which was 
fought at Big Bethel, Va., on June 10, 1861, in 
which he participated in the important role of 
color bearer of the 1st North Carolina Infantry, 
should be recognized as the first battle of the war. 
The Leader had in mind, of course, the first ma- 
jor battle in which large forces fought to a bit- 
ter end and this was Manassas. The unusual and 
interesting feature of Colonel Baird’s letter is the 
information that there still lives a man who had 


such a thrilling and important part in this open- 
ing drama, the outcome of which no man could 
foresee. Colonel Baird’s statement needs no veri- 
fication, but it is interesting to note that, referring 
to the battle of Big Bethel in the “Photographic 
History of the Civil War,” this statement is 
found. After listing the Union forces engaged, it 
gives the Confederate forces as follows: “First 
North Carolina and Randolph’s Battery, Virginia, 
Infantry and Cavalry. Killed 1, wounded 7. Bat- 
tle fought April 10, 1861.” 

One of the interesting features of the beautiful 
capitol grounds at Raleigh, N. C., is the monu- 
ment erected to Wyatt, as the first soldier killed 
in the War between the States. Some proper 
steps should be taken by the S. C. V., in conjunc- 
tion with the U. D. C. of both North Carolina, 
Colonel Baird’s native State, and Arkansas, his 
adopted home, to properly hohor him as the 
color bearer of a Regiment of Confederate troops 
which fought to a successful conclusion the first 
engagement that could be classed as a battle in 
the War between the States. There are not many 
veterans living today who can claim an honor of 
such unusual significance. 

In his letter referred to. Colonel Baird says 
further: “I would like to correct that statement, 
as the first battle was fought at Big Bethel, Va., 
on June 10, 1861. There was one regiment of 
us, the 1st North Carolina Infantry, with D. H. 
Hill (later president of the University of Arkan- 


^OQfederat^ l/eterai). 


sas) as our Colonel; there were six regiments of 
Yankees. 

“This was a big battle, lasting from sunup un- 
til four o’clock in the evening, and I hate to see 
it overlooked. There were three hundred Union 
soldiers dead on the field. We lost one man, by 
the name of Wyatt. There is a monument to his 
memory as the first soldier to die for his country. 
It is in Raleigh, N. C. I was color bearer in this 
battle, and the old flag I carried is now in the 
State Museum at Raleigh, with my name on it.” 

Division Notes of Interest. 

South Carolina . — The South Carolina Division 
held its Annual Convention at Rock Hill, S. C., on 
June 18, 1931, Dr. W. E. Anderson, of Chester, 
Division Commander, presiding. After the usual 
formalities of opening the meeting were over, 
Mrs. Walter L. Smith, of Ann White Chapter, 
U. D. C., of Rock Hill, was introduced and spoke 
on Confederate Pensions; Mrs. E. Preston Car- 
penter, representing the U. D. C. of Columbia, 
also spoke on the same subject. Commander An- 
derson made his annual report, which was heard 
with much interest. 

After a report of the Camps of the Division was 
made and discussion of ways and means looking 
to the increasing of membership of the camps, the 
election of officers for the ensuing year came up. 
J. M. McLure eloquently presented the name of 
Ho'n. W. J. Cherry for Division Commander, and 
he was unanimously elected. Commander Cherry 
made a most feeling talk, expressing his deep ap- 
preciation for the honor conferred on him. 

Alabama Division . — Major Jere C. Dennis, 
Commander Alabama Division, announces his 
complete staff. Brigade Commanders and other 
appointments for the coming year in the follow- 
ing order : 

Headquarters Alabama Division, Sons Con- 
federate Veterans, Dadeville, Ala. 

November 11, 1931. 

General Orders No. 20. 

To be read before all camps of the Alabama 
Division: 

1. Reposing special trust and confidence in 
their patriotism, honor, integrity, ability, and 
zeal, I hereby appoint the following members of 
my Official Staff to rank as Colonel as of the 21st 
June, 1931 : 

(a) Adjutant and Chief of Staff, Marion Rush- 
ton, Montgomery. 

Inspector, George A. Miller, 1421 14th Street 
South, Birmingham. 


37 

Judge Advocate, James W. Strother, Dadeville. 

Commissary, Val Taylor, Uniontown. 

Quartermaster, M. Frank Pridgen, Dothan. 

Ordinance, L. E. Harrison, Attalla; Suregon, 
Dr. W. E. Quin, Fort Payne ; Color Bearer, W. A. 
Collier, Tuscaloosa; Historian, L. L. Patterson, 
M.C., Gadsden; Chaplain, Dr. J. J. Slappey, Roan- 
oke; Chief of Scouts, B. C. O’Rear, Attalla; 
Courier, Calvin Pool, Greenville. 

b) Aides-de-Camp with the rank of Major: 
Jack Crenshaw, Montgomery; Sam J. Stearns, 
Dadeville; A. H. Waller, Greensboro; Joe M. 
Dozier, Marion; E. 0. McCord, Gadsden; Stiles 
Ulmer, Eutaw; R. A. Willis, Birmingham; 0. S. 
Roden, Cullman ; J. C. Kellett, Fort Payne ; R. F. 
Cruit, Atmore. 

c) Brigadier Beneral 1st Brigade, John Moulton, 
Mobile. 

Brigadier General 2nd Brigade, Rogers ap C. 
Jones, Selma. 

Brigadier General 3rd Brigade, Judge John T. 
Heflin, Roanoke. 

Brigadier General 4th Brigade, L. B. Rainey, 
Gadsden. 

Brigadier General 5th Brigade, R. L. Musgrove, 
Jasper. 

2. You are specially charged to see that a suit- 
able Recruiting Officer is appointed in each Camp 
in your vicinity, that all dues are collected, new 
members secured, inactive Camps put on an active 
basis, and reports promptly made to Adjutant in 
Chief Hopkins, January 1 and June 1, that 
our Alabama Division may continue in its splen- 
did position, and bring back the Division Honor 
Flag from Richmond. Jere C. Dennis, 
Commander Alabama Division. 

(Official) 

Concerning Confederate Pensions. 

There is no subject of more vital importance 
before the Sons today than the question of Con- 
federate Pension, not so much the amount being 
paid, as, rather “promised,” veterans and wid- 
ows, but the failure of several Southern States to 
meet their obligations to these aged and depend- 
ent heroes of the Southern cause. Much to our 
mortification and shame, Arkansas has not paid 
a Confederate pension warrant since last July, 
and the chances are that there will not be a pay- 
ment until next fall. The S. C. V. are wrestling 
with the problem in this State and doing all that 
is possible to relieve the situation. It is noted 
in newspaper dispatches that Alabama and Mis- 
sissippi are also experiencing the same difficulties 
in carrying forth needs of its aged veterans and 


38 


Qo9fe<lerat^ Ueterai). 


widows. It behooves every S. C. V., therefore, 
in states where there exists at the present time 
pension difficulties, to lend every aid possible to 
those responsible for handling pension funds, in 
formulating plans by which the situation can be 
met. The veterans and widows are facing the 
most serious predicament in which they have ever 
found themselves — much more serious than when 
smaller pensions were paid, but paid regularly. 
Facing the fact that the youngest veteran is now 
, eighty-one years old and many widows are as old 
or older, both of this class entirely without the 
physical strength or means of making any part 
of their living, the outlook for their comfort and 
safety from actual want this winter is not en- 
couraging. 

A Southern state owes its first obligation to its 
Confederate Veterans. It has given its word of 
honor that they shall not be neglected and left to 
pass their few remaining years in actual want, 
and with the feeling that they are not appreciated, 
and that the deeds of valor performed on the 
bloody battle fields of Southern States in defense 
of their homes, and for principles recognized 
more and more as the years pass, to have been 
just and right. Do your duty. Sons, to these he- 
roes and their widows. Don’t fail to keep the 
faith with them. 


SONGS OF THE DAYS OF WAR. 

(Continued from page 35) 

“My Warrior Boy,” A. F. E. Muse. 

“National Hymn,” J. W. Groschel, Capt. E. 
Griswold. 

“Old Stonewall,” F. Younker, C. D. Dasher. 
“The Old Home Ain’t What It Used to Be,” 
C. A. White. 

“The Old North State Forever,” author. Judge 
Gaston. 

“Origin of the Stars and Bars,” Harry McCar- 
thy. 

“Paul Vane,” H. D. L. and J. P. Webster. 

“Pin Money,” Harry Walker. 

“Pray, Maiden, Pray,” A. J. Turner, A. W. 
Kercheval. 

“The Prisoner’s Lament,” 0. Becker, W. E. 
Clarkson. 

“Root, Hog, or Die.” 

“Soldier, I Stay to Pray for Thee,” J. W. Gros- 
chel, J. S. Thovington. 

“The Southern Cross,” author, St. George 
Tucker. 

“The Southern Soldier Boy,” W. Ludden, Fa- 
ther Ryan. 


“The Southron’s Watchword,” S. Glover, M. F. 
Bigney. 

“The Star-Spangled Cross,” Sabaltern. 
“Stuart,” A. E. Blackmore, Mrs. H. J. Vose. 
“Stonewall Jackson’s Prayer,” B. A. Whaples, 
L. Rieves. 

“The Sword of Robert Lee,” Armand, Moina. 
“Three Cheers for Our Jack Morgan,” Dan 
Emmett, Eugene Raymond. 

“Up with the Flag,” Mrs. William B. Harrell. 
“Wait Till the War, Love, Is Over.” 

“When the Boys Come Home,” C. C. Sawyer. 
“You Are Going to the Wars, Willie Boy?” 
John M. Hewitt. 


TO DIVISION AND CHAPTER HISTORIANS. 

READ, MARK, LEARN ! 

(Continued from page 33) 

Emphasize work in schools and colleges. Co- 
operate with Parent-Teacher Associations. 

Bring this folder before your Chapter at once. 
Publish the General Prize offers. 

Keep record of work accomplished. 

See that Chapter buys some book to use in this 
program. Use U. D. C. book plate in each. 

Have libraries collect material for public li- 
brary to assist in your programs. 

Mark anniversaries by giving radio talks. 

Collect sketches of your State’s war heroines. 

Collect diaries of Confederates. 

Order copy General Minutes (25 cents) from 
Mrs. W. E. Massey, Recording Secretary General 
U. D. C., Hot Springs, Ark. 

Have some of the Yale films shown. For de- 
tails write the Yale University Press, New Haven, 
Conn., or 386 Fourth Avenue, New York City. 

Do Not— 

Say “Civil War,” but “War between the 
States.” 

Indorse any book or project without full 
knowledge and examination. 

Delay in answering letters. 

Write Historian General’s office for material. 
See reference list. 

Allow anyone to refer to Confederates as “Reb- 
els.” 


A California friend regrets inability to con- 
tinue subscription because of financial losses 
through bank failures out there — “which left us 
stranded.” And she sends “love and best wishes 
for the dear old Veteran.” 


Qopfederac^ l/eteraij 


39 


MEN OF AMERICA. 

Men of America, 

Marching along, , 

Freeborn and happy. 
Steadfast and strong. 

Men of high purpose, 
Leading and light. 

Toiling together, 
Championing right. 

Men of endeavor. 

Soldiers of peace. 

Praying together 
Warfare to cease. 

Sturdy in hardship. 

Stanch in defeat. 

Standing together. 

Scorning retreat. 

Men of America, 

Marching along, 

Freeborn and happy. 
Steadfast and strong. 

— Grenville Kleiser. 


The disappointed humorist was in- 
clined to be bitter. “Hang it all, sir, 
you sit on every joke I send you.” 
“Let me assure you, my dear sir,” 
replied the editor, pressing a bell for 
the visitor to be shown out, “I should 
certainly not do that if there were 
any point to them.” 


“How are you today, Sandy?” 
asked the landlord of his Scotch ten- 
ant. 

“Verra well, sir,” replied Sandy, 
“if it wasna for the rheumatism in 
my right leg.” 

“Ah, you must not complain, Sandy. 
You are getting old, like the rest of 
us, and old age does not come 
alone.” 

“Auld age, sir?” exclaimed Sandy. 
“Auld age has nothing to do with it. 
Here’s my ither leg just as auld an’ 
it’s sound.” 


SAYINGS OF NOTED BRITONS. 

A cultured person is one in whom 
the traditional experience, knowledge, 
and feeling of the race have been 
made personal possessions. — Robert 
Richards, M. P. 

The great difference between East- 
ern and Western civilization is that 
the latter developed along lines of 
talking and discussion. Only in the 
countries where talking is stifled is 
there danger to society today. — R. 
Hopkin Morris, M. P. 

Individuals are not like the squares 
on the chessboard. They show more 
differences than the chessmen them- 
selves. — Dr. P. B. Ballard. 

An educated man is one who knows 
when an argument is proved. — The 
Rev. Herbert Morgan. 



“Lest 

We 

Forget” 


These cuts show both sides of our 
Marker for Confederate Graves. It 
is made from the best grade of iron, 
weighs zo pounds, measures 15x30 
inches, painted black or gray, and 
approved by the General Organiza- 
tion, U. D. C. 

price:, 8L00 e:a.ci-i 

r. O. B. ATTALLA 

kmiLh FOUNDRY AND MACHINE CO. 

Attalla. Ala. 




J. A. Joel & Co. 


SILK AMD BUNTING 
FLAGS AND BANNERS 
D. S., CONFEDERATE. 
AND STATE FLAGS 
SPECIAL FLAGS AND 
BANNERS MADE TO 
ORDER AT SHORT 
NOTICE 



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1206 l^dBoUdlng • • l^nlsville, Ky. 


Women are full of faults. They 
are competitive, spiteful, and very 
often incompetent. — Hon. Violet Sack- 
ville-West (poet and novelist). 

On the success of the Disarmament 
Conference the whole future of the 
world depends. I believe that if this 
conference of sixty nations — the 
greatest that has ever been summoned 
— meets and separates and the peo- 
ples of the world find that no serious 
advance toward disarmament has been 
made, the blow to public confidence 
and to the belief in a peaceful settle- 
ment will be so tremendous that the 
future of the world will be imperiled. 
— Viscount Cecil, in Canadian- Ameri- 
can. 


Who knows of a book on “Reminis- 
cences of the First Kentucky Caval- 
ry,” said to have been written by John 
Will Dyer, of Union County, Ky., 
and where can it be procured? 


The trouble with a lot of going 
concerns is that they are gone before 
you have a chance to collect from 
them. — Jackson News. 


“I said my ship would come in this 
week.” 

“Were you right?” 

“Well, partly. My salary was 
docked,” 



1 




I 


I 

? 

I 




I 


E 


WHY NOT 

U R O P 

NEXT SUMMER? 


E 


Never before has travel in Europe been offered at such attractive 
prices. The lowest for many years — doubtless the lowest for many 
years to come. 

The TRAVEL SERVICE BUREAU offers the following all- 
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July 10 ROTTERDAM 
July 11 THE HAGUE 
July 12 AMSTERDAM - VOLENDAM- 
MARKEN 
July 13 BRUSSELS 
July 14 COLOGNE 
July 15 THE RHINE 
July 16 HEIDLEBERG 
July 17 LUCERNE 
July 18 LUCERNE-INTERLAKEN 
July 19 INTERLAKEN 
July 20 VENICE 
July 22 VENICE-FLORENCE 
July 23 FLORENCE 
July 24 FLORENCE 
July 25 ROME 
July 26 ROME 
July 27 ROME 

July 28 NAPLES-CAPRI-BLUE 
GROTTO 


July 29 

July 30 
July 31 
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August 
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3 PARIS 

4 PARIS 

5 VERSAILLES-MALMAI- 

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6 PARIS 

7 LONDON 

8 LONDON 

9 OXFORD-STRATFORD- 

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10 LONDON 

11 EDINBURGH 

12 EDINBURGH 

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This itinerary is unique in the class of hotels and extensive sight- 
seeing being offered. The cost of this tour is $595. A special book- 
let describing the tour, as well as information regarding other tours, 
will be sent upon request. Write: 

The TRAVEL SERVICE BUREAU 

810 Broadway 
Nashville, Tennessee 
Mention the Confederate Veteran when you write. 





























VOL 


XL 


FEBRUARY 


1932 




See page 54. 


MARY, THE MOTHER OF WASHINGTON 


42 


^opfederac^ Ueterai;^ 


LEADING ARTICLES IN THIS NUMBER. 

The Washington Bicentennial 43 

Invoke the Spirit of Lee 44 

Where Lincoln Stood. By Miss Mary D. Carter 45 

Mary Day Lanier — A Tribute 46 

My Springs. (Poem.) Sidney Lanier 46 

The Flag of Truce Boats. By Florence P. Percy 47 

A Cherokee Confederate. By J. R. Edmunds, Jr 48 

Capt. B. F. Eddins — A Tribute. By J. D. Leland 49 

Battle Above the Clouds a War Myth. By Capt. W. W. Carnes 50 

“By Reason of Strength.” By Mrs. Cabell Smith 52 

Washington Portraits. By Cassie Moncure Lyne 54 

Foreign Relations of the Confederacy. By Mrs. J. H. Anderson 56 

The Southern Literary Messenger. By Mrs. C. F. Coates 60 

At the Fall of Selma, Ala. By Capt. T. F. Pinckney 62 

Gen. Wade Hampton. By Maj. Henry T. Louthan 65 

Alabama in November. (Poem.) By Edna S. Williamson 69 

The Pittsylvania Aid Society. By Mrs. J. S. Jones 74 

Portrait of General Lee 75 

The Old Trail to Dixie. (Poem.) By Mabelle B. Webb 78 

Departments — U. D. C 70 

C. S. M. A 74 

S. C. V 76 


E. Berkley Bowie, Baltimore, Md., wants to buy a rifle made at Talladega, 
Ala.; one stamped “Texas Rifle Tyler C. S.”; a breach-loading carbine stamped 
“Tarpley’s Pt. 1863”; and a revolver stamped “T. W. Cofer, Portsmouth, Va.” 
Address him at 811 North Eutaw Street, Baltimore, Md. 


Request has been m^de of the Veteran to locate, if possible, one of those 
“well-made Mississippi Yager Rifles,” stamped “C. Chapman,” as there must 
be some in existence. State where made. This in the interest of our history. 


The statement appearing in the Veteran for December that W. M. Monohan 
is the only Confederate veteran now living in Cincinnati has been corrected, 
and the names of Milton L. Campbell and Charles Evans given as two others 
there. Comrade Evans served under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston in the Western 
Army, C. S. A. All three of these veterans are honorary members of the 
Albert Sidney Johnston Chapter, U. D. C., of Cincinnati and subscribers to 
the Veteran. 

Mrs. R. F. Pray, President of the Dick Dowling Chapter, U. D. C. of Beau- 
mont, Tex., writes: “Words fail me when I try to tell what the Veteran has 
been to me and my family, bringing to our home each month truth of our 
Southern history and endearing to us all the wonderful heritage which is ours 
and everyone’s whose ancestors so nobly fought for our constitutional rights 
under the Stars and Bars — a heritage beyond price and sublimely beautiful. 
I cannot see why every Daughter of the Confederacy is not a subscriber to the 
Veteran. It means so much to a Southern home.” 


R. L. Breland, Coffeeville, Miss., asks that anyone who knew of Jesse H. 
Cooke as a Confederate soldier will please write him in the interest of the 
widow, who is old and feeble and in need of a pension. Jesse H. Cooke en- 
listed in the Confederate army from Conway, N. C., toward the close of the 
war, and located in Mississippi soon after the war, where he married; she 
does not know anything of the command with which he served. 


Renewing for two years, Mrs. Wayne P. Ferguson writes from Kenova, 
W. Va. : “I cannot do without the Veteran. It is a valuable magazine for 
our U. D. C. Chapter. We have been taking it for over thirty-five years.” 


J. L. Havins, of Ranger, Tex., Box 
762, is trying to locate some one who 
can testify to the service of Thomas 
W. Sarrett in the 36th Georgia Regi- 
ment, Company B, as his widow is in 
need of a pension. Any information 
will be helpful. 


J. O. Gaines, 309 South 6th Street, 
Leesburg, Fla., is trying to locate a 
book on “Reminiscences of the First 
Kentucky Cavalry,” by John Will Dy- 
er, of Union County, Ky., which was 
originally published in a newspaper 
of that State, 


The widow of Robert Franklin 
Reed is in need, and friends are in- 
terested in getting her a pension. Her 
husband enlisted at Gordon, Wilker- 
son County, Ga., in 1861, and served 
four years. Any information of his 
company, regiment or officers from 
any comrade or friend will be appre- 
ciated. Address Miss Quincy Mit- 
chell, 804 North Eighth Street, Du- 
rant, Okla. 


J. T. Crawford, of Pampas, Tex., 
renews and says: “I want the Vet- 
eran as long as I live. Find some- 
thing in each number that is worth 
the year’s subscription.” 


Ed Bass, of Batesville, Ark., is 
anxious to establish his father’s 
record as a Confederate soldier, and 
thinks that he served in the 4th Ten- 
nessee Cavalry, under Colonel Starnes 
and General Forrest. If any living 
comrades can recall Ed Bass, Sr., 
they will please write to address 
above. 


Hon. James M. Ranson, President 
of the Heyward Shepherd Memorial 
Association, Harper’s Ferry, W. Va., 
seeks advance orders for the pamph- 
let giving address by Dr. Matthew 
Page Andrews on occasion of the dedi- 
cation of that memorial last October. 
These will be furnished at 25 cents 
each. 


Capt. Sam Riggs, of Rockville, Md., 
writes that he is with the Veteran 
for two more years, and sends three 
dollars (instead of $2.50) for the ex- 
tension, saying: “I respectfully decline 
to save fifty cents when it is so 
needed by the dear old Veteran.” 


W. R. Harney, of 804 Oak Street, 
Jacksonville, Fla., needs the number 
for September, 1895, to complete his 
file, and any one having this copy to 
dispose of will please write to him in 
advance. 


“Turn to the Right.” Lord Aber- 
deen quotes the reply made by a 
Bishop to a person who stopped him 
in the street, and, in an impertinent 
manner, inquired: “Can you tell me, 
my lord, the way to heaven?” 

“Certainly,” replied the Bishop, 
“turn to the right and keep straight 
on.” 


Qopfederat^ l/eterap 


PUBLISHED MONTHLY IN THE INTEREST OF CONFEDERATE ASSOCIATIONS AND KINDRED TOPICS. 


Entered as second-class matter at the post office at Nashville, Tenn., 
under act of March 3, 1879. 

Acceptance of mating at special rate of postage provided for in Sec- 
tion 1 103, act of October 3, 1917, and authorized on July 5, 1918. 

Published by the Trustees of the Confederate V’eteran, Nash- 
ville. Tenn. 



OFFICIALLY REPRESENTS; 

United Confederate Veterans. 

United Daughters of the Confederacy, 

Confederated Southern Memorial AssociATloNt 
Sons of Confederate Veterans. 




Though men deserve, they may not win, success; 

The brave will honor the brave, vanquished none the less. 


Price $1.60 Per Year. I 
Single Copy, 16 Cents. S 

VoL. XL. 

NASHVILLE, TENN., FEBRUARY, 1932 

>Jo 9 f S. A. CUNNINGHAM 

^ 1 Founder. 


UNITED CONFEDERATE VETERANS THE WASHINGTON BICENTENNIAL. 

GENERAL OFFICERS. natioii-wide celebration of the two hun- 

grn. c. a. d» saussure. Memphis. Tenn comander in Chief ^rodth anniversaiy of the birth of George Wash- 

Gen. H. R. Lee, NashviUe, Tenn. Adjutont General and Chie/ o/ Stojflf ingtOR Will take VarioUS formS in the different 

Mrs. w. b. kernan, 1728 Audubon Street, New Orleans. La. parts of this country, for overy Community is ex- 

rev. Thomas K. Gorman. Skiatook. Okla Chaplain General P^^ted tO plan and Carry OUt itS OWR program 

of events in co-operation with the State and Na- 
DBPARTMENT COMMANDERS. tional commissioRS. The ceremonies that will be 

^ , ’ . „ ' , „ planned especially for the 22nd of February 

Gen. Sims Latta. Columbia, Tenn Army of Tennessee 4. ii • ^ ^ 

Gen. r. d. Chapman, Houston, Tex Trans-Mississippi Raturally will be more elaborate and impressive, 

but on other memorial days of this country, and 
DIVISION COMMANDERS. ^ny days that can be connected with the life of 

ALABAMA— Tuscaloosa Gen. John R. Kennedy Washington, there will be appropriate programs 

Arkansas — R ussellville Gen. J. P. McCarther , _ 

Florida— Gen. w. E. McGhagin throughout the months to Thanksgiving Day. 

Georgia- S avannah Gen. William Harden The planting of trees is One Of the mOSt apprO- 

LouisiANA-LaFayette Gen. Gustave Mouton P^ate ways of hoRoriRg this great American, for 

Maryland— Washington loved trees and took delight in add- 

MISSISSIPPI- Gen. w^ R. Jacobs beauty to Ws estate by the setting of trees 

North Carolina — A nsonville Gen. W. A. Smith the laWh and Other partS Of MoUht VemOh. 

Oklahoma— O kmulgee Gen. A. c. De vinna Many of theso trees Were gifts, some from for- 

South Carouna — S umter Gen. N. G. Osteen . , . i_ j j i i. 

Tbnnbssbe — U nion City Gen. Rice A. Pierce COUTltriGS, DUt tilG TlRtlVO tPGGS RlSO WGPG thc 

Texas— F ort Worth Gen. M. J. Bonner objects of his love and care, for in his diary he 

r; 

cai ipoRNiA— Los Angeles Gen. s. s. Simmons boriRg estates “in search of Elm and other trees 

for my shrubberies.” 

HONORARY APPOINTMENTS. MilHoRS of trees have been set this past year in 

gen. W. B. freeman. R^ Honorarp Commander /or Lf/e YlOnOT Of Washington, in this and foreign COUR- 

Gbn. M. D. Vancb, Little Rock, Ark.. . . Honorary Commander for Life • j • ^ 

Gbn. R. a. Sneed, Oklahoma City, Okla. Honorary Commander for Life t-TlCSj Rnu 111 SOITIG pld,C6S thcSG llRVG bCGIl plRCGCl 
Gbn. L. W. Stephens, Coushatta, La. Honorary Commander for Life alORg the highways. What more lasting hOROr 
Rev. B. Cookb Gilbs, Mathews, Y a. Honorary Chaplain General for Life ut. "ji.* 

Arne 04 /or Li/e (jould be paid him than to emulate his spirit of 
— ■ - - ' = beautification by the placing of trees in appro- 

THE STORY OF WASHINGTON. places? In the South we can give special 

distinction to our homes, highways, and public 
First in War, parks by the planting of native trees and shrubs 

First in Peace, their shade and bloom to otherwise barren 

First in the Hearts of his Fellow-Citizens, places. And thus we can memorialize our local 
The Tribute of “Light Horse Harry” Lee. heroes in honoring the Father of Our Country. 


44 


^OQfederat^ l/eterai). 


QoQfederat^ l/eterar). 

Office: Methodist Publishing House Building, Nashville, Tenn. 
E. D. POPE, E D l.T o R. 


“What plant we with Memorial Trees? 
Dear Memories of ye old times, 

All crystallized in sweetest rhymes; 
Great principles by heroes striven, 
For love and home and country given. 
For consecrated lives like these. 

Whose blood upon our soil was shed. 
Now numbered with the sacred dead. 
We plant with these Memorial Trees.” 


INVOKE THE SPIRIT OF LEE. 

From the Maury Democrat. 

If ever there was a time when the qualities of 
Gen. Robert E. Lee should be extolled, revivified, 
and reincarnated, it is during the present period 
in which the ingenuity of man is tested very much 
to the same degree as during the Reconstruction 
era. It was the immortal spirit of that period, 
as exemplified by the men and women of the 
South, that built a mighty empire on the ashes 
of devasted battle ground. Equipped with strong 
hearts and invincible courage, the miracle of the 
ages was executed — ^the South was restored, pov- 
erty was banished, and the ascendency of South- 
ern statesmanship, suppressed temporarily dur- 
ing the conflict, is again acknowledged. Con- 
gressional leaders of the present day are South- 
ern men; captains of finance in the East are 
Southern born and bred; in every field of action, 
the men of the South are in positions of trust and 
leadership. 

The present turmoil of the world awaits South- 
ern courage and initiative for solution; a Moses 
will rise in the South, his loins girded with the 
spirit of Lee and with the zeal and courage of the 
crusader, to lift the nation into a realm of peace, 
prosperity and happiness. 

The further we go from most men, the smaller 
they become, but the further we go from General 
Lee, whose birthday was observed recently, the 
greater his stature becomes. He was as great in 
peace as in war, and it was his constructive genius 
during war’s aftermath that beckons to emula- 
tion in the South today. Southern manhood has 
proved its ability to master every difficulty, every 
hardship, and every tragedy. It has conquered 
ordeals more trying, more soul-stirring and more 


heart-rending than the difficulties of the present 
day. Moreover, the achievements of our fathers 
were not by chance or accident ; the only resources 
upon which they could draw for the reconstruc- 
tion task were faith in God, indomitable will, and 
unconquerable spirit. The present generation is 
heir to that matchless legacy, and we will meet 
the prevailing emergencies with success propor- 
tionate with the degree of the old Southern spirit 
that we invoke in our thought and conduct. 

From the Nashville Banner. 

“General Lee knew that the richest asset of the 
South in the Herculean task of restoring and ex- 
panding its wasted fortunes was its manpower; 
and, with clear vision and sacrificial loyalty, he 
at once addressed himself to its development and 
training. The South of today, if it be wise, will 
steadfastly hold before it the great truth that 
guided and inspired Lee. The challenge to the 
youth of the South of today is wider far than ap- 
peared possible a generation ago, and its equip- 
ment for full measurement to the opportunities 
and obligations of the new century should com- 
mand the foremost consideration of every com- 
munity and commonwealth. 

* * * 

“Material and spiritual forces are contending 
today for the mastery of men and nations as never 
in the annals of the race. The lofty idealism 
which animated Robert E. Lee in every relation 
of life is making appeal across the vanished cen- 
tury to the soul of the South today to obey the call 
to its highest and truest destiny.” 


WHAT WE NEED. 

Standing beside the grave of the Unknown 
Soldier, President Coolidge said: 

“We do not need more national development; 
we need more spiritual development. 

“We do not need more intellectual power; we 
need more spiritual power. 

“We do not need more knowledge ; we need more 
character. 

“We do not need more government; we need 
more culture. 

“We do not need more law; we need more re- 
ligion. 

“We do not need more of the things that are 
seen; we need more of the things that are un- 
seen.” — Exchange. 


45 


Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 


WHERE LINCOLN STOOD. 

The following comes from Miss Mary D. Carter, 
Upperville, Va. : 

“Of the many interesting articles appearing in 
the Veteran for December, that by Capt. S. A. 
Ashe on ‘Steps Leading to War’ is of special in- 
terest to me. Pertinent to this article, there is a 
paragraph in a book on ‘Buchanan’s Administra- 
tion on the Eve of the Rebellion,’ by James Buch- 
anan, which may be of interest in this connection. 
On page 62, I find this: ‘The author of the book 
(Hinton Helpers) is by birth a North Carolinian, 
though of doubtful personal character, but his la- 
bors have since been recognized and rewarded by 
his appointment (by Lincoln) as consul of the 
United States at Buenos Ayres .... Published 
under such auspices, the “Impending Crisis” be- 
comes at once an authoritative exposition of the 
principles of the Republican Party. The original, 
as well as a compendium, was circulated by hun- 
dreds of thousands North, South, East, and West. 
No book could be better calculated for the purpose 
of intensifying the mutual hatred between the 
North and South. This book, in the first place, 
proposes to abolish slavery in the. slave-holding 
States by exciting a revolution among those called 
‘the poor whites’ against their rich, slave-holding 
neighbors. To accomplish this purpose, every ap- 
peal which perverse ingenuity and passionate 
malignity could suggest was employed to excite 
jealousy and hatred between these two classes. 
The cry of the poor against the rich, the resort of 
demagogues in all ages, was echoed and re-echoed. 
The plan urged upon the non-slaveholding class 
was — 

“Captain Ashe gives us a fine word picture of 
the double intent in the Helper book to incite in 
the South both a class war among the whites and 
also a servile insurrection among the negroes, but 
he does not tell us of Lincoln’s sympathy with the 
Free Soil Party, which was putting through this 
program, as evidenced by the following quota- 
tion from the Herndon-Weick Lincoln, Vol. II, 
page 379: 

“ ‘In Illinois an association was formed to aid 
the cause of “Free Soil.” We recommended the 
employment of any means, however desperate, to 
promote and defend the cause of freedom. At 
one of these meetings, Lincoln was called upon for 
a speech. He counseled moderation — (But) 
We raised a neat sum of money, Lincoln showing 


his sincerity by joining in the subscription and 
forwarding it to our friends in Kansas.’ 

“Nor does he tell us what James Buchanan 
states, that Lincoln rewarded Hinton Helper with 
a Consular position in Buenos Ayres for writing 
this incendiary book. 

“It seems to me, while this matter is up for 
consideration, that it would be well for Veteran 
readers to get the two items showing just ‘where 
Lincoln stood.” 


LONDON’S TWO-MINUTE SILENCE. 

I have been in several cities, towns, and villages 
on November 11 since the war, but nowhere has 
the two minutes’ silence affected me as in the 
very heart of London. Everyone leaves work and 
goes out into the streets. It is an established cus- 
tom now, and the crowds grow from year to year. 
There are thousands now that join in this act of 
remembrance who were but children in 1918, who 
remember nothing of the horrors of the war, 
never knew anyone who was killed. But they 
have eyes and ears and imaginations. You need 
not fear that they will start another war because 
they have forgotten or never knew what war is 
like. 

I joined the throng that filled St. Paul’s Church- 
yard and Ludgatehill. It was two minutes to 
eleven. The ’bus just beside me could go no fur- 
ther for the crowd. The driver switched off the 
engine. The Cathedral choir came out on to the 
steps and a solitary buglar stood at attention be- 
tween the pillars. The minute hand crept on and 
the chatter died down. Sincerity is catching. 
Giggling girls stopped giggling. The clock struck 
eleven. There was a deep silence. The pigeons 
could not understand. They were startled and 
flew round and round. They no longer seemed to 
glide silently through the air. The noise they 
made was like a rushing wind in the trees com- 
pared to the silence below A rocket sounded 

in the distance and “The Last Post” filled the air. 
The traffic started again, but above the distant 
hum came the strains of “0 God Our Help in Ages 
Past” and the National Anthem. 

The crowd dispersed through every little alley- 
way — back to work again. The pigeons settled 
contentedly on the Cathedral. 

A quarter of an hour later Ludgatehill was just 
as it is any other day of the year, except for the 
poppy in everyone’s buttonhole and the memory 
in everyone’s heart. 

They will not forget . — British Weekly. 


46 


Q09fc<icrat^ l/eterap. 


MARY DAY LANIER— A TRIBUTE. 

In the death of Mrs. Sidney Lanier, which oc- 
curred at the home of her son, Charles D. Lanier, 
in Greenwich, Conn., on December 29, widely 
noted in the press of the country, this country, 
and the South in particular, is reminded not only 
of the remarkable life story of the South’s im- 
mortal poet, but also of the beautiful qualities of 
a life dedicated from the time of her marriage to 
the career of her gifted husband. Throughout the 
fourteen years of their married life, Mary Day 
Lanier sustained his spirit by her unfaltering be- 
lief in his genius, and “in her constant care of him 
sent him on to the great heights he scaled.” Then, 
through the fifty years of her widowhood, the 
dominating thought of her life has been to gain 
for him that recognition which his genius de- 
served, and she gave to the world those children 
of his brain. It is a comforting thought that she 
lived to see her husband’s work accepted for its 
beauty and worth and his fame secure. To her 
beautiful gray eyes Lanier dedicated that love 
poem, “My Springs,” in which his deepest af- 
fection is expressed. Though the light of those 
eyes failed in her later years, and life closed for 
her in outer darkness, there was ever in her the 
light of that beautiful spirit which had over- 
come so much in those early years when his 
genius was struggling for expression. That he 
was able to do so much in the brief period which 
was given to him was because of her inspiratiosu 
and to her we render homage that she did not 
fail him. 

Had the world given a kindlier reception to 
what Lanier was so eager to give, the richness of 
his gift might have been vastly enhanced by that 
encouragement and inspiration. Yet he was able 
to give much through one who never failed him in 
life or death. 


MY SPRINGS. 

In the heart of the Hills of Life, I know 
Two springs that with unbroken flow 
Forever pour their lucent streams 
Into my soul’s far Lake of Dreams. 

Not larger than two eyes, they lie 
Beneath the many-changing sky 
And mirror all of life and time — 

Serene and dainty pantomime. 

Shot through with lights of stars and dawns. 
And shadowed sweet by ferns and fawns — 


Thus heaven and earth together vie 
Their shining depths to sanctify. 

Always, when the large Form of Love 
Is hid by storms that rage above, 

I gaze in my two springs and see 
Love in its very verity. 

Always, when Faith with stifling stress 
Of grief hath died in bitterness, 

I gaze in my two springs and see 
A Faith that smiles immortally. 

Always, when Charity and Hope, 

In darkness bounden, feebly grope, 

I gaze in my two springs and see 
A Light that sets my captives free. 

Always, when Art on perverse wing 
Flies where I cannot hear him sing, 

I gaze in my two springs and see 
A charm that brings him back to me. 

When Labor faints, and Glory fails. 

And coy Reward in sighs exhales, 

I gaze in my two springs and see 
Attainment full and heavenly. 

0 Love, O Wife, thine eyes are they. 

My springs from out whose shining gray 
Issue the sweet celestial streams 

That feed my life’s bright Lake of Dreams. 

Oval and large and passion-pure. 

And gray and wise and honor sure ; 

Soft as a dying violet’s breath. 

Yet calmly unafraid of death; 

Thronged, like two dove-cotes of gray doves. 
With wife’s and mother’s and poor folk’s loves, 
And home loves and high glory-loves. 

And science loves and story-loves. 

And loves for all that God and man 
In art and nature make or plan. 

And lady-loves for spidery lace 
And broideries and supple grace. 

And diamonds and the whole sweet round 
Of littles that large life compound. 

And loves for God and God’s bare truth. 

And loves for Magdalen and Ruth — 

Dear eyes, dear eyes and rare complete. 

Being heavenly-sweet and earthly-sweet — 

1 marvel that God made you mine. 

For when He frowns, ’tis then you shine ! 
Baltimore, 1874. 


47 


^oijfederafc^ Ueterai), 


THE “FLAG OF TRUCE BOATS.” 
[Florence P. Percy in Washington Star}. 

Few people of the present generation are aware 
that “flag of truce boats” were sent through the 
lines during the War between the States, carry- 
ing refugees to Southern ports. In this way fami- 
lies were re-united after weary and anxious 
months and years of separation, suspense, and 
exile brought about by war. These boats were 
commandeered for the purpose and were exempt 
from attack. As soon as the vessel was under 
way the baggage, clothing, and persons of the 
Southern passengers — men, women, and children 
— were thoroughly searched for contraband arti- 
cles. Gold and silver were not allowed to be taken 
through the lines, and secret papers and other 
suspicious articles were carefully searched for. 
Even shoes and stockings were removed. One 
family had gold dollars covered and made into 
buttons, which were sewed on and ornamented 
their clothes. Much strategy and ingenuity were 
resorted to in smuggling treasured possessions 
through, sometimes successfully. But the result 
was often disastrous. The laws were very strin- 
gent and strictly enforced. Everything contra- 
band was conflscated by the Federal authorities. 

It is told of one courageous mother and small 
son, who, in a frantic effort to reach Richmond, 
Va., from Wheeling, Va. (now W. Va.), experi- 
enced various setbacks and were obliged to make 
numerous detours en route. After obtaining 
necessary letters to prominent people, one being 
to the Attorney General at Washington, which 
were presented as opportunity occurred and un- 
der great difficulties, they started from Wheeling 
during the latter part of September, 1861. The 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad had been cut and 
destroyed in places to prevent the Northern 
troops from passing through, which compelled 
the mother and child to go up through Ohio, from 
there to Pittsburg, and then to Baltimore. A 
friend took them from Baltimore to Washington, 
where they obtained passes to Richmond. They 
then returned to Baltimore, and that evening 
boarded a steamer going down the bay. The next 
morning, before dawn, they were put off the 
steamer and into a small “flag of truce boat” be- 
longing to the North. From this they were trans- 
ferred to another small “flag of truce boat” be- 
longing to the South, and from this they boarded 
a Confederate steamer, which took them to Nor- 
folk, from where they were able to reach Rich- 
mond by train. 


The “flag of truce boats” were constantly used 
for transporting prisoners from point to point, 
but on only a few of the trips were refugee pas- 
sengers allowed. As there was supposed to be no 
communication between the lines after war had 
been declared, and an embargo proclaimed, many 
persons who were unexpectedly and unavoidably 
strained and cut off from their homes, and anx- 
iously awaiting a chance to cross the Mason and 
Dixon line, seized with eagerness the occasional 
opportunity allowed for passage on a steamer 
carrying the flag of truce. This enabled them to 
pass safgly through the lines and to once more get 
in touch with friends or to join families. 


CONFEDERATE MONUMENT AT CAPE 
GIRARDEAU, MO. 

The Confederate soldiers of Southeast Missouri 
were honored by the dedication of a monument to 
their memory at Cape Girardeau, Mo., on Sunday, 
the 15th of November. This is the tribute of the 
Cape Girardeau Chapter, U. D. C., and the exer- 
cises were conducted by officers of that Chapter, 
of which Mrs. Glenn C. Hope is President. Little 
Marjorie Ann Bierschwal, of New Madrid, gr^at- 
great-granddaughter of Capt. George W. Dawson, 
C. S. A., unveiled the monument, attended by 
Marian Miller, a great-granddaughter of Col. 
William Jeffers; Lois Lucile Gladish, granddaugh- 
ter of Frank Oldham, of Jackson; and Mary Mar- 
garet Rodgers, granddaughter of James Rodgers, 
of Benton — loyal Confederate soldiers. Ad- 
dresses were made by Gen. Rice A. Pierce, Com- 
mander Tennessee Division, U. C. V., and by 
Senator Ralph Wammack, of Missouri. The 
monument was. presented to the city and accepted 
by Mayor E. L. Drum. 

This Confederate memorial is located on the 
Morgan Oak Street Plaza, at the approach to the 
traffic bridge, and is a handsome shaft on a base 
of three graduated slabs, the monument being of 
Georgia silver gray marble, and standing four- 
teen and a half feet high. On the north side are 
the letters “C. S. A., beneath which is the Con- 
federate flag in relief, and in the base “1861- 
1865.” On the south side is the inscription: 
“Dedicated to the Confederate Soldiers of South- 
east Missouri.” 


J. E. Lewis, of Horton, Kans., renews for two 
years and writes: “I am now eighty-four, and the 
only Old Reb in town.” 


48 


Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 


A CHEROKEE CONFEDERATE. 

BY J. R. EDMUNDS, JR., DURHAM, N. C. 

Back in the fastnesses of the Great Smoky 
Mountains of North Carolina nestles a small cabin 
in which lives the last Confederate veteran of the 
Cherokee Nation. John Dickey Driver, smiling 
old veteran, lives and dreams of the days that he 
passed with Morgan’s Raiders. His English is 
good and his memory is fairly clear. Born and 
reared in the mountains, he knows little of the 
great outside world, but he is happy with his 
children and grandchildren. Sound physically, 
he can put in a ten-to a fifteen-mile walk a day. 
He still enjoys a game of Indian ball, 'a native 
dance, or an archery contest, though it may re- 
quire several hours standing in the heat of the 
day, or the dance may last till the small hours of 
the morning. His greatest delight, however, is 
in his infant grandsons, twins. He holds them 
by the hour, singing some ancient Cherokee ditty, 
or talking to them, perhaps of his youthful ad- 
ventures of long ago. He is truly a “gentleman 
of the old school,” though not a whiteskin. His 
clothing is an old, but neat. Confederate uniform, 
of which he is very proud. A dark hat and a 
stout locust stick for walking complete his ar- 
ticles of adornment. To the stranger, he is al- 
ways friendly and courteous; by the natives, he 
is loved, honored, and respected. 

Of his soldier experiences, Mr. Driver relates 
that once, when separated from the rest of his 
troops, four Yankees, mounted on large black 
horses, came swooping by the bush in which he 
had taken temporary refuge. He had visions of a 
Yankee prison in his head, but, fortunately, he 
was passed unnoticed and escaped, to be later 
shot through the legs of his trousers, or “bree- 
gies,” as he calls them. He can also remember 
when he was once paid a large sum of money, 
partly in Confederate and partly in Federal cur- 
rency. But the scarcity of commodities curtailed 
his enthusiasm in spending the money. Salt, an 
essential to anyone and doubly so to a Cherokee, 
was unobtainable. The old soldier recalls that 
his “vittles” were unsavory, though plentiful. 

Of the many redskin troopers for the South, he 
alone is the survivor of the Cherokees. Soon he, 
too, will be gone, and much valuable information 
and unrecorded data will have perished with him. 
Never again will the world see the equal of the 
soldiers that fought so gallantly for the noble 
Southern Cause. Men they were of a type now 
needed in this money-mad and pleasure-bound 
world. With the passing of these old men there 


passes with them the kindliness, the courtesy, and 
the courage that so endeared them to the hearts 
of their friends and made them respected by their 
enemies. All these admirable qualities are to be 
found in Old Man John Dickey Driver, soldier, 
philosopher, and gentleman. 


SECRET SERVICE WORK. 

One of the most outstanding heroines that 
North Carolina can claim in the War between the 
States was Miss Emmeline Pigott, of Carterret 
County. This young woman’s name deserves a 
high place among our State’s bravest women, for 
her cool courage was often shown in the midst of 
great danger. 

At the beginning of the war. Miss Pigott, then 
a young girl, had given her whole heart to the 
Cause of the South, nursing the sick and wounded 
soldiers who were brought in from the attacks on 
our coasts. Her soldier sweetheart fell in the bat- 
tle of Gettysburg, and, after that, Emmeline 
Pigott felt that she must do even more for the 
Confederacy. She offered herself for Secret Serv- 
ice work to the Confederate Government, and bore 
important dispatches in large pockets adjusted 
under her full skirts. Many dangerous journeys 
were made by her between New Bern (which was 
occupied by the Yankees) and the seaports, and 
she narrowly escaped capture very often, going 
through great danger to fulfil her mission. 

Finally this daring young girl was seized, and, 
while being searched, she chewed up and swal- 
lowed the important message which she had con- 
cealed on her person. If this had been discovered, 
she would have been shot as a spy. She was im- 
prisoned at New Bern, and while there an attempt 
was made on her life by the administering of 
chloroform through her prison window. 

Friends worked hard to free her, without suc- 
cess, but at length she sent for some influential 
men in New Bern who, she knew, were traitors, 
telling them if she were brought to trial she would 
disclose things that would cause them to suffer. 
So their influence was brought to bear with the 
Federal authorities, and she was released without 
a trial. 

The name of Emmeline Pigott is held in the 
highest Veneration, and the Morehead City Chap- 
ter, U. D. C., is named in her honor. To the end 
of her eighty years, no cause was so dear to her 
as that of the Confederacy. — From North Caro- 
lina Women in the Confederacy, Mrs. J. H. Am 
derson. 


49 


Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 


CAPT. B. F. EDDINS—A TRIBUTE. 

BY J. D. LELAND, GILMER, TEX. 

Benjamin Farrar Eddins was born in Ninety 
Six, S. C., March 21, 1813, of sturdy Revolutionary 
stock, his grandfather, for whom he was named, 
serving with the South Carolina troops and sub- 
sequently under General Jackson against the 
Seminoles in Florida. As First Lieutenant and 
Adjutant of the 41st Alabama Regiment, in which 
Captain Eddins commanded a company, I desire 
in this brief sketch to commemorate the virtues 
and perpetuate the memory of this truly loyal, 
gallant, and unselfish patriot, who, at the close of 
the struggle, gave up his life, a martyr to the cause 
he loved so well and served so faithfully. 

Captain Eddins was a planter in the ante-bellum 
days, residing about two miles from Tusca- 
loosa, Ala., famous for the culture and refinement 
of its citizens, the seat of the State University 
and a number of flourishing female colleges, and 
justly styled the Athens of Alabama. Amid such 
environment, this typical Southern gentleman of 
the old school lived and reared a large family, who 
enjoyed all the advantages of schools and churches 
in the old city of Tuscaloosa. Captain Eddins and 
I were warm personal friends through life, and 
I often enjoyed the hospitality of the Eddins home 
with his boyhood and later army comrade, Alexan- 
der M. Eddins, the soldier son, who now sleeps 
by the side of his soldier father. Captain Eddins 
was a prominent and consistent member of the 
First Baptist Church, was a true Christian, and 
exemplified it in his daily walk, his splendid, use- 
ful life. A man without guile or falsehood him- 
self, he found none in his fellow-men, but was ever 
charitable to the faults and shortcomings in 
others. 

As a friend, he was always loyal and true ; as a 
citizen, he took a deep interest in all matters look- 
ing to the advancement of Tuscaloosa and Tusca- 
loosa County’s welfare, and none stood higher in 
the love and confidence of his fellow-citizens. In 
fact, “the elements were so mixed in him that all 
the world stood up and said This was a man !’ ’’ 
As a father and husband, he was loving, kind, 
considerate, unselfish, and was idolized by his 
family. During my army carer, when sadly in 
need of a guiding hand and wise counsel, I was 
fortunate enough to enjoy the closest intimacy 
and friendship of this sterling, conscientious 
Christian gentleman and soldier, and none had a 
better opportunity to study his character from 
every viewpoint and to recognize its true worth. 


the granduer of the man’s life, his lofty ideals, 
his spotless honor and integrity. To the weak 
and erring, he was a friend to lean upon and trust 
implicitly. In his daily life he exemplified all the 
virtues of the citizen, husband and father, and 
true, unselfish patriot. 

The 41st Alabama Regiment, Volunteers, was 
organized at Tuscaloosa, in March, 1862, with 
Dr. Henry Tolbird, President of Howard College, 
as Colonel; Col. James T. Murphree, Command- 
ant Alabama Corps of Cadets, as Lieutenant Col- 
onel; Judge Martin L. Stancel, of Pickens County, 
Major; and the writer, who was in Virginia in 
Rodes’ Brigade, Fifth Alabama Regiment, was 
commissioned by the War Department as First 
Lieutenant and ordered to report to the Regiment 
for duty. Captain Eddins, though not liable to 
military duty by reason of his age, but, his heart 
throbbing with patriotic feeling for his beloved 
Southland, and fired by the blood of his ancestors, 
raised a company of volunteers for this Regiment 
and was unanimously elected Captain. The Ala- 
bama Brigades in the Western Army having their 
full quota, the 41st Alabama was attached to the 
Texas Brigade, commanded by Gen. Sam Bell 
Maxey, upon its being ordered to join Bragg’s 
army in Tennessee. Later, the 41st Alabama was 
attached to the famous old Kentucky Brigade, bet- 
ter known as Buckner’s, consisting of four as 
splendid regiments as the South produced, and 
our gallant 41st Alabama, commanded by those 
superb soldiers, Gens. Roger Hanson, Ben Hardin 
Helm (who was a brother-in-law to Abraham Lin- 
coln), and Trabue, all three of whom were mortal- 
ly wounded within the space of one year. This 
splendid brigade was in every sanguinary engage- 
ment in the West and covered itself with glory. 
In all the engagements. Captain Eddins led his 
company with distinguished gallantry, winning 
the commendation of his superior officers by his 
coolness and soldiery conduct under fire. In the 
battle of Murfreesboro, or Stone River, as it was 
more generally known. Captain Eddins and the 
writer were captured. The prisoners were put in 
a pen, or ring, and guarded. The Federal Gen- 
eral summoned the highest officers captured up 
to that time, and Captain Eddins and I were sent. 
He questioned us in regard to the number of Con- 
federates engaged in the battle, future plans, etc. 
Captain Eddins hesitated, saying, “I’m no traitor, 
and I will die before I will give you any informa- 
tion that would hurt my country,’’ but he said he 
did not know the strength of the army. General 
Rosencranz replied, “If you do not know officially. 


50 


Qoi>federat^ Ueterai>« 


say what you think. Upon his replying as best 
he could, the General straightened himself up and 
said, “You are a liar. Sir. Such a small number 
could not have whipped my army in such a man- 
ner.” For it was a badly whipped army at that 
time. 

After an imprisonment of several months at 
Camp Chase, Ohio, and Fort Delaware, near 
Philadelphia, we were exchanged at Fortress 
Monroe, and returned to our command. Camp 
Chase was very crowded at that time, and, in or- 
der to make room, it was the custom each morning 
to line the prisoners up, count them, and shoot 
the tenth man. At one time. Captain Eddins 
was next in line to the man who was shot, thus 
escaping death by a hair’s breadth. It has been 
rightly said that no place on earth so quickly and 
surely brings out the “yellow streak,” and all that 
is mean, selfish, and despicable in a human being 
as a prison filled with a heterogeneous collection 
of humanity. Amid these environments, with 
hunger and other worse suffering staring us in 
the face, did the true nobility of soul of Captain 
Eddins shine with transcendent brilliance, and ir- 
radiated everything and everybody within the 
sphere of his influence and example. Courteous, 
kind, considerate, unselfish, and with a heart of 
gold, he won the love and admiration and fellow- 
ship of his fellow-prisoners, but also by his person- 
al magnetism won the respect and confidence of 
every prison official with whom he came in con- 
tact. None were insensible to the charm of 
character of this fine, true, Christian and soldier. 

On account of ill health, due partly to his long 
imprisonment. Captain Eddins tendered his resig- 
nation, which was reluctantly accepted, and re- 
turned home to remain with his family, but not in 
idle activity. Captain Eddins sacrificed all for his 
country and himself until no longer fit for active 
service, and his son, the late Alexander M. Ed- 
dins, than whom was no more gallant, faithful 
soldier in the ranks of the Southern army. Though 
not in active service. Captain Eddins’ heart and 
soul were still in the cause of his beloved South- 
land, and opportunity found him ever ready and 
responsive to the interest of the cause and its he- 
roic defenders in the field. 

And now we approach the last crowning act of 
his life, the last in the drama, his heroic life go- 
ing out in a blaze of glory when almost the last 
gun had been fired. Thus he gave his life to the 
cause he had loved so long and served so faith- 
fully and gallantly. News of approach of Crox- 
ton’s raiders, April, 1865, spread like wildfire 


throughout the otherwise quiet old City of Oaks, 
and quick preparations were made to defend it 
and check the invaders. Captain Eddins and 
other leading citizens began gathering together a 
handful of citizen soldiery and cadets, to meet 
the vandal horde. In the memorable engagement 
at the bridge over the Warrior River, April 3, 
1865, this noble son of the South fell mortally 
wounded, shot by the Yankee to whom he had sur- 
rendered his gun; and seven days later, April 10, 
the knightly old hero, Christian soldier and gen- 
tleman, one of the dauntless host who followed 
the Starry Cross through the bloody years of the 
memorable struggle, crossed over to the land 
where heroes bask in the eternal light divine. At 
the last reveille and the last call of the Gray 
Hosts above, no braver, truer spirit will respond 
to name. No citizen of long ago is more deeply 
enshrined in the hearts of Tuscaloosa than Ben- 
jamin Farrar Eddins. 


‘‘BATTLE ABOVE THE CLOUDS” A WAR 
MYTH. 

In refutation of the popular belief that a battle 
took place on Lookout Mountain “above the 
clouds,” which belief was the inspiration of a 
movement in Chattanooga to stage a celebration 
on the top of the mountain and to christen the 
place as “the Shrine of the Southland,” Capt. W. 
W. Carnes, of Bradenton, Fla., contributed the 
following, which, needless to say, put a quietus on 
the movement: 

“No one can deny that there was a battle on 
Lookout Mountain, but I can make affidavit that 
there was never a shot fired between Confederate 
and Federal soldiers on the top of that mountain, 
all of the fighting having been between Craven’s 
farm and the river. That is shown by the loca- 
tion of the monuments to troops which did the 
fighting and by an official iron tablet placed on 
top of the mountain. I will further say as Chief 
of Artillery of Stevenson’s Division (to which 
position I was promoted after Chickamauga bat- 
tle) , I had control of every piece of artillery which 
fired a shot from the top of Lookout, as I will now 
explain. 

“When the pontoon bridge had been placed 
across the Tennessee River, one of the heaviest 
guns of our battalion of four batteries was driven 
to the point, by order of General Bragg, to ascer- 
tain whether that bridge was within our artillery 
range. A lieutenant with the gun detachment 
made the trial under my direction, and having 
found that none of our field pieces could throw 


51 


^oi^fedcrat^ Ueterai). 


shot to the bridge, the gun was at once returned 
to its battery in our lines of investment below 
the mountain. At a later date, Stevenson’s Di- 
vision was sent up on the mountain, but several 
miles from the point overlooking Chattanooga, to 
guard against any attempt of the enemy to cross 
over the low slope of the mountain to get to the 
rear of our investing force. One of the batteries 
under my command went with the division, and 
the other three were near Rossville on the lower 
end of Missionary Ridge, none being near the 
point. 

“When Hooker’s forces were advancing, the 
firing on the morning of November 24 caused 
two guns of the battery to be sent, under one of 
the lieutenants, to see if they could be of any use 
on the side of Lookout on which the advance was 
moving, but it was found that the distance was 
far too great and the guns were brought near the 
point. Then, when the fighting was going on be- 
low, the lieutenant in charge fired a few shots 
in that direction, but the most extreme depression 
of the guns only threw shot or shell far over the 
combatants, and those artillery pieces remained 
there inoperative till the battery was brought 
down late in the afternoon under the General’s or- 
ders. 

“I was then with the batteries on the ridge 
nearly opposite and had a good view of the whole 
mountain. There was no cloud near the top at 
any time, but there was a heavy mist from the 
river to the Craven farm above the road, and the 
flashes of fire from the guns of the fighters were 
plainly seen through the mist. That caused some 
newspaper correspondent to write of it as a bat- 
tle in the clouds. The foregoing is from my per- 
sonal experience. 

“Now, as to the forces engaged, I write from 
the official recorded facts. The number of Hook- 
er’s troops engaged is given as 9,681 men. The 
first Confederate troops encountered were those 
of Walthall’s Brigade, which was surprised by an 
unexpected flanking force of superior numbers, 
and a large number of them captured. Moore’s 
Brigade, of three Alabama regiments of infantry, 
and three regiments of Pettus’ Brigade, were 
sent to re-enforce Walthall. The three brigades 
of Walthall, Moore, and Pettus were the Confeder- 
ate troops that opposed the attack of General 
Hooker’s army, advancing over the foot hills of 
Lookout Mountain, toward the Craven house on 
the road from Lookout Valley to Chattanooga. 
The Confederates were forced back beyond the 
Craven house to the junction of that road with 


the Summertown road, where they held their 
ground till all troops had come down the moun- 
tain by that road, and then all Confederate troops 
were withdrawn to prepare for what was evident- 
ly to be expected next day. After the mountain 
was abandoned by all Confederates, some of Hook- 
er’s men worked their way up to the top, without 
equipment they could not have carried, and raised 
their flag on the summit. That is the only way 
anyone could have reached the top of Lookout 
from that battle ground, and any man of common 
sense would know that schoolboys, armed only 
with stones, could have repelled any attack. Yet 
some persons are made to suppose that armed 
Confederate soldiers could be so driven from the 
top of Lookout, as guides there have stated to 
visitors. On a visit to Lookout Mountain many 
years ago, I saw the tablet headed by my name as 
in control of the guns shown there and heard the 
fabulous account of one of the guides. So I called 
on the chief member of the government commis- 
sioners with request to correct the false impres- 
sion made. This he did by having another tablet 
placed by which visitors were informed that no 
fighting was done on the top of the mountain, but 
where the monuments were placed at and around 
the Craven house below. 

“If the tablet has not been removed, how could 
this movement succeed in making much of a his- 
toric shrine on top of the mountain? Or make it 
a great battle in which the three Confederate brig- 
ades engaged lost a total of 1,251 men killed, 
wounded and missing, of which number 845 of 
Walthall’s brigade were captured in the first en- 
counter, and some of Moore’s brigade were cap- 
tured in later fighting, so less than 300 were killed 
and wounded in this battle? 

The report of General Hooker seems to have in- 
tended to give the impression that he had carried 
his assault to the top of the mountain, as had been 
suggested to him. When General John B. Gordon 
published his ‘Reminiscences of the Civil War,’ I 
was surprised to find that he had that impression, 
and I wrote to him about it. As he had served 
throughout in Virginia, he had no personal knowl- 
edge of events further west, and he informed me 
that he received from General Hooker, at Wash- 
ington, his mistaken view of that battle, and he 
said that in any future publication he would cor- 
rect the error. 

“Now, consider what General Grant said 
about that battle. He said : ‘The battle of Lookout 
Mountain is one of the romances of the war. 
There was no action very worthy to be called a 


52 


^opfederat^ l/eterap. 


battle on Lookout Mountain. It is all poetry.’ 
Those are what is said to be his words in Hon. 
John Russell Young’s book, “Around the World 
with Grant.’’ The official reports of the Con- 
federates engaged and the casualties in their 
ranks, as hereinbefore given, seem to have 
prompted General Grant’s estimate. General 
Grant’s estimate of Hooker’s boastfulness can be 
learned from Grant’s report of the battle of Mis- 
sionary Ridge, in which he made the following in- 
dorsement on Hooker’s report : ‘Attention is called 
to that part of the report giving the number of 
prisoners and small arms captured (by his com- 
mands), which is greater than the number real- 
ly captured by the whole army.’ This is the same 
Gen. Joseph Hooker who made a vile, slanderous 
charge against Tennessee soldiers in a communi- 
cation to Hon. S. P. Chase, dated December 28, 
1863, and to be found on page 339, Series 1, Vol. 
XXXI, part 2, “Official Records of the Union and 
Confederate Armies.” In that communication 
he stated: ‘Before the battle of Lookout, I had 
opened communication with Cheatham’s Division, 
holding the summit of the mountain, and had 
good reason to believe that I would have succeeded 
in bringing in all of the enlisted men with some 
of the officers but for their untimely removal.’ 
Cheatham’s Division never occupied the summit 
of the mountain, and any reader of the operations 
of the two armies at that time will know that 
there was no opportunity for him to communicate 
with any command on the summit. 

“I have hereinbefore stated that my plain view 
of the mountain showed no cloud near the top, 
and in commenting on the fanciful account of a 
‘battle above the clouds,’ a writer in the New York 
Tribune at that time said : ‘There were no clouds 
to fight above; only a heavy mist which settled 
down and enveloped the base of the mountain.’ It 
is incontestably true that Hooker’s advance was 
across the foothills of the mountain to and beyond 
the Craven house, on the eastern bench of Look- 
out, in plain view from Chattanooga, and no one 
ever saw clouds that low down. So that ‘battle 
above the clouds’ is a war myth as false and fanci- 
ful as the Barbara Fritchie tale at Frederick, 
Md. 

“This writer, now in his 91st year, was an ar- 
tillery officer in the Army of Tennessee on every 
occasion when the Confederates were in or around 
Chattanooga, and what is written herein is based 
on personal knowledge of facts and official re- 
ports.” 


“BY REASON OF STRENGTH” 

A Recent Contribution to the Confederate 
Literature of North Carolina. 

BY MRS. CABELL SMITH. 

Some years ago there was published in Rich- 
mond, Va., a literary sky-rocket which dazzled the 
world with its brief glory. In a short time this 
amazing pyrotechnic was transferred to North 
Carolina, where the blaze continued with un- 
dimmed brilliancy. It was called “The Review- 
er,” and appeared quarterly. Among the galaxy 
of writers who carried its glittering flame to 
such heights was Gerald W. Johnson. His articles 
proclaimed a new genius, and when his books be- 
gan to appear the triumph of his early promise 
was magnificently demonstrated. These books, 
“The Undefeated,” “Andrew Johnson,” “John 
Randolph of Roanoke,” proved to North Caro- 
linians that John Charles McNeil and 0. Henry 
had a successor of whom either could feel justly 
proud. 

Mr. Johnson was born in Richmond (now Scot- 
land) County, North Carolina, in 1890. He was 
of Highland Scotch ancestry, and his grandmoth- 
er was actually born at Roseneath, the home so 
graphically and beautifully described in his first 
novel. He was educated at Wake Forest College, 
and immediately went into newspaper work, first 
at Thomasville, then at Lexington, and later at 
Greensboro. From Greensboro he went to Chapel 
Hill as Professor of Journalism, but he soon real- 
ized that he was not intended for this profes- 
sion, and, in 1926, he went to Baltimore as an edi- 
torial writer on the Evening Sun, the paper which 
Mr. H. L. Mencken edited for many years, and 
to which he still contributes an article every Mon- 
day afternoon. 

During the World War, Mr. Johnson served in 
the 321st Infantry, 81st Division. He was over- 
seas for a year, but on the front for only three 
weeks, and, to his disgust, saw no fighting worth 
mentioning. He married Miss Kathryn Hayward 
of Staten Island, New York. Her mother was 
Miss Minnie Duls, of Charlotte, N. C., a sister of 
Judge Charles Duls, who was the law partner of 
Judge Heriot Clarkson. 

Mr. Johnson’s first novel. By Reason of 
Strength, appeared serially in the Household 
Magazine last winter. Those who read Grand- 
ma Brown’s reminiscences and “A Lantern in Her 
Hand” with enjoyment found in this chronicle 
of Grandma Whyte another fascinating angle of 
pioneer life, and followed her fortunes with a rel- 


53 


Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 


ish rarely accorded inhabitants of those days. 
Gathering his telling text from the Book of Books, 
the author tells the reader, in the beginning, that 
a part of the story of Grandma Whyte was told 
him by “Cousin Mattie,” the creator and pre- 
server of family legends (now become a legend 
herself) ; part of it is history, part a small boy 
who no more doubted that Donald Whyte, the 
saintly husband of Grandma, was a friend of God 
than he doubted that Jonah was swallowed by the 
whale ; and the remainder, a man who knows far, 
far less than the small boy knew. Grandma 
Whyte, thus created, surpassed other women as 
only a Scotch woman adapting herself to a strange 
new land, and adopting the ideals which were to 
make its honor and glory, could. Brought up in a 
palace, constructed on a Scotch moor by Italian 
artists, surrounded by garde(ns whose famous 
roses furnished the classical name Roseneath, out- 
lined by heather, with the charm of Loch Lomond 
and the witchery of the Clyde around her, this 
heroine of the Campbell clan rejected many royal 
lovers, collapsing finally under the spell of Donald 
Whyte. He was a Scotch preacher who had felt 
the call to America to preach. Eloquent and in- 
spired, the gifted young minister lured the charm- 
ing young woman across the ocean to the rigors 
of the New World. The newly-weds landed at 
Wilmington, N. C., and proceeded up the Cape 
Fear, settling finally on the Pee Dee, where they 
established dominion over forest, streams, In- 
dians, and finally over mother country and the 
souls of men. The descriptions of pioneer days 
and ways, the picture of a man wedded to his call- 
ing, and a woman first lonely and homesick, but 
finally absorbed into the atmosphere and duties 
of the country around her, are drawn with great 
intensity and accuracy. The birth of three girls 
and then the coming of a little son, the accidental 
acquisition of slaves for humanity’s sake, the 
gradual extension of cleared lands around the 
home, the building of the bridge and the mill at 
the instigation of the woman, while the man pur- 
sued his chosen calling with ever increasing zeal — 
these, and many other details, fill pages which no 
reader can skip. The horrible death of the little 
boy from burns lays bare the agony and misad- 
venture of those trying days, but this is balanced 
by the peaceful passing of the saintly Donald, 
and the consequent ever widening influence arid 
activities of the. once lovely girl, now a capable, 
sympathetic woman. 

The daughters marry, and there are grandchil- 
dren. The eldest grandson steals off to the Mexi- 


can War and loses a leg. He returns home to a 
life of merry acceptance of his crippled lot. In 
spite of his levity, he is the pet of Grandma, whose 
solace in life exists in her descendants, for whom 
she now lives entirely. 

“Peg-Leg,” as he is called, laughs through life 
until bugles call the entrance of the South into an- 
other war. Incapacitated for action in the field, 
he becomes the mainstay of the family at home. 
Five other grandsons left under the Confederate 
flag. Henry fell at Fort Fisher, Archibald died 
in prison at Elmira; Kermit, of the 18th North 
Carolina, was killed in action ; Duncan died in the 
fiery furnace at Petersburg; Malcolm succumbed 
to typhoid fever in a Virginia camp, while Robin, 
the youngest, was reported killed in a skirmish 
near Richmond. Consoling the wretched mothers 
through all these tragedies. Grandma failed when 
the baby was reported killed, and his wretched 
mother committed suicide. But Grandma lived 
on. She ventured into the land of the fierce Croa- 
tans, where not even the sheriff would go, and 
nursed them through a terrible scourge of small- 
pox, returning unscathed. She was physician, 
lawyer, judge, and jury for the community. She 
had traveled far from the timid young thing who 
had experienced such terror at the noise of a hoot 
owl. 

While Sherman was “damning himself to in- 
famous immortality” in Georgia, a band of Union 
soldiers passed her home. One of the men was 
severely wounded, and an officer brought him to 
Grandma’s house. He said to her, “This is an 
officer in the Union army. He must be treated 
respectfully, and his wants attended to, or all the 
lives in this house will answer for it.” 

“Sir,” said Grandma, unmoved, “the man is in- 
jured and helpless. He may be an officer in the 
army of Beelzebub, but he is safe here. Wq are 
a civilized people.” 

“Peg-Leg” said to the soldiers, who thought he 
might have been one of them, “Don’t mistake, I 
am a Rebel all right. Only, I made the mistake of 
serving your government first, and I haven’t been 
much good for soldiering since.” 

In the end, Robin, the youngest, returned to 
Grandma. He was haggard and worn, and his 
youth was gone, but he was the fruition of all 
her hopes, and through him came many compensa- 
tions. And “April swirled throughout the land 
blossoming and fragrant,” while “Airs too faint 
to be called a breeze were stealing through the 
dusk, but somewhere they had passed a locust tree 
in bloom, and somewhere they had brushed a 


54 


Confederate l/eterai) 


jasmine, and somewhere they had touched a 
clump of hyacinths, and they strewed hints of 
these perfumes everywhere.” 

This chronicle is so convincing that it needs the 
author’s preface to make us sure that the charac- 
ters were not drawn from life, and so interspersed 
with magic phrases that it wrings tears from the 
eyes as the pioneers wrested material things 
from the soil. 

Mr. Johnson is engaged in writing a new novel 
which he calls “Number Thirty-Six,” which will 
doubtless bring him many new friends and read- 
ers, but “By Reason of Strength” his place in 
American letters is already secure. 


WASHINGTON PORTRAITS. 

BY CASSIE MONCURE LYNE. 

The question often arises, “Is the portrait of 
Mary Washington a real likeness or imaginary?” 
Her picture is on every certificate of Member- 
ship issued to each Daughter of the American 
Revolution; hence, is fixed in the public mind as 
a sweet-faced girl, with a “Janice Meredith curl” 
on her neck; while the style in dress would sug- 
gest that Kneller was the artist most likely to 
have conceived this delineation. 

But that is a mistake, for the portrait of Mary 
Washington is by Middleton and was painted 
from life. General Washington greatly treasured 
it, and took it with him to Philadelphia after his 
election as President, when the Quaker City be- 
came the seat of Government for the new Repub- 
lic. All the treasures from Mount Vernon that 
were carried thither had to be conveyed in wagons, 
the roads were so rough; and it is a matter of 
history that a pole of a teaster bed struck the 
canvas of Mary Washington and jabbed a hole 
in it, so disfigured it that Washington had it 
hung in his bedroom, for the pleasure its presence 
on the walls gave him ; but so very mutilated was 
its appearance, he felt it would cause remarks if 
displayed in his drawing-room. 

The portraits of him and Mrs. Washington, 
which Sharpless sketched, also became injured, 
so, shortly before the General’s death, it was de- 
cided to send the three canvases to England to 
have them repaired. This was done, and after 
President Washington’s demise Mrs. Washing- 
ton was too crushed in spirit to ever ask about 
them, and she seems to have forgotten all about 
them. Hence, the pictures remained in England 
until General Grant went on his famous trip 


around the world. Then the custodians of the 
pictures of the artist who repaired them brought 
them to London and delivered them to the repre- 
sentative of the United States. The artist was 
dead — ^Washington and his consort had long slept 
in the vault at Mount Vernon. 

General Grant brought the portraits back from 
England, and he advocated placing a likeness of 
George Washington in every public school as a 
means toward reuniting the sections, as Wash- 
ington was “The Father of our Country” — a Vir- 
ginian. 

Dr. Moncure Daniel Conway, the able au- 
thor and painstaking historian (being him- 
self a citizen of P’lamouth, which is on the 
Staiford side of Fredericksburg, hence close to 
the Ferry farm or Pine Grove Washington abode, 
after they left Wakefield) had the best opportu- 
nity of any writer to gather Washington data. 
Judge Lomax, Byrd Willis, and Basil Gordon, Sr., 
were all living when Dr. Conway made his investi- 
gations, and they had known both Mrs. Mary Ball 
Washington and General Washington personal- 
ly- 

Mary Ball knew no religion except the Church 
of England. Conway was himself a Unitarian, 
so had no personal reason for avowing that George 
Washington was a Christian, but he says that 
his early religious influence was Parson John 
Moncure, of Aquia Church, Stafford County, 
whose family were closely kin to Mary Ball ; and 
that in later years, Washington felt the religious 
influence of Reverend Marye, who built St. 
George’s Church in Federicksburg, and taught a 
boys’ school which Washington attended. Both 

Moncure and Mayre were cultured Huguenots. 

* * * 

I myself descend from Mildred Washington, 
who stood as godmother for General Washington, 
being the sister of his father and named for her 
mother, Mildred Warner, daughter of Augustine 
Warner. Hence I am familiar with the record of 
John Washington, who arrived in Virginia in 
1656 in capacity of mate to Edward Prescott, 
merchant. He married a Miss Pope, whence the 
name of Pope’s Creek in Virginia. The name 
“John” is frequently repeated in the Washington 
family, for Lawrence Washington, the Mayor of 
Northampton, England, was son of John Wash- 
ington of Wharton. Their arms are still to be 
seen on the old church though slightly different 
from the Washington court-of-arms of the pres- 
ent. The stripes from which our flag takes its 
design indicated a knight’s belt; and the stars 


55 


^oi^federat^ l/eterai). 


were at first a “cinq-foil,” or five-pointed daisy, 
significant of agriculture in heraldry; but later 
they became “stars” when the Washingtons took 
to the sea as “mariners.” None of the emblems 
used indicate high family; they were evidently 
what is known as “middle-class gentry.” It is 
recorded that this early “John” of Washington 
lineage was baptized in a font given by Anne 
Boleyn, the Protestant wife of King Henry VIII. 
However, manuscripts in the Bodleian Library led 
Dr. Conway to interpret thus the change of shield 
from the fiower to the star. There was nothing 
aristocratic either about the Balls. Joseph Ball, 
the brother of Mary, was a merchant in London, 
while Mary Ball’s own mother, who was the sec- 
ond wife, was a housekeeper in the family. She 
was the “Widow Johnson” when Ball married 
her and, when widowed the second time, it is re- 
lated that “she disappeared with her two chil- 
dren .... from Epping Forest,” and it is highly 
probable that Ball’s first children did not tolerate 
her presence as she was below them in caste. 
Colonel Ball had been a Virginia Burgess, and 
his home, “Epping Forest,” though not as hand- 
some as “Bewdly,” another Ball estate, was yet 
a good house for pioneer times. All her life, 
Mary Ball clung to Spartan simplicity. She was 
a working woman, and her energy helped to de- 
stroy Wakefield, for as she was sweeping up and 
burning the dry leaves in autumn the wind shifted 
and blew the flame to the house. Le Marquis de 
Lafayette and the French who met her as an old 
lady in Fredericksburg were amazed by her ap- 
pearance, in clean apron, with gloves on, busy in 
her garden. She never assumed any airs. That 
she was a God-fearing Christian and a devout 
follower of the faith of the Anglican Church is 
positively true. She always prayed “God save 
the King” .... When hearing of her son’s prog- 
ress in the Revolution, she constantly affirmed, 
“It will end in the halter for George.” 

Hence, one finds her attending Aquia Church, 
in Stafford County, for her connections there, her 
niece’s husband, John Moncure II, was, like 
George Mason of Guston, a stanch Tory, albeit 
he framed “The Stafford Resolutions.” These, 
however, were a protest for justice under the 
King, yet showed the spirit of liberty was stirring 
in the American colonists. When people spoke to 
her of her son as “His Excellency,” she said, 
“Fiddlesticks!” When soldiers sought to com- 
mandeer her horses for the army, she said flatly : 


“Tell George for me, he cannot get them until 
I finish planting my com.” 

Such was Mary, the mother of Washington, of' 
pioneer spirit and powerful will, of earnest faith 
in God’s mercies, with a Puritan contempt for 
show. George Washington was such a strong 
Federalist that he did not care for the idols of 
Thomas Jefferson, the founder of the Democratic 
party. The difference in these two men lay, per- 
haps, in the fact that Jefferson lived in France 
and touched elbows with the French Revolution. 
Another fact, also of demarcation, was that Wash- 
ington was a soldier — fond of adventure and will- 
ing to trust his ability to take care of himself. 
But Jefferson was a philosopher, a dreamer, a 
man with many ideals, and with no disposition to 
fight. 

After the death of Joseph Ball, it is known that 
his second wife disappeared. It is probable she 
returned to England. Certain it is that Mary 
Ball lived in England with her brother Joseph, 
and when Joseph Ball died in 1760, at Stratford 
by Bow, it ended the male line of her house. That 
Mary Ball, the mother of Washington, was or- 
phaned at thirteen years of age is shown by her 
mother’s will, 1721, in which were legacies to 
Mary of a dappled gray riding horse and land in 
Stafford County. She is spoken of as the “Rose of 
Epping Forest,” but this is figurative; also that 
her hair was golden — it never was, but very 
black; her guardian was Major George Eskridge, 
a Welchman, for whom she named her firstborn 
in grateful memory, for she lived under his roof 
awhile at Sandy Point in the Northern Neck. 

Major Eskridge had a most peculiar history 
which helps to visualize the awful times current 
then and later on, for terrible things have hap- 
pened in England. He was as a young man study- 
ing law at his home in Wales, and, chancing to 
be on the coast, a band of ruffians made upon him 
when he was bent in study, seized and bound 
him, and threw him on a ship, by which he was 
taken to Virginia and sold into slavery. Those 
were days when “Redemption” was common, and 
for eight years he was thus held, with no re- 
dress. He had to toll as a slave, and was forbid- 
den to even write to his loved ones. But having 
by his, work won his liberty, he very soon rose to 
high honor in the Colony, and had the distinc- 
tion of having the First President of the United 
States named for him. Chapters could be written 
of the white slaves, or redemption emigrants, who 
paid for voyage by hard labor. 


66 


^opfederat^ l/eterap. 


FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE CON- 
FEDERACY. 


BY MRS. JOHN H. ANDERSON, PRIZE ESSAY OF NORTH 
CAROLINA DIVISION, U. D. C., 1931. 

(Continued from January Number) 

Let us consider now the value of cotton to the 
Confederacy and the part it had to play in the 
South’s foreign relations. The United States 
government adopted measures, the object of which 
was practically and effectually to plunder us of 
a large portion of our crop of cotton and secure 
its transportation to the manufacturers of Eu- 
rope. Instead of declaring the blockade ineffec- 
tive, as it really was, England and France sought, 
through informal applications to Secretary Sew- 
ard, to obtain opportunities for an increased ex- 
portation of cotton from the Confederacy. (In 
his Rise and Fall of the Confederacy, Mr. Davis 
quotes repeatedly from letters verifying these 
facts.) 

It was especially in relation to the so-called 
blockade that the policy of European powers was 
so shaped as to cause the greatest injury to the 
Confederacy and to confer signal advantages on 
the United States. Neutral Europe remained pas- 
sive when the United States, with a naval force 
insufficient to blockade effectively the ports of a 
single State, proclaimed a paper blockade of thou- 
sands of miles of coasts, from the Capes of the 
Chesapeake to those of Florida, and the Gulf of 
Mexico to the mouth of the Rio Grande. Mr. 
Davis says : “Compared with this monstrous pre- 
tension of the United States, the blockades known 
in history under the names of the Berlin and Mi- 
lan Decrees, and the British Orders in Council, in 
the years 1806 and 1907, sink into insignificance. 
Those blockades were justified by the powers that 
declared them, on the sole ground that they were 
retaliatory; yet they had since been condemned 
by the publicists of those very powers as viola- 
tions of international law. It will be remembered 
that those blockades evoked angry remonstrances 
from neutral powers, among which the United 
States were the most conspicuous, and were in 
their consequence the chief cause of the war be- 
tween Great Britain and the United States in 
1812; also, they formed one of the principal mo- 
tives that led to the Declaration of the Congress 
of Paris in 1856, in the fond hope of imposing an 
enduring check on the very abuse of maritime 
power which was renewed by the United States in 
1861 and 1862, under circumstances and with 
features of aggravated wrong without precedent 
in history.” 


We have seen that repeated remonstrances were 
made by the Confederate government to neutral 
powers against the blockade; that our commerce 
with foreign nations was interrupted, not by shut- 
ting up our ports, but by watching the ports of the 
West Indies, and by the capture on the high seas 
of neutral vessels by the cruisers of our enemies, 
whenever supposed to be bound to any point on 
our extensive coast. Neutral Europe received all 
this and submitted in unbroken silence to all the 
wrongs the United States chose to inflict on our 
commerce. Mr. Davis says that their declared 
neutrality was delusive, not real, and conferred 
signal advantages on our enemy. 

It was said that England did not wish to raise 
the blockade, as she wished to see the Southern 
production of cotton destroyed in order to become 
both spinner and raiser, so that after the war the 
South could no longer control the market. Eng- 
land desired to become the main producer of cot- 
ton and was willing for it to be kept for years at 
a high price. She knew that cotton was the source 
of power in the Confederacy so long as it could 
be raised there in large quantities at low prices. 

The privations resulting from the interruptions 
of foreign trade caused the Confederates to prac- 
tice the closest economy, but it also gave remarka- 
ble stimulation to all kinds of domestic manufac- 
turing. The administration was using every op- 
portunity to get cargoes of cotton out to sea and 
to bring in through the blockade a return cargo 
of arms, clothing, and blankets. Some of these 
returns came into obscure ports, while others 
came by way of Mexico overland through Texas. 

The Confederate government had early pui- 
chased in England two Clyde River steamers, the 
name of one being changed to Lady Davis in 
honor of President Davis’s wife. These plied be- 
tween Wilmington and Bermuda, carrying out 
heavy cargoes of cotton and bringing in arms and 
other supplies. As the "vyar progressed, notwith- 
standing .the attendant risks, blockade runners 
multiplied and the commerce became greatly en- 
larged. There were probably one hundred ships 
engaged at Wilmington alone during 1863, con- 
stantly carrying out cargoes of cotton. The pro- 
visions brought in were most helpful to the Con- 
federacy, so much so that when Fort Fisher fell 
and the blockade runners ceased, the Confederacy 
fell, for our supplies were entirely cut off. 

North Carolina engaged extensively in this 
cotton commerce with European nations, and, 
through the wise foresight of Governor Vance, a 
blockade runner was bought by the State early 


57 


Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 


in 1863, proving an invaluable carrier for North 
Carolina's cotton to Bermuda. 

Until 1863, Fraser, Trenholm & Company were 
the only European bankers, or “Depositories,” of 
the Confederate Treasury. They paid the drafts 
of the Confederate purchasing agents in Europe 
and the bills drawn by the heads of Departments 
at Richmond. So, when Congress made appro- 
priations for building vessels in Europe, the navy 
made a requisition on the Treasury for the 
amount, and received Treasury notes to be con- 
verted by buying cotton and shipping through the 
blockade to these European bankers, who placed 
the proceeds to the Confederate navy. In this 
way, in 1862, a million dollars was placed to the 
credit of Captain Bulloch, the naval agent in 
Europe. It was found necessary before long to 
resort to other means of finance than cotton, for 
it was seen that the blockade and the war were 
continuing. In September, the Confederate Com- 
missioner, Mason, suggested that money might be 
commanded in England by the use of cotton 
bonds or obligations for the delivery of cotton at 
any Confederate port upon the thirty days’ re- 
mand of the holder of the bond, or within three 
months after peace. Erlanger (whose son was 
engaged to Commissioner Slidell’s daughter) 
made a proposal to float Confederate loans of five 
million pounds. However, a loan based on cotton 
certificates was accepted by the Confederate gov- 
ernment, it being placed on the European market 
March 18, 1863, and Mason, rejoicing that it was 
a brilliant success, wrote Secretary Benjamin that 
in two and a half days the subscription to the 
loan reached sixteen million pounds. Mason 
wrote ; “I congratulate you on the triumphant suc- 
cess of our infant credit. It shows that cotton is 
king at last” Agents of the United States were 
trying to discredit this loan by large purchasers 
and low rates. “But,” wrote Mason, “our pur- 
chase of the stock may yet turn out to be a money- 
making affair.” 

The loan dropped somewhat when the news ar- 
rived that the United States ships had run the 
batteries at Vicksburg. After the news from 
Gettysburg, it soon fell to thirty per cent. Mason 
saw that the Confederacy could not expect an- 
other loan, and that the government should ar- 
range to ship cotton to Nassau and Bermuda by 
fast steamers running the blockade and under 
government control. C. J. McRae was sent to 
Europe about June 1 as special agent of the Treas- 
ury Department and to negotiate the sale of 
Treasury bonds, for Confederate disbursing offi- 


cers in Europe were in arrears. In August there 
were only seven hundred thousand pounds on 
hand, while much more was needed for the Con- 
federate government engagements for the army 
and navy. 

Before the end of 1864, the net proceeds of the 
Erlanger loan were exhausted, and after the fall 
of Fort Fisher the small amount of funds from 
the sale of bonds ceased. The intercourse with 
the Confederacy being cut off, to get money for 
urgent wants, McRae sold several ships and trans- 
ferred the funds to the Treasury Department. 
The financial agents of the Confederacy in Europe 
saw that transmission of supplies must cease and 
stopped their purchases and shipments. 

The depreciation of the currency and the lack 
of transportation made it very difficult for the 
Confederate armies to get living rations during 
the last months of the war. Secretary of the 
Treasury Trenholm tried to mend the currency by 
purchasing all the cotton and tobacco, selling it to 
foreign merchants and buying Treasury notes 
with the proceeds. 

When the war closed, the Confederate agents 
abroad had no large sums of money to turn over 
to the United States. 

An interesting chapter in the history of the 
Confederacy is of the financial operations in Eng- 
land. The special Commissioner appointed by 
North Carolina to England was John White, of 
Warrenton, who was entrusted with State bonds 
and was authorized to deliver in England certain 
quantities of cotton. This agent also secured cot- 
ton contracts for the State, and the correspond- 
ence between Mr. White and Governor Vance con- 
cerning these financial operations is most enter- 
taining, giving an insight into the Confederate 
foreign relations. Mr. White writes: “Cotton is 
equal to gold in England (this in 1864), and the 
clothing and other articles of merchandise sent 
from England will be of immense service to our 
soldiers.” Governor Vance writes to Mr. White, 
expressing his approval of his negotiations, and 
.says : “The generous merchants who befriended a 
people in their death struggle for freedom and in- 
dependence must feel that their investment is a 
.safe one.” 

It must be said here that without the protection 
of Fort Fisher by the Confederacy, these financial 
foreign relations could not have been kept up by 
our blockade runners. 

One serious and early subject of diplomatic cor- 
respondence was caused by the construction at 
British shipyards of vessels said to be designed 


58 


QoQfederat^ l/eterai). 


for the use of the Confederacy. The steamers 
Alabama and Florida first floated as harmless 
trade vessels, but soon appeared in the character 
of destructive battleships, and the fear was rea- 
sonable that an increase of the Confederate navy 
of that pattern might ruin all commerce by ves- 
sels bearing the United States flag. When the 
American minister at London, in 1862, questioned 
Lord Russell as to Confederate ships built in 
British navy yards, the latter reminded him that 
the Queen’s neutrality proclamation of 1861 had 
been disregarded by United States agents, who 
had bought and shipped from British ports to 
New York large supplies of arms and military 
stores. It is true the Confederacy had likewise 
bought munitions of war in England, but Lord 
Russell wrote that the United States had profited 
by far the most in these purchases. Furthermore, 
the British government, through violation of its 
own law and a deference to the demands of the 
United States, made an ineffectual attempt and 
did seize another vessel of the Confederacy and 
subjected her to great prosecution, just at the 
time when cargoes of war munitions were openly 
shipped from British ports to New York to be 
used in warfare against us. Truly, this leading 
European power observed a hollow profession of 
neutrality during the War between the States! 

As to the claims of the United States against 
the building of the Alabama in a British shipyard, 
Mr. Laird, member of Parliament and senior 
member of this shipbuilding firm, exposed in the 
House of Commons the hypocrisy of the repre- 
sentations made by the United States ; for he had 
letters from the United States government as first 
applying for terms on which the Messrs. Laird 
would build an iron-plated man-of-war, finished 
completely with guns, etc. Referring to the 
Alabama, as she left his shipyards, Mr. Laird 
said: “If a ship without guns and without arms 
is a dangerous article, surely rifled guns and am- 
munition of all sorts are even more dangerous.” 
He then proceeded to expose to Parliament the 
bills of entry in customhouses of England of the 
great amount of ammunition and arms shipped to 
the United States. 

The British government had detained several 
steam rams on the complaint that they were being 
built for the Confederacy, and more and more 
frequent was shown the injustice of England. 
Although it had been arranged to have four ves- 
sels of the Alabama type built in France, yet, 
when the United States protested, Napoleon found 
it inexpedient to favor the Confederacy. 


The Confederacy had been disappointed by the 
action of the French government, whose Emperor 
had at first shown great sympathy for this gov- 
ernment. Napoleon had proposed to England that 
the three courts should endeavor to bring about 
the suspension of arms for six months between 
the United States and the Confederacy, in order 
to bring about negotiations for peace. The three 
powers would only interfere to smooth the ob- 
stacles and within the limits which the two gov- 
ernments would prescribe in order to bring about 
a peaceful settlement of the war. 

In England, Lindsay’s motion for mediation 
had been hanging fire in the House of Commons 
for some time. He had reviewed the causes of 
the war and showed that the cause was not to 
the opposition against slavery, but to “taxation 
without representation.” Although public senti- 
ment in England was for the South, yet with the 
present ministry the British government could 
not be driven to a decided position. Mason con- 
trasted the friendliness of French statesmen with 
the “rude incivility of Russell.” Mason’s house 
continued to be the resort for Confederate sympa- 
thizers. 

The Confederate government felt that England 
had deviated from her own principles, that no 
blockade was binding unless enforced, and that 
she refused to reply to requests for explanation. 

By December many in the Confederacy had de- 
spaired of the intervention by European powers, 
though Slidell, as special ambassador to Spain, 
found that the Spanish minister at Paris was in 
sympathy with the Confederates. But after the 
news of Gettysburg and Vicksburg, Slidell was 
informed that nothing could be effected at Madrid. 
The plans in the British Parliament had failed, 
though there were a number of Southern clubs 
organized throughout England that were eager to 
aid the Confederacy. 

The Confederacy had a “Lafayette,” for the 
Prince DePolignac of France came to the aid of 
the Confederacy and commanded a brigade in its 
army, under Gen. E. Kirby Smith. 

Several Englishmen, too, of noble birth, served 
with honor in the Confederacy. 

The Confederate Congress declined to send com- 
missioners to the Industrial Exposition to be held 
at London and resolved further to abandon all 
attempts to conciliate the favor and secure the 
recognition of Great Britain. 

In all attempts to secure European recognition 
or aid, by offer of commercial advantages or al- 
liance, the Confederacy had failed, and in its 


59 


Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 


plans to raise a navy in French ports, it had been 
duped by Napoleon, Notwithstanding the im- 
mense war debts that had been piling up, the 
United States had the confidence of foreign pow- 
ers, and they feared to oppose her while the Con- 
federacy was being crushed. Very few now as- 
serted the political power of cotton stored in Con- 
federate warehouses, or doubted that the crisis in 
the English cotton famine was over. It was the 
darkest period in the Confederacy, and its Presi- 
dent began to feel convinced that intervention by 
European powers was a forlorn hope. However, 
there was sent to England by the Confederacy, 
the last of the winter of 1864, an agent who had 
a commanding infiuence in this Confederate Con- 
gress, This was Duncan F, Kenner, of Louisiana, 
an intimate friend of Judah P, Benjamin, Secre- 
tary of State, An able man of conservative views, 
educated in Europe and speaking French fluently, 
he was asked to go to Europe with general in- 
structions, giving him not only power as a Com- 
missioner to make treaties, but with instructions 
to negotiate for the sale of cotton. But this was 
too late, for after the fall of Fort Fisher, Eng- 
land’s actions toward the United States were even 
more friendly than before. All hope of recogni- 
tion by England was gone, and the end of the 
four years’ struggle for Southern independence 
was at hand. In a letter to Slidell on December 
29, Secretary of State Benjamin stated that “the 
Confederacy had really been fighting the battles 
of England and France ; that if the war had been 
against the United States alone, it would have 
long since ceased, but that, in calculating the 
length of the war, the Confederacy had not ex- 
pected Europe to aid the United States by the 
abandonment of the rights of neutrals, by closing 
ports to Confederate prizes, by the seizure of ves- 
sels intended for the Confederacy, and by indif- 
ference to an unequal fight ; that notwithstanding 
miscalculations and the afflictions caused by the 
blockade and devastation, the Confederates were 
determined to struggle for her rights of govern- 
ment,” 

The efforts to gain the recognition of England 
and France by economic pressure failed as we 
have seen. Finally, let us endeavor to summarize 
the reasons. First, the British manufacturers 
were stocked up with enough goods for two years 
and would have had to close their factories and 
take a tremendous loss had not the embargo and 
blockade cut off the cotton supply and permitted 
them to sell their old stock at an enormous profit 
(estimated at around 40,000,000 pounds sterling). 


and the French manufacturers made proportional 
profits ; the British were able to make great prog- 
ress in building up their culture of cotton in 
India, which they hoped would soon make them 
independent of the Southern supply, England, 
due to Confederate commerce destroyers, took 
over a great portion of the American merchant 
marine and virtually all of the American carrying 
trade, which was worth more to her in the long 
run than the cotton; England made enormous 
profits from the sale of munitions to the United 
States, and an intervention in behalf of the South 
would have cut off this trade, of course ; she made 
profits from her woolen manufacture and trade 
which exceeded by 27,000,000 pounds sterling that 
of. pre-war days, and an excess profit in linen 
manufacture during the two years, 1862-64, of 
around 14,500,000 pounds sterling, besides em- 
ploying in these two industries around 200,000 
extra employees, thus making up to a large extent 
the unemployment in the cotton districts. These 
are the chief reasons why there was no interven- 
tion, and they may be characterized as profits. 
That is, despite all the calculations of the South, 
and despite much suffering among the operative,®^ 
in the cotton industry, England actually made a 
great profit out of the American war, and chief 
of the profiteers were the owners of the cotton 
mills themselves. So, from a purely selfish rea- 
son, England did not range herself upon the side 
of the South, 

So the Confederacy failed in gaining the recog- 
nition of foreign powers, but the result was not 
attributable to any fault or negligence on the 
part of those who worked for its success. All the 
history of this phase of the Confederacy shows 
diplomatic skill and reflects credit upon those de- 
voted statesmen who took part in the foreign 
affairs of that government. The course of events 
was beyond their control. 

The Confederate States government ceased to 
exist with the surrender of its armies. It had 
won the praise of eminent statesmen as having 
the best form of constitution the world ever saw. 
Its administration had been able, humane, and 
considerate of justice. It deserves the esteem 
which great nations gave it, though they did not 
take its part in its courageous struggle for States 
Rights,. 

An Englishman of distinction has given this 
deserved tribute to the Confederate government : 

“No nation rose so white and fair. 

None fell so pure of crime,” 


60 


^opfederat^ l/etera^. 


THE SOUTHERN LITERARY MESSENGER. 

BY MRS. C. F. COATES, SALEM, VA. 

This well-known magazine of the “Old South,” 
so familiar to every one who pretends to a knowl- 
edge of literature, and a household word to al- 
most every refined family of that time, was first 
published in August, 1835. It continued in exist- 
ence until 1864, when its career was interrupted 
by the chaotic conditions produced by the down- 
fall of the Confederacy. 

^ Among the editors we find the names of T. W. 
White, 1833 to 1864; Edgar Allan Poe, January, 
1837, to January, 1843; B. B. Minor, from No- 
vember, 1847, to May, 1863; J. R. Thompson, 
June, 1860, to January, 1864; G. W. Bagby, Jan- 
uary to June, 1864; T. H. Alfriend, Benjamin 
Blake, and J. Reuben at short periods. 

This magazine was devoted to every depart- 
ment of literature and the fine arts, and had for 
contributors the best writers of the day. North- 
ern and Southern. Although devoted more ex- 
clusively to the interests of the South, it was 
liberal and just to its Northern neighbors and 
sought to equalize the prejudices of the “abolition- 
ists” and the slaveholders of Dixie. The editor 
declares, “One object of a work like the Messen- 
ger is to improve the exercise of thought and the 
habit of composition. A literary novice, when he 
sees himself in print and contrasts his productions 
with those of more mature minds and more prac- 
ticed hands, will rouse himself to greater effort.” 

A literary man of note, who says he is more 
“domiciliated” in the South, compliments the 
magazine in the following words: “Periodicals 
have for me a kind of physiognomy. Some look 
silly and death-doomed from their birth. Yours 
gives signs of a vigorous and healthful Vitality. 
May it live long and prosper.” 

In examining carefully the first bound volume 
found in the Library of Roanoke College, at Salem, 
Va., we are struck with the variety of depart- 
ments exploited at that early period of magazine 
editorship. We find remarkable editorials on the 
writers of the day — Mrs. Sigourney, Washington 
Irving, J. K. Paulding, J. Fenimore Cooper, John 
Quincy Adams, and Peter A. Brown — all of whom 
write encouraging letters to the editor commenda- 
tory of his literary venture. Washington Irving 
says: “Your literary enterprise has my highest 
approval and warmest good wishes. Strongly dis- 
posed as I always have been in favor of the South, 
and especially attached to Virginia by early 
friendship and cherished recollections, I can but 


feel interested in the success of a work which is 
calculated to concentrate the talent and illustrate 
the high and generous character that pervades 
that part of the Union.” 

We quote also from J. K. Paulding’s letter of 
comments: “The Muses must certainly reside 
somewhere in the beautiful Valley and on the 
banks of the clear streams of the mountains of 
Virginia. Solitude is the muse of the imagina- 
tion ; and if there be any Virginian lass or lad that 
ever seeks, they will assuredly find inspiration 
among the retired beauties of her lonely retreats.” 
Then he advises : “Give us something new, some- 
thing characteristic of yourselves, your country 
and your native feelings, and I don’t care what it 
is. I am somewhat tired of licentious love ditties, 
border legends, affected sorrows and grumbling 
misanthropies. I want to see something whole- 
some, natural, and national. The best thing a 
young writer can do is to forget that anybody 
ever wrote before him, and, above all things, 
that there are such caterpillars as critics in the 
world.” 

James Fenimore Cooper encouragingly writes: 
“The South is full of talent, and the leisure of its 
gentlemen ought to enable them to bring it freely 
into action. If some I could name would arouse 
them from their lethargy, you would not be driven 
to apply to anyone on this side of the Potomac 
for assistance.” 

We find some wonderful poetry in the pages of 
the Messenger. The editor in comment quotes 
the saying of Horace, “Neither God nor men can 
endure middling poetry,” but upon examination 
we find very few poems are of the “middling”, 
variety. Many writers sign only their initials, 
and seem afraid to declare themselves the au- 
thors of their productions. Compared to some of 
the modern-manner poetry, these lyrics are as the 
flowing melodies of Spain and Italy to the 
Hawaiian jazz of to-day. The well known lines, 
“My life is like a summer rose,” is one of these, 
supposedly written by R. H. Wilde, then a member 
of the House of Representatives of Georgia. “The 
Bowers of Faith” has been termed Miltonian by 
one critic. “Hymn to the Stars,” by D. Martin, 
of Mobile, Ala., “Young Rosabel Lee,” by Philip 
Pendleton Cook, of Winchester, Va., are all ex- 
cellent. “Poem of a Collegian,” of the University 
of Virginia, is especially beautiful. There are 
also poems by Mrs. Sigourney, of Hartford, Conn., 
and William Cullen Bryant. Many sonnets are in- 
cluded in the collection, such as, “To Virginia,” 


61 


QoQfederat^ l/eterai). 


“The Sea,” “To lolanthe,” by Fergus, “Sorrows 
of Love,” by Poe, “Rocked in the Cradle of the 
Deep,” “A Song of the Seasons,” by Harry Lyle, 
“The Miniature,” by George A. Norris, which 
was translated into four languages and set to 
music. 

Harriet Martineau, of England, having come 
over to report on our morals and manners, con- 
demns waltzing in the following verse: 

“She is pretty, I agree. 

But she waltzes. Sir, you see, 

And I would not give a fig 
For a dancing Whirl-i-gig.” 

In the records of the Virginia Historical So- 
ciety, published periodically in the Messenger, are 
found many historical occurrences not recorded in 
general accounts of that era. One is the record 
of Grace Sherwood’s trial for witchcraft in 1705, 
in Princess Anne County, Virginia. Also, “In- 
dian Wars,” by Colonel Stuart of Greenbrier; 
“The Battle of Point Pleasant,” in which Gen. 
Andrew Lewis figured; and the Stamp Act Re- 
bellion, by the Sons of Liberty, with a history of 
the latter organization. 

A feature of the magazine is a description of 
the many scenes of natural beauty to be found in 
the State of Virginia, as Bald Knob, near Rocky 
Mount; Home Mountain, near Lexington; Beaver 
Dam and Sweet Springs, Chotank and Blue Ridge 
Mountains, Peaks of Otter, White Sulphur, and 
numerous other springs; Natural Bridge, Moun- 
tain Lake, then called Salt Pond. Tribute is also 
paid in prose and verse to the caverns and caves, 
and the many stories of Indian warfare connected 
with them. 

Many short stories by different writers are 
featured. Poe has “Morelia,” “Lionizing,” “Vis- 
ionary,” “Berenice,” “Wild Tale,” “Bon-Bon” — 
all in the vivid Poe manner — tales which when 
read in childhood made your hair stand on end 
“like quills upon a fretful porcupine,” or gave you 
the terrifying feeling when going upstairs to bed 
at night of something frightful following at your 
heels, ready to seize you. 

Notable amongst the College Commencement 
addresses reported is one at Hampden-Sydney on 
La Fayette, given by John Quincy Adams. Adams’ 
style is severely criticized. Another was “A De- 
fense of Slavery,” delivered to the law class at 
William and Mary by Blackstone. 

Among the reviews of periodicals of that day 
mention is made of the Southern Churchman, or- 


gan of the Episcopal Church, edited by William F. 
Lee, and LittelVs Museum of Foreign Literature, 
the North American Review (criticized for not be- 
ing up to date), London Quarterly Review, and 
American Quxirterly Riview. Among the books 
reviewed, Lee’s “Napoleon Bonaparte,” Bancroft’s 
“History of the United States,” Spark’s “Wash- 
ington Correspondence” and “Life of Kosciusco,” 
in the Foreign Quarterly Review. Many biographi- 
cal sketches of prominent men of Virginia and 
others of the South are included in the contents of 
the magazine. 

The social life of that day is depicted in lively 
style in many articles, contrasting vividly with 
our modern club meetings, banquets, costume 
balls, erratic, fantastic, and savage dances, bridge 
parties, teas, automobile tours, European travel 
groups, and sea-bathing diversions. Frances Ann 
Butler, an English actress of the day who was in- 
troduced to Philadelphia and New York society, 
says in her journal: “Society is entirely led by 
chits who, in England, would be sitting behind a 
pinafore. It has neither the elegance, refinement 
nor propriety which belong to ours, but is a 
noisy, racketty, vulgar congregation of flirting 
boys and girls, alike without style and decorum.” 
She also decries the waltz, just then introduced 
from Europe, while acknowledging its intoxica- 
tion, and, after promising her partner to desist, 
exclaims in these words, “So, farewell sweet Ger- 
man waltz! Next to hock, the most intoxicating 
growth of the Rhineland.” 

Concerning the waltz and gallopade, another 
writer says, “The author is mistaken if he sup- 
poses we have favored those outlandish innova- 
tions upon Virginia simplicity.” Still another 
says, “Dancing is of barbarous origin. The 
minuette was all right, and was danced by Wash- 
ington with his wife.” Conversation parties, 
which consisted of talk exclusively, each trying to 
outdo the other, and no one listening to anyone 
else, trying to outdo the Tower of Babel ; soirees 
or evening parties of card playing, dancing, drink- 
ing, and uproarous mirth; the squeeze, crowding 
as many people as possible into the smallest space 
possible and dancing with various steps, yclept 
“chicken flutter,” “forked lightning,” “heel-and- 
toe,” and “corn shuffle.” 

A young lady upon being scolded by her father 
for coming down late to breakfast after returning 
from a party that lasted from ten to three a.m., 
and being asked what she had to eat, says, “I only 
ate a chicken salad, a wing of turkey, some jelly, 
a few macaroons and mottoes, a dozen pickled 


62 


Qopfederafc^ l/eterap. 


oysters, and drank a few glasses of champagne — 
that’s all excepting a sponge cake or two, and 
a glass of lemonade during dancing, and a little 
ginger sweetmeats. There’s Lizzie ate twice as 
much as I did” — ^to which Lizzie replied, “No, I 
didn’t, but I was more select : A few slices of cold 
tongue, a piece of a-la-mode beef, three pickles, a 
few olives, some blanc-mange, two plates of ice- 
cream, a little floating island, some truffles and 
bon-bons, and oranges, and plum cake and custard 
during the evening. I am sure I do not care much 
for solids.” Shades of balanced diet fiends of the 
present day with their vitamines and calories! 
The slender figure was certainly not in vogue at 
that day and time, or the digestive fluids they par- 
took of counteracted the quantity and quality of 
food. 

Jokes per se do not seem to be a special feature, 
although we find abundance of wit in many ar- 
ticles and book reviews. The criticisms are es- 
pecially scintillant in sarcastic comment. 

Contemporary history receives due attention, 
as in a series of articles on Affairs in Tripoli, 
the French Republic, and the English Parlia- 
ment. La Fayette’s visit to Williamsburg, the 
ancient colonial capitol, in state, with three hun- 
dred or more attendants, is minutely described by 
one correspondent. His carriage is drawn by 
four cream-colored horses, and he is attended by 
Lord Dunmore, Sir Alexander Spottswood, Lord 
Botetourt, and Robert Dinwiddle. A description 
is given of the first Convention assembled in Rich- 
mond attended by Madison, Monroe, Giles, Mar- 
shall, Randolph, Lee, and Governor Tazewell. 
Letters of Thomas Jefferson quoted show him to 
have been interested in several young ladies, whom 
he mentions by name. 

Unlike the modern magazine, there are few, 
if any, illustrations, and no illustrated advertise- 
ments. Lack of the latter contributes substan- 
tially to efforts of concentration on the subject 
matter published. 

Travelogues are an entertaining feature, both 
local and foreign countries figuring largely in its 
pages. 

Another feature is entitled, “Notes and Anec- 
dotes, from 1738 to 1830,” of many prominent 
characters of the period, as Napoleon, Cuvier, and 
Michaud. These are translations from the 
French especially for the Messenger, and also 
from the Greek, German, and Swedish. 

There are many articles on education, including 
discussions of the relative importance of language 
and science study, and stressing the use of good 


English. The editor on criticism is especially 
caustic when there is a misuse of the language. 

We find continued stories, some poetical, as 
“Navrine,” by Miss E. Draper. We also find the 
editor using the trick of more modern magazines 
of leaving the conclusion of an interesting story 
for the first or second number of the ensuing 
year, giving the subscriber the alternative of re- 
newing his subscription, or of missing the conclu- 
sion of the story. 

Reviews of the works of many authors are 
given, as Dickens, Cooper, Bulwer, Mrs. Hemans, 
DeFoe, Letters of John Randolph of Roanoke, 
Coleridge, Halleck, author of the oft-quoted, 
“None knew thee but to love thee, none named 
thee but to praise.” “The Culprit Fay,” by Drake, 
is compared with Shelley’s “Queen Mab” to the 
advantage of the latter. Many Italian writers 
are noticed, as “Francesca di Rimini,” drama by 
Silvie Bellier, Manzoni, Monti and Nicolini. 
There is a notice also of the British and Foreign 
Medical Review, published in 1836. 

There is scope for a much more extensive de- 
scription of the contents of this most successful 
publication of pre-war days, but the limits of this 
paper preclude further comment. We advise 
those who have the opportunity to investigate this 
treasure house for themselves. 


AT THE FALL OF SELMA, ALA. 

[From memoirs of Capt. T. F. Pinckney, in the 
Austin American Statesman. Captain Pinckney, 
now living in Austin, Tex., is the last survivor of 
'his company.] 

It came to pass in the estimation of the Federal 
authorities at Washington that once the Mis- 
sissippi River should fall into their hands, the 
backbone of the Confederacy would be broken; 
for, with New Orleans, Baton Rouge, Port Hud- 
son, Vicksburg and Memphis in their permanent 
control, “what could the Rebels do?” In the sum- 
mer of 1863 their heart’s desire in that respect 
was realized and the spirit of their armies raised 
accordingly, and, truth to tell, although the out- 
come of the great conflict was then in the lap of 
the future, we now know that the chances for 
the success of the Southern cause were growing 
very dim, for on the day that Vicksburg sur- 
rendered (July 3, 1863), on that same day the 
army of Northern Virginia under General Lee 
was beginning its retreat from Pennsylvania and 
General Bragg was retreating from Tennessee. 

And the Yankees, having thus split the Con- 


63 


Qopfederat^ l/eteraij. 


federacy in two by a North and South line, they 
now proposed to subdivide it by an East and West 
line, from Vicksburg east to Meridian, to destroy 
the big railroad system there, and on east to Sel- 
ma, the “very apple of their eyes” where there 
were large factories and stores of army supplies, 
and eastward or southward to the Seaboard. 

And, in pursuance of this last bold scheme 
General Sherman started from Vicksburg for Me- 
ridian on February 3, 1864, but, on arriving at 
Meridian and destroying the railroads there and 
failing to get the help of Yankee General Sooy 
Smith, who was expected to meet him with his 
cavalry corps, Sherman returned to Vicksburg, 
and the capture of Selma was postponed to a later 
date. 

And so, on April 2, 1865, the city of Selma was 
in fact captured by the Federal army under Ma- 
jor General James H. Wilson, and this victory 
was the culmination of another Yankee dream. 
But on that never-to-be-forgotten day of April 
2, 1865, Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest was also 
at Selma. He had been fighting Wilson con- 
tinuously in the effort to prevent him from reach- 
ing Selma, and in a desperate engagement at 
Bogler’s Creek the day before, he had been 
wounded and had to carry his arm in a sling. He 
had made definite plans to defend the city to the 
best of his ability, although he knew that he would 
be greatly outnumbered. He had sent dispatches 
to his subaltern brigadiers by his couriers who 
had been captured by Wilson’s scouts, and, at 10 
A.M., without knowing that his couriers had been 
captured, he was eagerly and anxiously waiting 
to hear from his brigade commanders, and it hap- 
pened that I was in company with him at that 
hour. 

But he waited in vain, and, his brigadiers hav- 
ing failed to receive his orders, he was compelled 
to meet Wilson’s vigorous attacks with an inade- 
quate force. And no wonder that this great and 
glorious fighter, who never fumbled or refused a 
challenge to combat, should under such circum- 
stances feel impelled to make every man help to 
defend the threatened city. 

The capture of his couriers, the failure of his 
brigadiers to get to Selma in time to help him, 
and his whole campaign thus disrupted, though 
no fault of his own, was enough to make a saint 
swear. But, as all the world now knows, after all 
his troubles and disappointments his courage 
never faltered and, with only a mere handful of 
his brave followers, he cut his way out through 
Wilson’s lines and the enemy failed to capture 


the Wizard, although every Yankee general was 
hot on his trail with orders to “kill Forrest.” 

Here begins my own rather strange and some- 
what amusing little story. 

As stated above, on the morning of April 2, 
1865, I was for a short time in company with 
General Forrest. We were sitting together on 
some wooden steps across the street south of Gee 
Hotel, waiting to take our turn for something to 
eat at the restaurant to which the steps led ; and, 
while sitting there, a squad of Forrest’s soldiers 
under a corporal came to the general for instruc- 
tions. The general, sitting there, his wounded 
arm in a sling, told the corporal to patrol the 
streets of the city and to arrest every man they 
met and send them to the trenches, that it mat- 
tered not who they might be or what their rank 
or profession, all hands must go to the trenches 
(for Wilson was then approaching and in sight 
of the city), and so the corporal and his guards 
proceeded at once to carry out the general’s in- 
structions. 

I was somewhat surprised to hear the general 
give this order, that I soon learned that the cir- 
cumstances justified the order; but it so happened 
that I was captured a few hours later by Wilson’s 
troops in consequence of this order of General 
Forrest. 

It was then at Selma, a captain on extra or su- 
pernumerary duty, acting as ordinance officer on 
Colonel Royston’s staff, and had been issuing 
arms to Confederate soldiers passing through the 
city returning to their several commands. While 
doing so, I had chosen for my own use a good army 
rifle in anticipation of General Wilson’s attack 
on the city, and when I left General Forrest at 
the restaurant, I armed myself with my rifle and 
my sword, hurried to a livery stable, saddled and 
mounted a horse there, and put out for the 
trenches in the southwest part of the city, into 
a small fort, where I let loose my rifle against Wil- 
son’s hordes. 

Wilson, with a body of splendid cavalry, was 
just commencing an attack on our little fort, but 
as they had to cross two deep ditches and a high 
railroad embankment, they retreated and dis- 
mounted and renewed their attack as infantry, 
and as they left obliqued toward a company of 
State militia on our right, those gallant heroes 
beat a hasty retreat and we in the little fort had 
to vacate it or be captured; and as our little fort 
was no longer tenable and the enemy were about 
to shut us off from the rest of our troops, and the 
city also, we simply had to skedaddle from there. 


64 


^oi^federat^ Ueterap. 


Leaving my noble steed to take care of himself 
as best he could, I made my way back toward the 
center of the city to join (as I thought) our other 
victorious Confederate defenders, and right then 
and there the result of General Forrest’s unusual 
order given in my presence to his squad of sol- 
diers reached its inevitable culmination. 

As I went hurrying up the street, rifle in hand 
and my sword buckled around my waist, I ran 
into a body of Wilson’s troops waiting for my ap- 
proach at the corner. Thinking they were Gen- 
eral Forrest’s squad of patrols obeying his in- 
structions to pick up stragglers, I marched boldly 
on, although I had ample opportunity to escape 
them, and when I reached the corner two of the 
troopers left their ranks and demanded my arms. 
When I told them I would see them in hell before 
I would do so, and explaining to them that I was 
a commissioned officer fighting on my own hook, 
and calling for the officer in command, made to 
him the same explanation. The commander, a 
Major Wood, rode up to the sidewalk and said, 
“It makes no difference. Sir. You are a prisoner 
of war.” 

And thus I was caught in a trap, but little did 
I care, for I knew they couldn’t hold me long. 

They then marched me up town to the Gee 
House, where they had herded up about a thou- 
sand of us Rebs and citizens. 

In the meantime. General Forrest, realizing the 
situation and seeing that he could no longer with- 
stand the overwhelming forces of the enemy, cut 
his way out through Wilson’s lines with a handful 
of his brave and devoted followers, and, still fight- 
ing, made his way to Marion, where he halted 
waiting for further orders. 

The Yankees then put their prisoners in a 
stockade in the suburbs of the city and kept them 
there while they built a pontoon bridge over the 
Alabama River and destroyed the factories and 
army stores at Selma. But as I was a commis- 
sioned officer and on the staff of Colonel Royston, 
the Commander of the Post, they granted me a 
parole to the limits of the city, which I strictly 
observed. When they had finished their pontoon 
bridge across the river, they gathered all their 
prisoners and proceeded across the country to- 
ward Montgomery and a Northern prison. 

And that suited me to a dot, for as I had made 
up my mind never to allow myself to be taken to 
a Northern prison, I determined to escape even 
if I lost my life in the attempt. 

So, about ten miles out of Selma on the route to 


Montgomery, watching for a chance when the 
mounted guards were not watching me too closely, 
I made a dive for a thicket on the side of the road 
and lay there flat on the ground until all the 
guards and wagon trains had passed by. I then 
crawled to the bed of a nearby creek and thence 
up the creek and through the woods, wandering 
all night until next morning at daylight, I took 
to the highway back to Selma, where I stayed un- 
til the news of General Lee’s surrender reached 
me there and put a stop to all the fighting, and 
we then made our weary way back to our ruined 
homes and families wiser if not better men. 

And thus endeth the story of my last shot for 
the Confederacy and the land I loved. 

Now, after the lapse of sixty-five years and 
plenty of time for study and reflection, I believe 
that the Southern cause could have been made 
successful, and our armies victorious if Gen- 
eral Forrest had been made commander of 
all the Southern armies south of Mason and 
Dixon’s line ; and I also believe that if he had re- 
ceived the encouragement and support of the Con- 
federate authorities at Richmond, and had been 
furnished with an adequate number of soldiers, 
he could have cut into Sherman’s line of supplies 
and captured his whole army ; or even if his plan 
for posting the banks of the Mississippi River 
with guerillas had been adopted, he could have 
stopped its navigation by the Federal transports 
and won the war for the Confederacy. 

I think this plan of General Forrest’s was even 
better than building forts on the river, for forts 
alone could not prevent the Federals from 
eventually getting control of it. 

I fought the Yankee fleets with my battery both 
below New Orleans and at Vicksburg for many 
months, and I know how futile our efforts were 
to effectually block their fleets from navigating 
that great stream, which was the backbone of the 
Southern Confederacy, for, even though we sank 
many of their transports and gunboats, some of 
them always managed to pass our batteries. 


“Our dead are not just dead who have gone to 
their rest. 

They are living in us whose glorious race will 
not die — 

Their brave buried hearts are still beating on in 
each breast 

Of the child of the South in each clime ’neath 
the infinite sky.” 


65 


^opfederat^ l/eterai). 


GENERAL WADE HAMPTON. 

Planter, Soldier, Statesman. 

[This paper was presented before a meeting 
of the C. R. Mason Chapter, U. D. C., of Staunton, 
Va., by Major Henry T. Louthan, Professor of 
History at Staunton Military Academy.] 

Gen. Wade Hampton’s great-grandfather mi- 
grated from Virginia and settled in Spartanburg 
County, S. C. There he and his wife, his son, 
Preston, and an infant grandchild were massacred 
by Indians. His son, Wade Hampton, escaped 
the massacre by reason of being absent from 
home. 

This Wade was a Revolutionary soldier in Col. 
William Washington’s cavalry, and rose to the 
rank of lieutenant colonel. He distinguished him- 
self particularly at the battle of Eutaw Springs. 
He was a member of the United States House of 
Representatives in 1795-97, and again in 1803- 
OS. In the War of 1812, he became a major gen- 
eral and commanded an American army on the 
Canadian border. He amassed a large fortune, 
having vast plantations not only in South Caro- 
lina, but also in Mississippi and Louisiana. 

The son of this Revolutionary hero was usually 
known as Col. Wade Hampton, an officer of dra- 
goons in the War of 1812, and who acted as aide 
and inspector general on the staff of General An- 
drew Jackson at the battle of New Orleans. Aft- 
er the British defeat, he rode horseback from 
New Orleans to Washington to bear the news to 
President Madison. He was the father of the 
third Wade Hampton, the Confederate hero, the 
subject of this paper. 

Wade Hampton, planter, soldier, and statesman, 
was born March 28, 1818, on Hasel Street, 
Charleston, S. C., in the town house of his mother, 
and within the sound of old Mount Michael’s 
chimes ; but his boyhood was spent largely among 
the great oaks and rose gardens of Millwood, the 
baronial mansion of the family, a short distance 
from Columbia. This stately house with its im- 
pressive white columns, entwined with ivy, was 
the center of a hospitality almost mediaeval in 
magnificence. Great numbers of contented slaves 
worked in mansion and field, singing in the sun- 
shine and warmly attached to an indulgent mas- 
ter. Guests were furnished with servants and 
horses and left to mingle familiarly with the fam- 
ily or to engage in the sport of riding, hunting, or 
fishing. 

In this atmosphere, Wade Hampton grew to 
young manhood, devoted to all the sports, in whicL 


he excelled. In early boyhood even, he was noted 
as a daring and graceful horseman. I was pres- 
ent when General Robert E. Lee’s equestrian sta- 
tue was unveiled in Richmond in May, 1891. I 
recall now three persons only who were in that 
great parade on the way to the monument. They 
were Generals Joseph E. Johnston, Fitzhugh Lee, 
and Wade Hampton — the latter two on magnifi- 
cent horses, and seemed like centaurs of old, ready 
once again to fight for their beloved Southland. 

The Planter. 

Like the eldest son of the English landed aris- 
tocracy, young Hampton was educated to meet the 
traditional responsibilities of his class. At eight- 
een years of age, he was graduated from the Uni- 
versity of South Carolina and later studied law. 
He now settled down to the management of plan- 
tations and the meeting of social duties. He en- 
tered the State senate and there made a speech 
against the reimportation of slaves, which Hor- 
ace Greeley described as “a masterpiece of logic, 
directed by the noblest sentiments of the Chris- 
tian and patriot.” 

In the fifties, the golden days of the South, 
Hampton had a town house in Columbia, rice lands 
on the sea, cotton plantations in South Carolina, 
and large planting interests in Mississippi, where 
he spent most of his winters, his cotton crop in 
1860 realizing a quarter of a million dollars. 

Hampton’s life on his Mississippi plantation 
resembled that of an English earl in the days of 
Richard the Lion-hearted. He had a fatherly at- 
titude toward his hundreds of slaves, who recipro- 
cated his friendliness. He personally supervised 
their accommodations and care. When the eve- 
nings were cool, he usually spent his time in the 
library of his plantation house before a great log 
fire with his favorite books, but his residence re- 
sembled closely a vast hunting lodge, for he was 
a famous hunter. 

He liked nothing better than to pit his prowess 
against the black bears of the Mississippi swamps, 
going in after them with his hunting knife when 
they had been brought to bay by his hounds, and, 
though he carried the scars of more than one com- 
bat, he had the record of killing as many as eighty 
in this daring way. 

Idolized by his friends, beloved by his slaves, 
successful in the cultivation of his plantations, 
wealthy, cultured, untorn by ambition, finding 
pleasure alike with gun, rod, horse, or book, his 
was a happy life on his manorial estates before 


66 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 


the war ; and when the war drums began to beat, 
he was the richest gentleman in the Confederate 
states. 

Confederate Soldier. 

Wade Hampton was a type of the finest fruit- 
age of the chivalry and aristocracy of the Old 
South. He was a patrician by birth, instinct and 
training, yet his manner was thoroughly demo- 
cratic. He was a born leader of men. Six feet 
in height, deep chest, broad shoulders gave him 
a superb presence. His complexion, hair, curly 
beard, and large blue-gray eyes gave him the ap- 
pearance of an old Saxon king. 

At the call to arms, he raised, in South Carolina, 
Hampton’s Legion, which he outfitted largely at 
his own expense. His genius for command, his 
poise, dash and daring endeared him as a soldier 
to Stuart, Jackson, and Lee. He suffered like a 
Spartan. In a battle, he had seen one son fall; 
and, sending a second son to his succor, had seen 
him wounded also, and had ridden back to com- 
fort them — then back to the fight and to sleep on 
the ground in the rain that night, not knowing 
the fate of those who were bone of his bone and 
flesh of his flesh. 

So far as I can learn, no adequate life has been 
written of General Hampton, but he richly de- 
serves one. From various books on the War be- 
tween the States and concerning the Reconstruc- 
tion period, I have gathered the data for this 
paper. 

As Col. Wade Hampton of the Hampton Legion, 
composed of 630 South Carolinians, he fought at 
the first battle of Manassas, where he was 
wounded. In the Peninsular campaign, he had 
been promoted to brigadier of infantry, and was 
wounded again. Later he was named senior 
brigadier general of cavalry and he began to find 
his pace. After the Gettysburg campaign, he was 
made a Major General and given a division, to 
him being assigned the brigades of W. E. Jones, 
Baker and Butler. Still later, he was promoted 
to lieutenant general. 

Hampton took part in the Seven Days’ Battle 
around Richmond ; fought at Frederick, Md. ; was 
in the Sharpsburg campaign; helped Fitz Lee 
drive Pleasanton out of Martinsburg; was with 
Jeb Stuart in the raid on Chambersburg, and was 
made military governor of that town in Pennsyl- 
vania. I have a cousin, Berryhill M. Carter, of 
Carter Hall in Frederick County, Va., who “saw 
so much of the meanness of the Pennsylvania 
Dutch soldiers during the war,” that I know he 
would have enjoyed having been Governor Hamp- 


ton’s first aide during those few days that he was 
ruler of Chambersburg. 

When Lee’s army lay south of the Rappahan- 
nock, while Burnside’s was encamped on Falmouth 
Hills across from Fredericksburg, the records tell 
of some notable raids made by Hampton around 
the enemy’s lines. With 208 of his cavalrymen, 
he crossed Key’s ford on November 27, rode 
thirty miles to Hartwood church, captured and 
brought back eighty-four of Averell’s Pennsyl- 
vanians, surprised on picket. On December 10, 
with 500 sabers, he raided up to Dumfries and 
brought back fifty prisoners and a train of twenty 
wagons. This last adventure was made in the 
snow, and Hampton’s South Carolinians had 
never before seen such weather. 

When Gen. Maxcy Gregg, a much-beloved and 
admired officer, was killed at Fredericksburg, in 
December, 1862, General Lee offered Gregg’s 
South Carolina infantry brigade to Hampton, but 
he, now growing into great reputation as a cavalry 
brigadier, elected to remain with Stuart. 

The heaviest cavalry fighting of the war took 
place on Fleetwood Heights, near Brandy Sta- 
tion, in Culpepper County, Virginia. The con- 
flict between Hampton’s four regiments and about 
as many of Gregg’s was one of the most impor- 
tant hand-to-hand combats of the four years of 
the war. Hampton’s men used the saber only. 
His right echelon, a little behind the main body, 
charged up the heights from the northeast, and 
cleared them of Wyndham’s men. Then Hart’s 
battery, supported by sections of McGregor and 
Chew, galloped to the crest and opened a withering 
fire on Gregg below them. This artillery fire 
brought Gregg’s attack to a close. 

Jeb Stuart had 9,536 sabers by his return of 
May 30. Of these he used at Brandy Station fif- 
teen regiments, most of Fitz Lee’s and all of Rob- 
ertson’s brigade being unemployed. Opposed to 
Stuart was Federal General Pleasanton, who had 
10,981 men, of whom all except one brigade of in- 
fantry were engaged. In this noted cavalry en- 
gagement, the Federals lost 936 officers and men, 
of whom 486 were prisoners, six flags and three 
pieces of artillery. Stuarts total loss was 523 of- 
ficers and men. He accomplished his mission, 
which was to shield Lee’s movements from obser- 
vation. Pleasanton saw only some Confederate 
infantry near Culpeper ; but how much was there, 
what is was doing, where it was going, he did not 
learn; so Hooker was as much in the dark as 
ever. And Hampton and his men had fought es- 
pecially gallantly in helping to force the Fed- 


C^opfederat^ l/eterap. 


erals back. My mother’s youngest soldier broth- 
er, Henry Clay Brown, a member of the 6th Vir- 
ginia Cavalry, was at one time a member of 
Hampton’s Brigade — and he considered Hamp- 
ton one of the great captains of the war. 

On the third day of Gettysburg came the great 
cavalry fight, off to the northwest. Stuart had 
Hampton, Fitz Lee, Chambliss, and Jenkins. 
Pleasanton had Buford, Gregg, and Kilpatrick. 
The Confederates, said a Federal observer, ride 
down in array very splendid, flags and guidons 
in place, bright sabers at carry. Then, a straight, 
pounding fight. The blue dismounted lines are 
driven from the flat. The squadrons of Gregg 
and Custer and Buford come charging and cut up 
the gray lines of Jenkins. Hampton and Lee meet 
them furiously, and the battle sways in dense dust 
clouds, up and down. Hampton, fighting among 
his troopers, is slashed terribly to the skull with 
a saber. Flags are lost and taken, formations 
broken and formed again, and after some hours, 
the squadrons — blue and gray — draw off to the 
line from which each started. Dead horses and 
dead men lie in the trampled flat between. 

The duel of the great guns is over. The Yankee 
huzzahs and the Rebel yells fall to a murmur. 
Pickett has made his heroic charge and has come 
back with a remnant of his men. General Lee 
has made his great invasion and has missed the 
mark, and soon must return to Virginia. But 
Meade was too stunned to follow. 

Kilpatrick, with 4,000 picked cavalry and six 
pieces of horse artillery, supported by Dahlgren 
with 460 men, was on his way to capture, sack 
and burn Richmond, and assassinate President 
Jefferson Davis. On the night of March 2, 1864, 
Hampton, with only 306 troopers, struck Kil- 
patrick’s men encamped at Atlee, ten miles north 
of Richmond, stampeded the whole brigade and 
bottled them up with Cockeyed Ben Butler on the 
James. Dahlgren, in attempting to escape, was 
killed in King and Queen County. Dahlgren’s pis- 
tol, shortly after his death, came into the pos- 
session of my wife’s father, who was one of Mos- 
by’s men. This attack of Hampton was one of 
the most daring of the war. 

At Trevilians, at Sappony Church, at Reams 
Station, at Burgess Mill, and in numberless 
skirmishes, Hampton was there! Early in 1865 
Hampton was ordered to South Carolina to help 
hold Sherman in check — and consequently was 
not with Lee, when the Confederate battle flags 
were furled. Only two cavalry officers in the Con- 
federate army attained the rank of lieutenant 


67 

general. These were Hampton and Forrest — 
ranking in the order named. 

The Statesman. 

But the greatest work done by Hampton was 
during the Reconstruction days in the South. It 
remained for the brutal Congress of the United 
States to drive the disarmed Southern people to 
the verge of a new war by stationing negro troops 
in the midst of their homes. Hampton was moved 
to fury, and wrote to President Johnson de- 
nouncing “Your brutal negro troops under their 
no less brutal and more degraded Yankee officers,” 
by whom “the grossest outrages are committed 
with impunity.” 

Hampton said, in effect, to Grant: “If we had 
known that you were going to back with bayonets 
the carpetbagger, the scalawag, and the negro in 
their infamous acts, we would never have given 
up our arms!” 

At Chester, S. C., negro troops clubbed and 
bayoneted an old man; at Abbeville, white men 
were ordered from the sidewalks; in Charleston 
they forced their way into a house, ordered food, 
and after eating, felled the mistress of the home. 
In retaliation for the blow of a white man, en- 
trusted with the guardianship of a young woman, 
who had been insulted, negro soldiers dragged 
him to camp, murdered him in cold blood, and 
danced upon his grave. 

Is it any wonder then, that the Ku-Klux Klan 
began to ride — and no doubt Hampton was riding 
with them. For eleven years, the carpetbag and 
negro government plundered and insulted the de- 
fenseless South Carolinians, largely because 
Grant, who was President and commander-in- 
chief of the United States army, did not have 
foresight enough to remove the negro troops. 

On June 28, 1876, the Palmetto Guard Rifle 
Club of Charleston determined to celebrate the 
centennial of the battle of Fort Moultrie. It was 
further determined to secure a decisive battle for 
the white man’s right. There were many other 
Rifle clubs in line. When the enthusiastic thou- 
sands, in military array, headed by Wade Hamp- 
ton, leading the veterans of the Confederacy and 
the young hot spurs were seen all solidly march- 
ing, it was the first grand demonstration of that 
magnificent campaign, which terminated in the 
redemption of South Carolina. In a short while, 
white Rifle Clubs had been organized all over the 
State. 

Gen. Wade Hampton was nominated for gover- 
nor by the straight-out Democratic convention 


68 


(^09federat^ l/eteraij. 


which met in Columbia in August, 1876 ; and a full 
state ticket was added. D, H. Chamberlain, the 
carpetbag governor, was nominated by the Repub- 
licans to succeed himself. 

I think it was Chamberlain, who in after years, 
in telling of the Republican attempt to negroize 
South Carolina, wrote a book, entitled “A Fool’s 
Errand by One of the Fools.” For he then real- 
ized that no inferior race could overcome the An- 
glo-Saxon, who had been continually advancing 
in civilization since the days of Alfred the Great. 

This campaign for white supremacy in South 
Carolina was unique in American politics. Hamp- 
ton and other accomplished speakers spoke in 
every county in the State. By break of day, the 
crowds began to gather at the county seat. Rifle 
Clubs were there, and Red Shirt companies were 
present, in their red shirts of flannel, cambric, or 
calico, worn without a coat. The women and chil- 
dren were there to add to the success of the day. 
At Anderson, where the first “Hampton Day” was 
held, on September 2, the attendance was esti- 
mated at 10,000, and 1,500 Red Shirts were in 
line. 

“Hurrah for Hampton” was the battle-cry of 
the white people of South Carolina in the fight to 
rid the state of negro rule ! 

The medium through which the plans of the 
‘Democrats were carried out were the Rifle Clubs 
and the Red Shirt companies. Every county had 
a number of Red Shirt companies and many of 
them were mounted. Unexpectedly, and without 
apparent reason, mounted Red Shirts would ap- 
pear on the streets of a town, or on the roads, 
firing pistols in the air, and making the welkin 
ring with their shouts. When they were around, 
carpetbaggers, scalawags, and negroes made 
themselves scarce. The tactics of the mounted 
Red Shirts accomplished more for the success of 
the Democrats than probably any other phase of 
the campaign. 

The Republicans called this “intimidation,” but 
the Democrats considered it simply “taking ad- 
vantage of the psychological moment.” 

Hampton believed thoroughly in his influence 
over the negroes. He always assured them that 
they would receive equal justice with the whites, 
“as soon as the power passes into the hands of the 
Democratic party here, which shall come to pass 
as surely as the sun goes down on November 7. 
Few of their votes were, however, won, but many 
were kept from the polls because they didn’t like 
“the cut of the eye” of the members of tlje Rifle 
Clubs and of the Red Shirts! And they were 


right, for the South Carolinians, after eleven 
years of oppression, were out “loaded for bear,” 
and not all of them were black either. 

During the campaign, on October 17, President 
Grant urged by the carpetbag government, or- 
dered the Rifle Clubs, as insurgents, to disband, 
and ordered heavy reinforcements of United 
States troops sent to South Carolina. They dis- 
banded, but as individuals were held together by 
“those ties of humanity which bind all good men 
together” — and they held on to their rifles. They 
did not intend to be left to the outrages of the Re- 
publicans at Washington for a second time. 

Both sides claimed the election. But the State 
board of canvassers indicated that the Democrats 
had elected all of the State officers except four 
minor ones. The Democrats had a majority in 
the house of representatives, but the Republicans 
had a majority in the senate. But the Republi- 
cans still claimed the election of the governor and 
other state officers of both houses of the legisla- 
ture. 

The night before the legislature was to convene, 
a company of United States soldiers was marched 
into the State House by request of the Carpetbag 
Governor Chamberlain. They were there to keep 
out enough Democrats to give the Republicans a 
majority. The next day there were at least 5,- 
000 outraged Democrats packed in the plaza in 
front of the State House. Hampton had to be 
called on to disperse them — else every soldier in 
that State House would have been dead in a few 
minutes. 

There was now a contest between the two legis- 
latures. On December 3, information reached 
Democratic headquarters in Columbia that one 
hundred members of the negro “Hunkey-Dory” 
Club of Charleston were coming up to eject cer- 
tain Democratic legislators from the State 
House. 

This news was flashed over the wires, and by 
the next night about 5,000 white men had reached 
Columbia. Many were Confederate veterans and 
all came armed, some with Winchesters, some 
with pistols, and others with both. They were de- 
termined men who had come for business, and 
their business was not only to protect the Demo- 
cratic legislature, but to take possession of the 
State House. Arrangements had been made to 
shoot Mackey, the speaker of the house, whom the 
Republicans had forced in; and it was regarded 
as certain that the killing of Chamberlain would 
have quickly followed. 

The Democratic legislators, however, decided 


69 


^OQfederat^ l/eterai). 


to withdraw to another place in order to prevent 
bloodshed, but the 5,000 armed men were not so 
easily handled. They called for Hampton to lead 
them. He had quieted a great multitude a few 
days before when they surged before the State 
House; now it was his part to control a great 
throng again. He tactfully addressed them : 

“I am glad to see you all here ; come to see the 
State fair? There is very good stock out there, 
and I hope you will all go to see it, and be very 
particular to behave in an orderly and quiet man- 
ner. I want you all to remember that I have been 
elected Governor of South Carolina, and, by the 
God above, I intend to be Governor. Go home 
and rely on that. I’ll send for you whenever I 
need you.” 

When Hampton had closed his speech, the 
crowd gave a great Rebel yell, and then, as it had 
done a few days before, melted from the streets. 
Gen. Bradley T. Johnson said: “That speech and 
the yell that responded to it made Hampton Gov- 
ernor.” 

The Democrats had carried the legislative tan- 
gle to the State supreme court. It decided that 
the Democratic organization of the house of rep- 
resentatives was the legal one. But because Gen- 
eral Ruger 'had orders from President Grant to 
uphold the carpetbag government, he said he 
would continue to use his troops to keep the Demo- 
crats out of the State House. So the tangle in 
regard to the executive and legislative branches of 
the South Carolina government continued. 

On March 4, 1877, Hayes was inaugurated as 
President. He requested both Hampton and 
Chamberlain to come to Washington to talk over 
the tangle in South Carolina. They went, and 
Hayes decided to withdraw the United States 
troops from the State. Deprived of the soldiers, 
the carpetbag-negro government collapsed with- 
out a struggle. On April 11, 1877, at twelve 
o’clock, Chamberlain turned over the governor’s 
office to Hampton, and the curtain was rung down 
upon one of the most thrilling dramas ever enact- 
ed in these United States. 

Hampton was re-elected Governor of South 
Carolina in 1878. 

When the legislature met that year, Hampton 
was elected United States senator, and he re- 
signed the office of governor in February, 1879. 
He served two terms as senator. In 1893, Presi- 
dent Cleveland appointed him United States com- 
missioner of railroads, and he held that position 
until 1897, when he retired to private life. 

In the spring of 1899, Hampton’s residence on 


the Camden road, near Columbia, was accidently 
destroyed by fire. He was then in his eighty- 
second year and had very limited means. Friends 
of his, without his knowledge, raised a generous 
fund with which they built a handsome residence 
and presented it to him, over his strenuous pro- 
test. Here Hampton resided until April 11, 1902, 
when he passed away in his eighty-fifth year — 
exactly twenty-five years from the day when he 
took charge of his redeemed State as her gover- 
nor. The gathering at his funeral was the larg- 
est ever seen in South Carolina. People came 
from every part of the state — ^the number esti- 
mated at 20,000, and a considerable proportion 
of them were negroes — all demonstrating by their 
sorrow the love and esteem in which he was held 
by all classes of his state. 

Hampton’s tomb is at Columbia, in Trinity 
Churchyard, while on Capitol Square, just oppo- 
site, stands the imposing equestrian statue to his 
memory, “erected by the State of South Carolina 
and her citizens,” and unveiled on November 20, 
1906. Yet his greatest memorial is in the hearts 
of the people of this whole Southland. 


ALABAMA IN NOVEMBER. 

BY EDNA S. WILLIAMSON, DECATUR, ALA. 

When Jack Frost passes in the night, 
He lingers here awhile, 

And leaves a kiss on valley and hill 
That makes all nature smile. 

A kiss transforming the emerald slopes 
Into billows tipped with flame. 

While shining gold of maple leaves 
Rich harvest days proclaim. 

The whole a marvelous tapestry 
Of gold and crimson bloom. 

And berries’ royal purple caught 
In Autumn’s magic loom. 

Ripe nuts tumbling, squirrels calling, 

As they store their winter nests; 

Sirup boiling, and cider flowing 
To cheer the lingering guests. 

Monster pumpkins, fields of corn. 

Gold in the slanting sun. 

The fleecy cotton piling higher. 

Until the day is done. 

0 Alabama, glorious State, 

By Nature so richly blest. 

We hail thee Queen of Dixieland, 

Here in beauty and plenty we rest ! 


70 


^OQfederat^ Ueterap 


XDlniteb Daughters of the Confeberac^ 

Mrs. William E. R. Byrne, President General 

Charleston, W. Va. 


Mrs. Amos H. Norris First Vice President General 

City Hall, Tampa, Fla. 

Mrs. Chas. B. Faris Second Vice President General 

4469 Westminster Place, St. Louis, Mo. 

Mrs. R. B. Broyles Third Vice President General 

6721 Fifth Court. South, Birmingham, Ala. 

Mrs. W. E. Massey Recording Secretary General 

738 Quapaw Avenue, Hot Springs, Ark. 

Mrs. L. U. Babin Corresponding Secretary General 

903 North Boulevard, Baton Rouge, La. 


Mrs. George Dismukes : Treasurer General 

1409 Chickasha Avenue, Chickasha, Okla. 

Mrs. John H. Anderson Historian General 

707 West Morgan Street, Raleigh, N. C. 

Mrs. a. S. Porter, Hotel Monroe, Portsmouth, Vsl. . . Registrar General 

Mrs. J. W. Goodwin, Allendale, N. J Custodian of Crosses 

Mrs. j. L. Medun Custodian of Flags and Pennant 

1541 Riverside Avenue, Jacksonville, Fla. 


All communications for this Department should be sent direct to Mrs. R. H. Chesley, OfBcial Editor, 11 Everett Street, Cambridge, Mass. 


FROM THE PRESIDENT GENERAL. 

To the United Daughters of the Confederacy : 
Since the close of the Convention, I have been 
very busy forming committees and attending to 
the routine business of the Organization. 

The New Year has begun, and after the close 
of the holiday season, the Divisions and Chapters 
have taken up their work with renewed zeal. 

Mrs, Porter, Registrar General, has sent a 
circular letter to her Registrars giving a most de- 
tailed explanation of the work of her office. If 
these letters are read, studied, and closely fol- 
lowed, the work of this office can be made much 
easier. 

Mrs. Anderson, Historian General, has sent, not 
only to the Division Historians, but to the Presi- 
dents, a copy of the Historical Program and Prize 
Lists. I hope there will be many contestants for 
the many valuable prizes offered this year. 

Mrs. R. H. Chesley has been appointed Official 
Editor of the United Daughters of the Confeder- 
acy Department of the Confederate Veteran, 
and is also Chairman of the Special Committee. 
Let us all give her our support in making this De- 
partment the best in its splendid history. See that 
your Directors send in reports of your activi- 
ties. Each Division is interested in what the 
other Divisions are doing. 

Make up your Clubs of four subscribers for 
$5, No Chapter should be without this valuable 
magazine. It is our greatest organ for recording 
and preserving Southern history. Read it, study 
it, file it. 

Mrs. Charles E. Bolling, of Richmond, Va., has 
accepted the Chairmanship of the Committee for 
Correctly Designed and Manufactured Battle 
Flags. 


Mrs. A. C. Ford, of Clifton Forge, Va., is Chair- 
man of the Business Committee. 

Mrs. Marcus W. Crocker, of Columbus, Ohio, 
is Chairman of the Committee on Division By- 
Laws. 

Mrs. Charles O’Donnell Mackall, of Baltimore, 
Md., is Chairman of the Memorial Committee. 

We are told that the proper way to impress any 
subject on students is to repeat and repeat — that 
one learns by much repetition ; so I am again call- 
ing your attention to the necessity of completing, 
at an early date, your quota to the Lee-Stratford 
Memorial Fund and the Mrs. L. H. Raines Me- 
morial Scholarship Fund. 

Remember, we are pledged to make the final 
payment on the purchase of Stratford, and we 
should be ready to do this when it is called for. 

There are so many students applying for loans 
for graduate vocational work, and these loans can 
not be granted until the Mrs. L. H. Raines Fund 
is completed. 

I have received several letters asking what the 
United Daughters of the Confederacy was doing 
in regard to the George Washington Bicentennial. 
No action was taken at the Jacksonville Conven- 
tion relative to this matter, so I would merely sug- 
gest that as we Southern women claim George 
Washington as our own, we should co-operate 
with other organizations in honoring him in tree 
planting, and suggest further that, sometime in 
February, preferably the 22nd, the Chapters have 
a George Washington Program. 

Before another issue of the Veteran, the Min- 
utes of the Jacksonville Convention will be in your 
hands. As many changes were made in the 
Laws, please read the Minutes very carefully. 

Faithfully yours, Amanda Austin Byrne. 


QoQfcderat^ l/eterap. 


U. D. C. NOTES. 

Massachusetts . — The name of the Cambridge 
Chapter has been changed to the Woodrow Wil- 
son Chapter, and the January meeting will be a 
memorial to our great Virginian and World War 
President. 

One of the main objects which the Daughters 
of the Confederacy in Massachusetts are trying 
to accomplish, is to bring about a better under- 
standing between the sections of our country, 
and to prove to our good friends in this Northern 
State the wonderful worth-whileness of our or- 
ganization. That we are succeeding is being 
demonstrated to us in various ways every day. 
One illustration is the following letter to Mrs. 
Sayre from one of Boston’s busiest ministers, 
which deserves a place of honor in our records : 

“410 Washington St., 
Boston, Mass., January 6. 

"My dear Mrs. Sayre: I wonder if you will for- 
give me for writing an informal reply to your 
kind invitation to be present on the occasion of 
the very worthy program of the Daughters of the 
Confederacy in memory of our great President 
and Commander-in-Chief of the World War. 

“Permit me to say that I regret exceedingly 
my inability to be present, owing to a prior meet- 
ing, which I have vainly sought to have changed 
in order to grant me the liberty and privilege of 
participating, or rather being a humble but in- 
terested spectator. 

“On this day, after the bells have ceased ring- 
ing out in celebration of the ratification by the 
Senate of the Peace Pact, permit me to offer to 
you my humble tribute to the memory of the great 
leader of them all — your father. He was in the 
van in vision and achievement in the interest of 
World Peace ; and the Kelloggs, Briands, and Bo- 
rahs are only following. I dare to predict that 
the name of Woodrow Wilson will shine as a star 
with increasing brightness on the broadening 
firmament of history. For victory in such a 
struggle is not of today, it is of eternity. The 
victory is not in the triumph of this plan or that, 
it is in the spirit in which the life is lived. Wood- 
row Wilson was led to Mount Pisgah and saw the 
Promised Land of World Peace — ^though, like 
Moses, he was not privileged to enter in; but he 
looked forward confidently to the triumph of that 
cause for which he gave his last full measure of 
devotion. 

“Though himself stricken in the conflict, his 
name, I repeat, is marked for a place among the 


world’s immortals — for the truth for which he 
stood and battled lives, and will live, until 

“ ‘Peace shall over all the earth its ancient splen- 
dor fling. 

And the whole world send back the song which 
now the angels sing.’ 

“With assurances of high regard and loyal in- 
terest, 

“Yours truly, S. W. Anthony. 

Brighton Congregational Church.” 

This chapter will have as its main objective 
the establishing of a scholarship at the Harvard 
Law School for worthy descendants of Confeder- 
ate soldiers, as a Memorial to the three Confed- 
erate Generals who were Harvard Law gradu- 
ates : Gen. A. R. Lawton, Gen. S. R. Gist, and Gen. 
B. Tyler Johnson. 

[Mary C. Chesley.] 

Kentucky . — As this is written, the Kentucky 
Chapters are preparing to celebrate the birthday 
of Lee and at the same time to honor Jackson. 
In Lexington Chapter, the celebration will be the 
annual luncheon with notable speakers. In Frank- 
fort, the Joseph H. Lewis Chapter will give a 
tea in the Governor’s Mansion, at the invitation 
of Mrs. Ruby Laffoon, wife of the newly elected 
Governor. In Louisville, each year, the occasion 
is kept by the Albert Sidney Johnson Chapter 
with a breakfast. 

The work of the State is going forward well 
with the new President, Mrs. Josephine Turner, 
of Louisville, in charge. The few veterans re- 
maining in the Confederate Home at Peewee Val- 
ley are a sacred care to the Daughters, and are 
remembered at Christmas and other holidays in 
many ways which they appreciate. The cemetery 
there is well kept, and the graves are marked by 
the State. 

The outstanding work of the year was the 
national project of placing a bronze bust of Presi- 
dent Davis in the hall of Morrison College, Tran- 
sylvania, Lexington, his Alma Mater. This was 
the dream of Mrs. George R. Mastin, and the Gen- 
eral Organization, through a year of intensive 
work, completed it in a worthy manner. The oc- 
casion was graced by the presence of the President 
General, Mrs. L. M. Bashinsky, and Misses Lelia 
and Robine Webb, great-granddaughters of Presi- 
dent Davis, while the speaker was United States 
Senator Alben W. Barkley. An academic proces- 
sional of the faculty of Transylvania, with the 
Mayor and many prominent citizens, brought out 


72 


Qopfederat^ \/etcraij. 


an imposing array of caps and gowns, while the 
flags — sixty in all — borne by girls in white, were 
generously loaned by the Mississippi Division and 
made a colorful and stirring beginning for the 
exercises. The Confederate Flag flew over the 
building during the exercises — and was still fly- 
ing next morning when the sun rose in splendor 
and the fresh breezes stirred its folds. This was 
the first time since the War that this flag was so 
shown. The bronze bust by Lukeman, mounted 
on an oak pedestal designed by him and made by 
the Combs Lumber Company of Lexington, is a 
masterpiece ; the face is mystic, the whole impres- 
sive and imposing. The bronze plate was made 
by the University of Kentucky under the direc- 
tion of Professor Richard H. Johnson. The Ken- 
tucky Progress Magazine carried a page descrip- 
tion of the ceremonies, a picture of the bust, and a 
fine picture of Mr. Davis, along with a picture of 
the obelisk at Fairview, Ky., the birthplace of Mr. 
Davis. 

The classic old Hall, nearing its hundredth 
birthday, looks directly down the street where 
Gen. John Hunt Morgan lived and where he made 
his daring ride escaping from his enemies, gallop- 
ing through the immense old halls, kissing his 
mother, and spurring his horse to jump over the 
high stone wall at the back. 

The State has lost a charming member to the 
Golden West, Miss Mary More Davis, Vice-Presi- 
dent, removing to California to make her home. 
The Division, as well as her own Chapter, feels 
the loss greatly. We hope the U. D. C. out there 
will find out what a treasure we have lost. 

There has been great interest in old-fashioned 
gardens this past year. The Quill Club continues, 
under the chairmanship of Mrs. Lucian G. Maltby, 
to encourage its members to write and to print 
both history, fiction, and poetry. The Confederate 
Collection in the rooms of the Kentucky Historical 
Society at Frankfort, under the care of Miss Lena 
Benton, continues to grow and thrive. 

[Mrs. W. T. Fowler, Lexington.] 


DIVISION EDITORS— ATTENTION ! 

Division Editors are asked to have their re- 
ports in the hands of the Official Editor, Mrs. 
Chesley, by the first of the month in order to ap- 
pear in the number for the following month. 
These reports generally have to be worked over by 
the Official Editor to fill the space available, but if 
carefully and concisely written they should need 
no editing. 


l^tBlartral 1. S. (L. 


Motto : “Loyalty to the Truth of Confederate History.” 
Keyword: “Preparedness.” Flower: The Rose. 
Historian General: Mrs. John Huske Anderson. 

Aims for 1932: To know your work — a fuller knowl- 
edge of the facts of our Confederate history. 


HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS OF THE CONFED- 
ERATE PERIOD. 

With Southern Songs. 

March, 1932. 

State Song. 

Diplomatic and Foreign Relations of the Confederacy. 
(Veteran for January, 1932.) 

King Cotton and the Blockade. 

Reading: “The Confederate Note.” 

Song: “We’re Old-Time Confederates.” 


CHILDREN OF THE CONFEDERACY. 

March, 1932. 

Song: “Dixie.” 

Boy Soldiers of the War between the States. 

Cadets at New Market, Va., and Natural Bridge, Fla. 
Junior Reserves at Bentonville, N. C. 

Parker’s Boy Battery and Jackson’s “Foot Cavalry” 
(Arkansas boys). 

Sam Davis, of Tennessee. 


Things to Know — Where to Order. 

Songs of the Confederacy. Arranged by Mrs. A. L. 
Mitchell, Paris, Ky. Price, 60 cents. The Willis Music 
Co., 137 West Fourth Street, Cincinnati. 

Echoes of Dixie. Price, $1. Noble & Noble, 76 Fifth 
Avenue, New York City. Special prices for distribution. 

“Errors and Omissions in Textbooks on American 
History.” Price, 10 cents, from the Historian General. 
For terms on “Library of Southern Literature” write 
to Historian General. 

U. D. C. bookplates at $3.75 per 100, and a “Confeder- 
ate Portrait Album” at 50 cents (plus postage), may be 
obtained from Mrs. John L. Woodbury, Weissenger-Gaul- 
bert Apartments, Louisville, Ky. 

Short sketches of Lee, Davis, and Jackson, at 16 cents 
each, may be ordered from H. H, Smith, Blackstone, Va., 
suitable for schools. 

History of the Confederate flags, 26 cents. Confederate 
Museum, Richmond, Va. 

Extension study course on Confederate history. Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 

Book on “Flags of the Confederate States of America,” 
the Norman Publishing Company, 15 South Gay Street, 
Baltimore, Md. 

Confederate Flags. J. A. Joel & Co., New York. 


73 


Qo^federat^ l/eterap. 


HISTORIAN GENERAL’S MESSAGE. 

To the United Daughters of the Confederacy: 
In this month of the two hundredth anniversary 
of George Washington’s birth, I wish to emphasize 
what I said in my “message” of January. In this 
bicentennial observance, in which all Daughters 
will take part, radio talks are stressed and the 
planting of Memorial Trees to honor the Father 
of our Country. 

I wish to make a correction in the February 
program on Stratford. This was not the birth- 
place of Washington’s favorite general, “Light- 
horse Harry” Lee, though it was for many years 
his home, after he married the owner, his cousin, 
Matilda Lee. He continued to live there with his 
second wife, Anne Carter, the mother of Robert 
E. Lee, who was born at Stratford. 

By permission of the Robert E. Lee Memorial 
Foundation, the winning essay in the U. D. C. 
prize list on “Stratford as a National Shrine,” 
will be placed in the library of that historic home. 
The preservation of Stratford is one of most im- 
portant historic accomplishments, and it not only 
behooves us to give liberally, but to study the his- 
tory of the birthplace of our beloved Knight of 
the Confederacy. 

I am sending out an S 0 S call for any short 
plays to be sent me, dealing with the Confederate 
period. Chapters, please respond to this. 

Division Historians have received (on Jan- 
uary 1) my programs and prize list to distribute 
to their Chapters. Please publish in State pa- 
pers. 

Yours faithfully, Lucy London Anderson. 


USEFUL FOR REFERENCE. 

Files of the Confederate Veteran. 

Story of the Confederacy, by Robert Selph 
Henry. 

Lee, the Soul of Honor, by John E. Hobeika 
(Syrian). (Just off the press with fine reviews.) 

Lincoln, by Edwin Lee Masters. 

The South in American Life and History, by 
Mrs. Fannie E. Selph. 

Jefferson Davis: His Life and Personality, by 
General Morris Schaff. 

History of the United States, by John H. La- 
tane. 

Service Afloat, by Admiral Raphael Semmes. 

Mosby’s Rangers, by J. J. Williamson. 

Living Confederate Principles, Lloyd T. Ev- 
erett. 


The Women of the South in War Times. 

A Heritage of Freedom, Birth of America, 
American History and Government, by Matthew 
Page Andrews. 

Memorial Volume of Jefferson Davis, by Dr. 
J. William Jones, D.D. 

Pamphlets of Dr. Lyon G. Tyler, Holdcroft, Va. 
Brochure on Lee, by Landon C. Bell. 

John C. Calhoun, by Gustavus M. Pinckney. 
The South, by J. L. M. Curry. 

Stratford — Material from Lee Memorial Foun- 
dation, Greenwich, Conn. 

The Tragic Era, by Claude Bowers. 

Life and Labor in the Old South, by Dr. Ulric 

B. Philips. 

Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government, 
by Jefferson Davis. 

Golden Tales of the Old South, by Becker, Edi- 
tor St. Nicholas Magazine. 

Confederate Wizards of the Saddle, by Bennett 
H. Young. 

Library of Southern Literature. 

General Minutes of the United Daughters of 
the Confederacy. 

Historic Southern Monuments, by Mrs. B. A. 

C. Emerson. 

History of the Confederated Southern Me- 
morial Associations. 

The South in History and Literature, Miss Mil- 
dred Rutherford. 

Recollections and Letters of Gen. Robert E. 
Lee, by his son, Capt. R. E. Lee. 

The Confederate Military History. Edited by 
Gen. Clement A. Evans. 

Golden Tales of the Old South, by Miss May L. 
Becker. 

In Old Virginia, by Thomas Nelson Page. 

War Songs and Poems, compiled by Dr. H. M. 
Wharton. 

Confederate Scrapbook, by Mrs. Minneyrode 
Andrews. 

Southern Prose and Poetry, by Mims and 
Payne. 

Marse Robert, Knight of the Confederacy, by 
James C. Young. 

From Bull Run to Appomattox (A boy’s view), 
by Luther W. Hopkins. 

The Scout (The Story of Sam Davis), by C. W. 
Tyler. 

The Partisan Rangers of the Confederate 
Army, by W. J. Davis. 

Prize lists for U. D. C. and C. of C. will appear 
in the February number of the Veteran. 


74 


Qopfederafc^ V/eterai). 


Confeberateb Southern /Ihemorial Hssociation 


Mrs. a, McD. Wilson President General 

209 Fourteenth Street, N. E., Atlanta, Ga. 

Mrs. C. B. Bryan First Vice President General 

1640 Peabody Avenue, Memphis, Tenn, 

Miss Sue H. Walker Second Vice President General 

Fayetteville, Ark. 

Mra,J.T. Right Treasurer General 

Fayetteville, Ark. 

Miss Daisy M. L, Recording Secretary General 

7909 Sycamore Street, New Orleans, La. 

Mrs. Bryan Wells Collier Historian General 

College Park, Ga. 

Miss Willie Fort Williams Corresponding Secretary General 
Atlanta, Ga. 

Mrs. Virginia Frazer Boyle Poet Laureate General 

653 South McLean Boulevard, Memphis, Tenn. 

Mrs. Belle Allen Ross Auditor General 

Montgomery, Ala. 

Rev. Giles B. Cooke Chaplain General 

Mathews, Va. 

Mrs. L. T. D. Quinby National Organizer 

Atlanta, Ga. 



STATE PRESIDENTS 

Alabama — Montgomery Mrs. R. P. Dexter 

Arkansas— Little Rock Mrs. Sam Wassell 

Disnticx OF Columbia— Washington Mrs. N. P. Webster 

Florida— Gainesville. Mrs. Townes R. Leigh 

Georgia — Atlanta, Mrs. William A. Wright 

Kentucky^ 

Louisiana — N ew Orleans Mrs. James Dinkins 

Maryland Mrs. D. H. Fred 

Mississippi— B iloxi Mrs. Byrd Enochs 

Missouri— St. Louis Mrs. G. K. Warner 

North Carolina— Asheville Mrs. J. J. Yates 

Oklahoma — Oklahoma City Mrs. James R. Armstrong 

South CAROLrNA — Charleston Mrs. S. Cary Beckwith 

Tennessee— Memphis Mrs. Mary H. Miller 

Texas — Dallas Mrs. T. A. Buford 

VrRGiNiA — Richmond Mrs. B. A. Blenner 

West Virginia — Huntington Mrs. D. D. Geiger 


All commnnieatioiis for thi* Department ehould be eent direot to Mrs. Ada Ramp Waldhn, Editor, Box 692, Augusta, Ga. 


NEW YEAR’S GREETINGS FROM THE 
PRESIDENT GENERAL. 

A blessed, happy, and prosperous New Year to 
one and all! 

As the clock strikes the hour marking the pass- 
ing of the old year, may the stroke that ushers in 
the New Year ring loud and clear in prophetic 
rhythm — while hope springing eternal may with 
its magic wand unfold a new vista of life that 
shall thrill and fill our souls with glad expectancy 
that with the dawning of the morning the mists 
and clouds of depression that have veiled the sun- 
light of prosperity be lifted and our country shall 
again rise to a renewal of prosperity and peace. 
“As a man thinketh in his heart, so is he,” so let 
us think prosperity, talk prosperity, and soon we 
shall see prosperity — while depression is lifted 
from our land. 

Again a most happy New Year, and may the 
blessings of the Heavenly Father be with and 
abide with you. 

Faithfully yours, Mrs. McD. Wilson. 


C. S. M. A. Notes. 

My Dear Co-workers: Through some inadvert- 
ence, my New Year’s greetings, prepared and 
sent to the Veteran for January, went astray, 
and failed to appear, but I do want you to know 
that you could not have been forgotten, and that 
every good wish of my heart has been and is with 
you. May the New Year bring fresh inspiration, 
and as you take up your work in planning for our 
Memorial Day, that all will be done with a deep- 
ened sense of appreciation and of the dear heroes 
in gray who, each passing year, more deserve and 


need our loyal and loving service in looking to 
their comfort, welfare, and happiness. 

* * * 

The President General is pleased to announce 
the appointment of Mrs. T. A. Buford, of Dallas, 
Tex., as State President for Texas. Mrs. Buford 
has been interested in the work since the organi- 
zation of a State Committee, and is most capable 
as a leader and popular in various lines of work 
in Dallas. 

Mrs. a. McD. Wilson, 
President General, C. S. M. A. 


THE PITTSYLVANIA SOLDIERS AID 
SOCIETY. 

(The following letter was read before a meeting 
of the Rawley Martin Chapter, U. D. C., of Chat- 
ham, Va., and a copy of it sent to the Veteran 
by Mrs. James S. Jones, Historian, as a valuable 
record of the work done by the ladies of Pittsyl- 
vania County, Va., in the days of war. The origi- 
nal letter is on file in the office of the County Clerk 
at Chatham.) 

Chatham, Va., October 21 , 1861 . 

To Hon. Justices of Pittsylvania County — 

Gentlemen: The “Pittsylvania Ladies’ Soldiers’ 
Aid Society” wishes to state to your honorable 
body the purpose for which it was organized, 
what it has done since its organization, and ap- 
peal to your generosity for means to carry out its 
object. We propose to supply the destitute and 
needy, of as many companies from our county as 
we may be able with fatigue shirts, undershirts, 
drawers, and socks. Also, to aid in furnishing the 
hospitals with necessities and delicacies for the 


75 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 


sick. The Society has been in operation a little 
more than a month, during which time we have 
made upward of 400 yards of cloth into under- 
shirts, etc. We have sent one box of clothing to 
“The Chalk Level Grays,” one box of hospital 
stores, etc., to “The Chatham Troop,” and have 
now on hand 81 pairs of socks, 75 shirts, and 45 
pairs of drawers, besides hospital stores, and half 
worn clothing for the sick, enough to fill a large 
box, which we intend sending to Richmond during 
the present week. But we have been able to col- 
lect by private contributions only a very small 
sum of money, and consequently are indebted to 
our merchants for nearly all of the material we 
have made into the above-mentioned garments. 
We now throw ourselves upon your liberality to 
appropriate a sum sufficient to liquidate our debts, 
in the first place, and as we are willing to work 
until all the needy among our gallant and brave 
soldiers are cared for, we leave it to you to say 
whether we shall be able to continue our labors. 

Hoping that you may see the justice of our 
cause, we remain. 

Yours very respectfully, 

Mrs. Dr. Robertson, President; Mrs. T. White, 
Vice-President; Mrs. James P. Johnson, Corre- 
sponding Secretary; Miss M. A. Martin, Record- 
ing Secretary; Miss Ellen White, Treasurer; and 
many members. 


PORTRAIT OF GENERAL LEE. 

A beautiful and impressive event was featured 
by Atlanta Chapter, U. D. C., at the meeting on 
the afternoon of November 24, when Mrs. A. 0. 
Woodward persented to the Chapter a life-size 
oil portrait of Gen. R. E. Lee. 

The Chapter House is a fitting resting place for 
so valued a treasure as this portrait, which was 
the property of the late Dr. Amos Fox, former Su- 
perintendent of the Confederate Home in Atlanta. 
In appreciation of Mrs. Woodward’s untiring ef- 
forts to contribute to the comfort and happiness of 
the veterans. Dr. Fox gave the portrait to her, 
and she, with most unselfish spirit, presented it 
to the Chapter, where it will be appreciated and 
enjoyed by generations yet to come. 

The exercises of the presentation were opened 
by an invocation by Dr. Herman Lee Turner, of 
the Covenant Presb 3 rterian Church. Mrs. A. McD. 
Wilson, spoke for the Confederated Southern Me- 
morial Association, of which she is President Gen- 
eral. 

Gen. J. Colton Lynes, Adjutant General on the 


staff of the Commander in Chief, U. C. V., paid 
a tribute to the women of the Confederacy and 
their “Daughters.” Capt. H. M. de Jarnette, of 
Atlanta Camp No. 159 U. C. V., eulogized his lead- 
er, General Lee, as a Christian gentleman. Mrs. 
Howard McCall, gave brief expression to her ap- 
preciation of Mrs. Woodward’s gift to the Chap- 
ter. Mr. Martin Harmsen, Commander of the 
John B. Gordon Camp, Sons of Confederate Vet- 
erans, spoke on the preservation of Confederate 
relics. John Ashley Jones, past Commander in 
Chief, S. C. V., paid a glowing tribute to the 
Daughters of the Confederacy, and spoke of the 
special work Mrs. Woodward had accomplished 
as Chairman in raising funds over a period of 
many years to enable the veterans to attend the 
annual reunions. Dr. Ellis A. Fuller, of the First 
Baptist Church, was the speaker of the occasion, 
and chose for his theme, “Lee, the Man of Convic- 
tion,” and in graphic words left an impress on 
his hearers of Lee the man who is still the in- 
spiration to nobility of character in the young 
manhood of the South and of the world. To gaze 
on that recumbent stature, so noble in outline, of 
General Lee at Washington and Lee University, 
where he took up his task after Appomattox, 
brings out the best impulses of the youth of this 
Southland he loved and for which he lived and 
served. 

In a beautiful tribute to the Confederate sol- 
dier, of which General Lee was the highest type, 
Mrs. Woodward, in her speech of presentation to 
the Chapter, likened him to the silver-clothed 
Knight of our dreams — “the composite of all the 
manly qualities, he stands a modern Arthur in 
faith, a Merlin for wisdom, a Launcelot for dar- 
ing, a Sir Galahad for purity. The valorous deeds 
of the Confederate soldier have been to every 
Southerner a glory undimmed for more than a 
half century, and I count this the greatest privi- 
lege of all to pay him homage in word and deed.” 

Mrs. William J. Poole, 1st Vice-President of At- 
lanta Chapter, and daughter of Mrs. Woodward, 
unveiled the portrait, drawing away the large 
Confederate fiag which covered it. 

Mrs. Warren D. White, President Atlanta 
Chapter, received the gift on behalf of the Chap- 
ter, expressing the earnest desire that, as the 
Daughters looked upon this peerless leader, they 
would be inspired to follow the teachings of this 
beloved Confederate hero and great American. 

Musical features were interspersed through the 
program, and refreshments were served at the 
informal reception following its close. 


76 


^opfederat^ l/eterai). 


Sons of Confebecate Veterans 

Dr. George R. Tabor, Commander in Chief, Oklahoma City, Okla. 


GENERAL OFFICERS. 

Walter L. Hopkins, Richmond, Va. Adjutant in Chief 

J. Edward Jones, Oklahoma City, Okla. .. Inspector tn Chief 
Maj. Marion Rushton, Monteomery, Ala. Judge Advocate in 
Chief 

C. E. Gilbert, Hoaston, Tex Hietorian in Chief 

Dr. W. H. Scudder, Mayersville, Miss. . . . Surgeon in Chief 
Edward Hill Courtney, Richmond, Va.. .Quartermaater in 
Chief 

Arthur C. Smith, Washington, D. C. . Commissary in Chief 
Maj. Edmond R. Wiles, Little Rock, Ark. . Publicity Director 
in Chief 

Rev. Nathan A. Seagle, New York .. ..Chaplain in Chief 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 

Dr. George R. Tabor, Chairman 
John Ashley Jones, Secretary 

Dr. William R. Dancy 

Robert S. Hudgins 

Judge Edgar Scurry 

John M. Kinard 

Walter H. Saunders 

COMMITTEE CHAIRMEN. 


Arthur H. Jennings, Historical Lynchburg, Va. 

A. W. Taber, Relief Austin, Tex. 

H. K. Ramsey, Monument Atlanta, Ga. 

Lucius L. Moss, Finance Lake Charles, La. 

Db. Mathew Page Andrews, Textbooks Baltimore, Md. 


RuPUS W. Pearson, Manassas Battle Field. .Washington D. C. 


VICE COMMANDERS IN CHIEF. 

Dr. Wiluam R. Dancy, Savannah, Ga. . . Army of Tennessee 
Robert S. Hudgins, Richmond, Va. 

Army of Northern Virginia 
Walter H. Saunders, St. Louis, Mo. 

Army of Trans-Mississippi 

DIVISION COMMANDERS. 


Maj. Jere C. Dennis, Dadeville Alabama 

J. S. Utley, Little Rock Arkansas 


Eujah Funkuouser, 7522 East Lake Terrace, Chicago, 

Ulinois 

Fred P. Myers, Woodward Building, Washington, D. C., Dis- 
trict of Columbia and Maryland 
H. B. Grubbs, 320 Broadway, Eastern Division, New York 


John Z. Reardon, Tallahassee Florida 

Dr. William R. Dancy, Savannah Georgia 

James B. Anderson, Glengary Farm, Lexington . . Kentucky 

Joseph Roy Price, Shreveport Louisiana 

W. F. Riley, Sr., Tupelo Mississippi 

James H. White, Kansas City Missouri 

J. M. Lentz, Winston-Salem North Carolina 

J. O. Parr, Oklahoma City Oklahoma 

Dr. John Parks Gilmer, Pacific Division, San Diego, 

California 

William J. Cherry, Rock Hill South Carolina 

Claire B. Newman, Jackson Tennessee 

C. E. Gilbert, Houston Texas 

R. M. Colvin, Harrisonburg Virginia 

George W. Sidebottom, Huntington West Virginia 


Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Atlanta, Ga. 
Savannah, Ga. 
Richmond, Va. 
Wichita Falls, Tex. 
Newberry, S. C. 
St. Louis, Mo. 



All communications for this department should be sent direct to Edmond R. Wiles, Editor, 1505 W. 22nd St., Little Rock, Ark. 


GENERAL ORGANIZATION INTERESTS. 
Division Notes. 

Florida. — Col. John Z. Reardon, Commander 
Florida Division, Tallahassee, reports the organi- 
zation of E. B. Summerall Camp, No. 471, Eustis, 
Fla., with the following officers : 

J. C. B. Koonce, Commander; Claude D. Walk- 
er, 1st Lieutenant Commander; J. Rufus Ash- 
more, Second Lieutenant Commander; Dr. David 
T. Johnson, Adjutant; Dr. David T. Johnson, 
Treasurer; C. Z. Osborne, Quartermaster; At- 
torney H. W. Wilkerson, Judge Advocate; Dr. R. 

E. Wummitt, Surgeon; Harris B. Odum, His- 
torian ; S. E. Bailes, Color Sergeant ; Rev. R. McS. 
Byrne, Jr., Chaplain. 

Organized December 22, 1931, by Col. John Z. 
Reardon. Colonel Reardon is to be congratulated 
on his splehdid work for the cause of the Sons. 
He is always on the job. 

Tennessee . — Division Commander Claire B. 
Newman, Jackson, announces the organization of 
W. B. Tate Camp, No. 234, at Morristown, Oc- 
tober 24, 1931, with the following officers elected : 
P. L. Henderson, M.D., Commander; Baldwin 
Harle, 1st Lieutenant Commander; R. L. Moore, 
2nd Lt. Commander; Gay Clark, Adjutant; George 

F. McCanless, Treasurer ; Jesse W. Bye, Quarter- 
master; Attorney John R. King, Judge Advocate; 
Dr. C. T. Carroll, M.D., Surgeon; W. J. Barron, 
Historian; W. R. Toney, Color Sergeant; James 
W. Henley, Chaplain. 


This is splendid work, and we congratulate 
Commander Newman on his interest in the Cause. 

South Carolina . — Through General Orders No. 
1, to be read before all Camps of the South Caro- 
lina Division, William J. Cherry, Commander 
South Carolina Division, announces the appoint- 
ments of the following comrades as members of 
his staff and Brigade Commanders for the com- 
ing year : 

Adjutant and Chief of Staff, Thomas L. John- 
son, Rock Hill; Inspector, James D. Grist, York; 
Judge Advocate, I. H. Hunt, Newberry; Surgeon, 
Dr. W. E. Simpson, Rock Hill; Historian, A. L. 
Gaston, Chester; Quartermaster, D. A. Spivey, 
Conway; Commissary, Guy A. Gullick, Green- 
ville; Chaplain, Rev. Henry D. Phillips, D.D., Co- 
lumbia. 

Brigade Commanders. 

First Brigade, W. Rothrock, Aiken ; Second Bri- 
gade, Samuel T. Lanham, Spartanburg; Third 
Brigade, Dr. W. E. Anderson, Chester; Fourth 
Brigade, E. 0. Black, Columbia. 

We congratulate Commander Cherry on his 
splendid start as a Commander of the South Caro- 
lina Division, and predict that he will make a 
splendid record as the leader of the Sons cause 
in this most typical of the Southern States. 

Virginia . — ^We are in receipt of General Order 
No. 3, issued by Gen. R. M. Colvin, Commander of 
the Virginia Division, who is not only a Son, but 
also a Veteran of the War between the States. 


77 


Qoi^fcderat^ l/eterai). 


If we had a dozen other Commanders with as 
much enthusiasm and determination to really ac- 
complish things, we would be able to make the or- 
ganization of the Sons the leading patriotic or- 
ganization in the South. We regret that space 
will not permit reproducing General Colvin’s or- 
der in full, a large part of which is taken up with 
an appeal to the Sons to support the Veteran by 
sending in their subscriptions, making it possible 
to continue this, the only official organ represent- 
ing the veterans and other allied patriotic organi- 
zations. 

* ♦ * 

The annual Confederate Ball, sponsored by 
Stonewall Jackson Camp No. 981, was held at the 
Hotel John Marshall, Richmond, Va., Thursday, 
January 21, 1932. This is one of the most not- 
able events given during the year in the Capitol 
of the Confederacy, and it is a great pity that 
more Southern States do not keep alive the birth- 
days of Lee and Jackson. The fact that the birth- 
days of these two great generals fall within two 
days of each other makes it possible to honor the 
memory of both by one event. 

Arkansas Pensions. 

Confederate veterans and widows of veterans 
are still without their pension money. None has 
been paid since last August, with the exception 
of $9 each, sent out during the Christmas holi- 
days. 

A meeting of the State Pension Board with the 
Honorary Pension Board appointed by the Gover- 
nor recently, composed of Hon. J. S. Utley, Di- 
vision Commander, S. C. V., Little Rock; Mrs. 
Brown Rogers, Russellville, State President 
U. D. C. ; Mrs. George Hughes, Benton, Past State 
President, U. D. C. ; and Edmond R. Wiles, Past 
Commander-in-Chief S. C. V., Little Rock, was 
held January 7 at the State Capitol for the pur- 
pose of discussing the pension situation and 
to lay plans for bringing relief to the 
widows and veterans, to conserve whatever 
moneys may come into the pension fund 
during the year, and to more equally distribute 
pensions to the veterans and widows. The first 
step taken was to classify the widows, placing 
them in three classes, with the graduated scale of 
monthly payment as follows: All veterans and 
widows seventy-seven years old and up, $40 in- 
stead of $50 per month; widows sixty-five years 
to seventy-seven years of age, $20 per month; 


widows sixty-five years down to fifty-three years, 
$10 per month. It is estimated that this will 
conserve a million and a half and reduce the total 
amount for the pensioners now from two mil- 
lion seven hundred thousand dollars per annum 
to one million two hundred thousand dollars per 
annum, which we have accomplished without ma- 
terially reducing the amount paid the veterans or 
the aged widows who are unable to earn any part 
of the necessary fund for their maintenance. 

The Confederate veterans and widows of the 
State of Arkansas in all the years that have passed 
since the War between the States, and since pen- 
sions were first established, have never faced so 
serious a situation as they are confronted with 
at the present time. Especially do we refer to 
the aged veterans, the youngest of whom is eighty- 
one years old, too feeble to earn any part of the 
necessary fund to maintain himself in a respect- 
able manner, and the aged widows who are in 
the same position. This is not the fault of any- 
one, nor is it the result of untimely legislation, 
but rather the outcome of the present depression 
which has reduced the income from the two mill 
tax assessed against the total property valuation 
of the State heretofore producing more than $1,- 
250,000 to only $960,000 in 1931. If there had 
been no falling off in this revenue, additional 
bonds could have been sold up to $14,000,000. In 
addition to this unfortunate situation, the State 
Note Board, in order to try to protect the credit 
of the State, tied up all bond issues by agreeing 
with bond purchasers not to offer bonds until next 
fall. 

We felt, as descendants of Confederate Soldiers, 
that the Confederate pension is the first obligation 
that a Southern State owes to its veterans, and is 
certainly now a humanitarian matter rather than 
one of policy and expediency. Unless something 
is done immediately to relieve the present situa- 
tion with the veterans and aged widows, there will 
be untold suffering throughout the State of Ar- 
kansas before relief can reach them under the^ 
agreement for sale of State Pe\ision Bonds. 


M. L. Tuggle, Fallon, Nevada, renews for him- 
self and brother, and says : “Am sorry that I can- 
not be of more help in swelling the subscription 
list, as I consider the Veteran a valuable addition 
to the reading matter in the home of any one who 
is at all interested in the true history of the 
South.” 


78 


^OQfcderat^ l/eterai). 


THE OLD TRAIL TO DIXIE. 

BY MABELLE B. WEBB, FORMER POET LAUREATE MIS- 
SOURI DIVISION, U. D. C. 

The old, old trails are widening 
And stretching into space; 

The old tracks to new tracks 
Are slowly giving place; 

But yet, with Time’s effacement 
Of old footprints in the sod. 

The old ideals grow brighter 

And are marching straight to God. 

The old days, the good old days, the days our 
fathers knew 

Pass, a gladsome company, before our mental 
view. 

They steal in glad procession, in phantomlike 
array 

Adown the trails, the far Trails, as in the olden 
day. 

And the trails wind through the far lands 
Where echoing voices call — 

But the one that leads to Dixie 
Is the fairest trail of all. 

The Trail that leads to Dixie ! 

0 Dixie — Dixie Land! 

We see as our fathers saw you 

With your Southland’s happy band. 

We breathe the old-time fragrance 
Of your spicy groves — and sigh, 

“How sadly calls the whippoorwill 
Where Southern soldiers lie.” 

Light shines adown earth’s highways. 

But the fairest backward view - 
Is the land of far-off Dixie, 

Our fathers’ rendezvous. 

0, the Trail that leads to Dixie 
Are springs beside the way, 

And little loves and fancies 
In wanton gladness play; 

And peals of childish laughter 

Blend with tender tones of prayer, 

And mirth and joy, and hope and love, 

And reverence are there. 

Beside the road to Dixie 
The candle sputters low, 

On the road to Dixie 
The phantoms come and go. 

On the road that leads to Dixie 
No pitfalls there are found — 


Lot’s wife might safely cast a glance 
Back o’er that hallowed ground. 
Dixie’s tunes are thrilling 
With their charm and melody, 
Orpheus waked no sweeter airs 
To charm Eur^'^dice. 

0, the Trail that leads to Dixie 
Is the long road, and the best — 
The Trail that leads to Dixie 
Where the South’s Immortals rest. 


TO VETERAN SUBSCRIBERS. 

The little slip inclosed with the January num- 
ber of the Veteran was something of an inno- 
vation in this work, as communication has been 
heretofore by letter direct to the subscriber. But 
postage bills have been high, with the prospect 
of being higher, so this means of reaching sub- 
scribers was tried out. The response has been en- 
couraging, and it is hoped that many others will 
use this convenient order blank for renewals and 
new subscriptions. 

The slip had to go through the entire edition 
(by postal law), hence it went to many well paid 
in advance, and some have been concerned as to 
the status of subscription. By referring to the 
label on each copy, the month and year of ex- 
piration may be seen, and thus every subscriber 
is kept posted as to his standing with the Vet- 
eran. 

To those who have responded so promptly goes 
the Veteran’s appreciation and thanks, and if 
others will be as considerate as renewal becomes 
due, a great deal will be saved in the expense of 
printing and postage, for every letter sent out 
carries a burden of expense. Every good friend 
and true will be anxious to make that burden as 
light as possible that its revenues may go to- 
ward sustaining the Veteran in its necessary 
expense. 

The Veteran’s plan of economy provides such 
a small office force that it is not possible to ac- 
knowledge receipt of all subscription orders, but 
the change in date on label of copy will show that 
proper credit has been given. Subscribers will 
please watch for this change and call attention to 
any error that may be made. 


Error . — On page 36, January Veteran, column 
2, typographical error put the battle of Big 
Bethel on April 10, 1861, instead of June 10, 
1861. Proper date given in Column 1. 


QoQfederac^ l/eterap 


79 


TIDES ALWAYS TURN 

The bottom has not dropped out, and 
won’t, 

And there’s money aplenty in the 
land. 

And metal in the mines. 

And salable goods in the stores. 

And a sun in the sky, and rain in the 
clouds. 

And abounding life in the soil. 

And strength in men’s minds and 
hearts. 

And genius in great industries. 

And skill in government. 

And a hundred and twenty millions 
of people 

Who, hungering, must be fed. 

Living, must be sheltered. 

And, under the law and the climate, 
must be clothed. 

And their needs and appetites 
./^re for commingled comforts and 
luxuries. 

-tnd soon America will again be 
creating, consuming. 

Buying, selling, saving, investing, 
prospering. 

And time will gradually restore our 
health of mind. 

And sainty of survey, and the en- 
joyment 

Of all those things that make our Na- 
tion 

The envy and the hope of the whole 
wide world. — Exchange. 


WHAT ABOUT VACATION 
PLANS? 

Have you made plans for a vaca- 
tion this summer? 

Why not take a trip to Europe and 
escape our hot summer months? 

The Travel Service Bureau, of 
Nashville, Tenn., has some fascinat- 
ing itineraries mapped out at such 
modest cost that even the economists 
of the present time will consider them 
bargains. Write for their literature 
and prices, ajid especially consider 
that trip advertised in the January 
Veteran. The accommodations on 
boats and hotels will be excellent and 
far beyond what has been offered 
heretofore. Make your reservations 
early and get the choicest of these ac- 
commodations. 

The Veteran commends this Bu- 
reau, and asks that you mention where 
you saw the advertisement in writing 
to the Travel Service Bureau, 810 
Broadway, Nashville, Tenn. 


The North Carolina Historical and 
Genealogical Record, a quarterly 
magazine of North Carolina history 
and genealogy, is being published by 
Clarence Griffin, with headquarters at 
Forest City, N. C., Box 533. The sub- 
scription is one dollar per year, 35 
cents per copy. The purpose of the 



“Lest 

We 

Forget” 


These cuts show both sides of our 
Marker for Confederate Graves. It 
is made from the best grade of iron, 
weighs zo pounds, measures 15x30 
inches, painted black or gray, and 
approved by the General Organiza- 
tion, U. D. C. 

PRICE. 8LSO EA.CH 
r. O. B. ATTALLA 

kmilk FOUNDRY AND MACHINE CO. 

Attalla. Ala. 




J. A. Joel & Go. 


SILK AND BUNTING 
FLAGS AND BANNERS 
U. S.. CONFEDERATE. 
AND STATE FLAGS 
SPECIAL FLAGS AND 
BANNERS MADE TO 
ORDER AT SHORT 
NOTICE 


147 Fulton street, New York, N. Y. 


publication is to preserve local his- 
tory material, and every part of the 
State will have its contributions from 
time to time. Manuscripts, old let- 
ters, genealogical material, county 
histories, etc., are solicited. No sample 
copies will be sent of this first number 
(January, 1932), but orders for it 
will be appreciated, and advance sub- 
scriptions are solicited. 


COTTON TWINE FOR A COTTON 
COUNTRY. 

After years of hammering for sub- 
stitution of cotton for jute in bagging 
the South’s staple crop, jute still 
holds its own, but where effort to 
push out jute in favor of cotton bag- 
ging has failed, substitution of cotton 
twine for jute twine, at least for use 
by the Post-Office Department, has be- 
come not only a possibility, but a 
probability. It was developed during 
the meeting of the postmasters in 
Charlotte that the department has 
placed orders for 50,000 pounds of 
cotton twine to take place of the 
jute, and the hope is expressed that 
the experiment will result in adop- 
tion of cotton twine as the staple ar- 
ticle for wrapping purposes by the 
department. Six thousand bales 
would be used by the Post-Office De- 
partment, but the suggestion being 
followed in general use of cotton 
twine by industry of all kinds, a new 
“use” for cotton would be developed 
that would make a considerable drain 
on the supply. The Post-Office De- 
partment has hit upon a practical 
idea in utilization of cotton, and its 
example followed in general would 
result in displacing the foreign ar- 
ticle to an extent worth while. And 
it stands to reason that a cotton 
country should be using cotton string. 
— Charlotte (N. C.) Observer. 


Maepherson (hoping for free ad- 
vice) — Doctor, what should I do for 
sprained ankle? 

Doctor (also Scottish) — Limp. 


f 1 


NEW BOOKS AND 

OLD 


Among the new books which will be of special interest to readers of the Veteran 

are the following : 

The Story of the Confederacy. By Robert S. Henry. Handsomely bound and 
illustrated. 497 pages $5 00 

Robert Barnwell Rhett, Father of Secession. By Laura A. White, Ph.D. The 
story of a strong character, a storm center in Southern politics, and a power 
in the establishment of the Southern Confederacy 5 00 

Light Horse Harry Lee. By Thomas Boyd. A vivid picture of an interesting 
figure in the stormy period of American life, beginning with those days in 
Princeton just before the Revolution, with scenes of Colonial Virginia society, 
and to the pathetic end far away from home and kindred 5 00 

Among the old books: 

Memoirs of War in the Southern Department of the United States. By Gen. 
Henry Lee (Light Horse Harry). Revised by Gen. Robert E. Lee, who added 
a biographical sketch of the Lee family. In good condition 5 00 

Memoirs of Gen. R. E. Lee. By Gen. A. L. Long, who served in the artillery 
of the Confederate army. This book was written after the writer had become 
blind. In good condition 4 50 

Life of Gen. R. E. Lee. By John Esten Cooke. Illustrated 5 00 

Lee and His Generals. By William Parker Snow. One of the early books of 
the kind. Illustrated 4 50 

Reminiscences of the Civil War. By Gen. John B. Gordon. Splendid copy and 
a most interesting story 5 00 

Confederate Wizards of the Saddle. By Bennett H. Young. Out of print. In 
good order, but binding soiled 4 50 

Early Life and Letters of Stonewall Jackson. By T. J. Arnold. A few copies 
only, bindings soiled 1 50 

Narrative of a Blockade Runner. By Capt. J. Wilkinson, C. S. N. 1877 3 00 

France and the Confederate Navy. By John Bigelow. 3 00 

Submarine Warfare, Offensive and Defensive. By Lieut. Com. J. S. Barnes, 

U. S. N 3 00 

Story of the 26th Louisiana Infantry. By Winchester Hall 1 50 


ORDER FROM 

THE CONFEDERATE VETERAN 

NASHVILLE, TENN. 






























I i 



NO. 3 


THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT 

“To him who made our country yrcat" 


VOL 


XL 


MARCH, 1932 


82 


^opfederat^ l/eterai;^ 


LEADING ARTICLES IN THIS NUMBER. 


Richmond and the Reunion 83 

The Rebel Yell 84 

Washington. (Poem.) By B. Y. Williams 85 

The First Overt Act. By Dr. W. C. Alexander 86 

The First Overt Act of the Sixties. By Mrs. F. E. Selph 87 

Critical Comment. By Briscoe B. Bouldin 88 

The National Park at Vicksburg. By Mrs. John Vernon 89 

Courtesy in War. By Judge E. A. McCulloch 90 

Alexander Hamilton Stephens. By Margaret Heard Dohme 91 

Where Patriots Rest. By Geneva Eltie 94 

Recollections and Reflections. By Dr. H. W. Battle 97 

Mosby’s Rangers. By Mrs. M. C. F. Coates 100 

Battles Fought in Maryland. By Miss Sally W. Maupin 102 

Reunion Rates 118 

Departments: Last Roll 104 

U. D. C 108 

C. S. M. A 114 

S. C. V 116 


Inquiry comes for a life of John Esten Cooke, and anyone knowing of such 
work will please communicate with the Veteran. Even an extended sketch 
would be appreciated. 

Frank H. Camperson, Jr., 5220 Twentieth Avenue, Seattle, Wash., a late 
subscriber to the Veteran, writes that it “is the first thoroughly enjoyable 
magazine I have ever come across.” He wishes to get in communication with 
someone who has Confederate money and stamps to sell. 

CONFEDERATE HISTORY. 

A splendid set of the Confederate Military History is offered at $25. This 
work contains twelve volumes, and the history of each State in the Confed- 
eracy is given through a leading man of the State. Every Chapter U. D. C. 
should have this work for reference. Write for particulars. 


Information is sought on the war 
service of Plez H. Coker, who it is 
thought served with Georgia troops, 
as he moved from that State to Texas 
after the war. Anyone who recalls 
him in any way is asked to write to 
J. L. M. Miller, Route 6, Ozark, Ala. 


Charles D. Evans, City Commis- 
sioner, Shreveport, La., wishes to es- 
tablish the war record of his father. 
He enlisted in June, 1863, Greene 
County, Ala., for the period of the 
war, and served as corporal with 
Company B, 7th Alabama Cavalry, 
until discharged in November, 1863, 
because of his minority. His name 
has been found in list of troops sur- 
rendered by Gen. Richard Taylor, 
May 4, 1865, and paroled at Colum- 
bus, Miss., May 18, 1865, and his 
second entry into service is desired — 
time and place. 


U. D. C. MINUTES. 

Copies of the Minutes of Missouri 
Division Convention, U. D. C., are 
now ready for distribution and may 
be procured from Mrs. W. S. Alnutt, 


Recording Secretary, Richmond, Mo., 
at 25 cents per copy, this to cover cost 
of mailing, etc. The address on Gen. 
Robert E. Lee which was given by 
Mrs. L. M. Bashinsky when President 
General is in this volume and will be 
of general interest. 


W. J. Gooldy, 1600 Highland Ave- 
nue, St. Louis, Mo., writes on the 29th 
of December to renew his subscrip- 
tion and mentions that it is his 
ninety-fourth birthday. He says: “I 
am very well for a man of my age. 
Of my company, which was D, 28th 
Virginia, Inf., there are only two 
living besides myself. I was wounded 
in my left hand and right arm badly 
crushed, and expect I said some words 
you don’t hear at Sunday school to 
keep them from cutting it off. Would 
like to hear from any old soldiers as 
to their experiences. I cannot do 
without the Veteran.” 


From F. M. Knox, Commander 4th 
Brigade, Texas Division, U. C. V., 
Anson, Tex.: “Inclosed find check for 
another year. I don’t want to lose a 


single copy and am going to take it 
as long as I live, and want some of 
my family to take it as long as it 
lives, and hope it will never die. I am 
now in my ninetieth year, but able to 
attend to business as usual. Was 
born on the 29th day of October, 1842, 
in Henry County, Mo., and saw serv- 
ice as a member of Company K, 16th 
Missouri Infantry; was sworn in on 
the 16th day of August, 1862. If 
there are any of my company now 
living, would like to hear from them. 


In sending order for subscription, 
J. A. Erwin writes from Rome, Ga. : 
“I am the son of a Confederate vet- 
eran and am vitally interested in per- 
petuating the memory of those grand 
old heroes of our dear Southland.” 


“I don’t see how anyone who loves 
the South can do without the Vet- 
eran,” writes Mrs. Minnie V. Dur- 
ham from Spartanburg, S. C., when 
renewing her subscription. 


ECONOMIC AND MORAL BREAK- 
DOWN. 

The breaking down of old-fashioned 
principles .of morality and integrity 
in America is the fundamental cause 
of much of the general distress exist- 
ing today. Judge Drain said in his 
charge to the County Grand Jury. 
He had no remedy to suggest, but it 
was the duty of courts, officers, and 
juries to do what they could to get 
the public mind back to the old-time 
reverence for law and right living. 
“Nothing else will bring this country 
back to where it should be,” he said. 
“I am not a professional reformer, 
but I do believe that greater respect 
for our laws, and for the people who 
are chosen to enforce them, will have 
a vital bearing upon our welfare in 
the future.” 


Legs and the Boy.— As the cup was 
handed over into the youth’s hands, 
there went up cries of “Speech! 
Speech!” and the hubbub broke out 
anew. Meanwhile the lad was able 
to collect his thoughts and, of course, 
to catch his breath. Then he stepped 
up on a bench. There came an abrupt 
and eager hush. “Gentlemen,” he 
said, “I have won this cup by the use 
of my legs. I trust I may never lose 
the use of my legs by the use of this 
cup.” — Christian Science Monitor. 


Qoi^federat^ l/eterap 


PUBLISHED MONTHLY IN THE INTEREST 

OF CONFEDERATE 

ASSOCIATIONS AND KINDRED TOPICS. 

Entered as second-class matter at the post office at Nashville, Tenn., 
under act of March 3, 1879. 

Acceptance of maiing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec- 
tion 1 103, act of October 3, 1917, and authorized on July 5, 1918. 

Published by the Trustees of the Confederate Veteran, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

J3I 

IV/ 

OFFICIALLY REPRESENTS: 

United Confederate Veterans. 

United Daughters of the Confederacy, 

Confederated Southern Memorial AssociATloit« 
Sons of Confederate Veterans. 

Though men deserve, they may not w!n, success; 

The brave will honor the brave, vanquished none the less. 

SiNG^’coPYrrs ll'^. I VOL. XL. NASHVILLE, TENN., MARCH, 1932 No. 3 { 8- A. cmmmoHAM 


UNITED CONFEDERATE VETERANS 

GENERAL OFFICERS. 

Gbn. C. a. Db Saussure, Memphis, Tenn Comander in Chief 

Gen. H. R. Lee, Nashville, Tenn., Adjutant General and Chief of Staff 
Mrs. W. B. Kernan, 1723 Audubon Street, New Orleans, La. 

Assistant to the Adjutant General 
Rev. Thomas K. Gorman, Skiatook, Okla Chaplain General 

DEPARTMENT COMMANDERS. 

Gen. Homer Atkinson, Petersburg, Va Army of Northern Virginia 

Gbn. Sims Latta, Columbia. Tenn Army of Tennessee 

Gen. R. D. Chapman, Houston, Tex Trans-Mississippi 

DIVISION COMMANDERS. 

ALABAMA — Tuscaloosa Gen. John R. Kenned:^ 

Arkansas — R ussellville Gen. J. P. McCarther 

Florida — Gen. W. E. McGhagin 

Georgia — S avannah Gen. William Harden 

Kentucky — R ichmond Gen. N. B. Deatherage 

Louisiana — L aFayette Gen. Gustave Mouton 

Maryland — 

Mississippi — Gen. W. R. Jacobs 

Missouri — S t. Louis Gen. W. A. Wall 

North Carolina — A nson vllle Gen. W. A. Smith 

Oklahoma — O kmulgee Gen. A. C. De Vinna 

South Carolina — S umter Gen. N. G. Osteen 

Tennessee — U nion City Gen. Rice A. Pierce 

Texas — F ort Worth Gen. M. J. Bonner 

Virginia— R ichmond Gen. William McK. Evans 

West Virginia — L ewisburg Gen. Thomas H. Dennis 

Cai iPORNiA— Los Angeles Gen. S. S. Simmons 

HONORARY APPOINTMENTS. 

Gen. W. B. Freeman, Richmond, Va Honorary Commander for Life 

Gbn. M. D. Vancb, Little Rock, Ark Honorary Commander for Life 

Gen. R. a. Sneed, Oklahoma City, Okla. Honorary Commander for Life 
Gbn. L. W. Stephens, Coushatta, La.. .Honorary Commander for Life 
Rev. B. Cookb Gilbs, Mathews, V a. Honorary Chaplain General for Life 


ATTENTION, TENNESSEE COMRADES! 
The reunion and convention of the Tennessee 
Division, U.C.V., will be held at Morristown, 
Tenn., October 5-7, 1932. 

Brig. Gen. J. H. Steele, Adjutant Tennessee 
Division, U.C.V., 910 New York Street, Memphis, 
Tenn. 


VIRGINIA: “THE BECKONING LAND.” 

“Virginia in this year of grace . . . . 

stretches out her hand across the nation in the 
founding of which she labored so mightily, 
wrought so nobly, and sacrificed so freely, in wel- 
come to all who would come and share with her 
own people her shrines that are national, her 
scenery that is famous, her recreational advan- 
tages that are rich and varied, and her economic 
opportunities that are writing new history in the 
Southland.” 

In this year of grace 1932, Governor John Gar- 
land Pollard’s foreword for the handsome book- 
let which carries the above title is even more ap- 
pealing now that Virginia is beckoning to the host 
of United Confederate Veterans to come and en- 
joy the hospitality of her capital city — Richmond, 
“the Heart of Historyland.” Not only for its as- 
sociation with the Confederacy is this old city at- 
tractive, for at all times it has its own peculiar 
charm, and at all times there is a distinctiveness 
that pleases and satisfies. To the veterans of 
the gray, it is the Mecca of their hopes in the 
sixties to which they return as to a holy shrine. 
Richmond is already well organized for entertain- 
ing the Confederate veterans, for, without con- 
sidering that it will be host to many other con- 
ventions this year, this is the fifth time that the 
United Confederate Veterans have been honor 
guests of the City. That it will be the largest 
gathering of the gray that can ever get together 
again is the happy expectation. 

The Jefferson Hotel, about which cling mem- 
ories of other reunions, will be official headquar- 
ters, U.C.V. Headquarters for the Sons of Con- 
federate Veterans will be at John Marshall Hotel. 


84 


^opfederat^ l/eteraQ. 


Qo^federat^ l/eterai). 

Office: Methodist Publishing House Building, Nashville, Tenn. 
E. O. POPE, Editor. 


THE REBEL YELL. 

Hear the old Confederate yell — 

Rebel yell! 

Once what deathly summons 
Did its acclamation tell ! 

How it echoed and re-echoed 
All along the charging line, 

Rising higher with the clashing 
Of the column’s murderous flashing 
In a frenzy superfine ; 

Dealing death, death, death 
In the passion of each breath 

That uplifted in the wild, defiant yell. 

[From a newspaper of 1864.] 

A gala occasion in New Orleans was the coming 
together of Confederate veterans of the city and 
vicinity on the 19th of February to test their 
ability to make the welkin ring again with the 
Rebel Yell, that indescribable cry which was wont 
to stir the Confederate soldier to deeds of valor. 
This meeting was the outcome of the resolution 
passed by the United Daughters of the Confed- 
eracy in convention at Jacksonville, Fla., last No- 
vember, to have the Rebel Yell preserved for 
posterity by means of a victrola record. The reso- 
lution has aroused considerable interest, and in- 
quiries have been made as to the nature of the 
Yell — “and what, if any, were the words to it?” 
It is something that cannot be described — that 
must be heard, yet the writer in the New Orleans 
Times Picayune conveys some idea of it in the 
following : 

“It paragons description, that yell! How it 
starts deep and ends high, how it rises into three 
increasing crescendos and breaks with a command 
of battle — ^these are part of the spirit that made it, 
the spirit that came back to those veterans of the 
war when they forgot their eighty or ninety 
years and were back on the edge of the fight. 

“Behind the crowd the gray ranks formed once 
more. Histories state that New Orleans sent 20,- 
000 fighting men to battle for the Southern Cause. 
When the ranks formed again Saturday, fourteen 
of those 20,000 were present to record the cry that 
inspired Louisianians in many battles. 

“Attention! -Forward, March!” 

“The crowd opened up. Flags were lifted high 


and hats were removed, as the veterans filed 
proudly into the center of a circle. 

“Singly they tried their vocal strength, to much 
applause, then it was — 

“ ‘All right, boys ! Let’s all go together now.’ 
“From throats that had given the weird cry 
seventy years ago as Louisianians charged into 
battle came the same eerie notes of the yell that is 
referred to as ‘awe-inspiring’ and ‘nerve racking’ 
in annals of the war. 

“Veterans turned and patted each other. The 
crowd cheered with glee. The ‘Girls of the 
Sixties’ applauded and waved Confederate flags.” 
Yes, they were there, the Women of the South, 
cheering by their presence as in the days of the 
sixties. Twenty-five of them, all over eighty, sang 
Southern songs, solos, and in chorus. The Vet- 
eran hopes to give more of this later. 


GIFTS TO THE VETERAN. 

Every now and then the Veteran receives a 
gift of money to be used for subscriptions to those 
not able to pay for themselves, and such gifts have 
twofold value in sustaining the Veteran and in 
giving pleasure to veterans. Some pathetic letters 
come from veteran friends of many years who 
find the late “depression” makes it necessary to 
drop subscription until times get better. 

One of the good friends remembering the Vet- 
eran and his comrades in this way is Gen. W. A. 
Smith, Commander of the North Carolina Divi- 
sion, U. C. V., who sent a liberal check to the 
Veteran as a Christmas gift and also in appre- 
ciation of the editor’s work, and through this gift 
the Veteran will go into a number of homes that 
would not otherwise have it. 

In writing later. General Smith told of being 
honored by some friends, Mr. and Mrs. Bennett 
Nelms, of Wadesboro, with a dinner in celebration 
of his eighty-ninth birthday, January 11, with 
other friends and comrades as guests also. De- 
spite this advanced age. General Smith is one of 
the most active of Confederate veterans, and ever 
advancing the interests of the organization. 

Another gift comes from Miss Mary D. Carter, 
of Upperville, Va., for supplying subscriptions, 
and this will be applied as there is need. Many 
good friends have also sent advanced subscriptions 
for themselves, thus showing their interest and 
confidence in the continuance of the Veteran. 
To all these, and to those friends who have so 
loyally worked for the Veteran, and are still 
working, grateful thanks are given. 


85 



^OQfederat^ \feterai). 


WASHINGTON. 

Long are the years since he fell asleep 
Where the Potomac flows gently by, 

There where Mount Vernon’s green stretches 
sweep 

Under the blue Virginia sky. 

Warrior and statesman and patriot true, 

Well had he wielded both sword and pen, 

Truly they said as they laid him to rest, 

“First in the hearts of his countrymen.” 

Long are the years — and the land that he loved 
Stands among nations grown strong and great. 
True to his visions of long ago. 

Proud of the hand that so shaped her fate. 
Time but adds splendor to fame so fair. 

Years but test greatness — and now, as then. 
Sleeps he in peace on Mount Vernon’s hill, 

“First in the hearts of his countrymen.” 

— B. Y. Williams. 


From coast to coast, 
from the North’s icy 
borderland to the 
South’s sunny seas, 
throughout these 
United States o f 
America, which 
George Washington 
loved with a love pass- 
ing all else, the bicente- 
nary of his birth will 
be celebrated on appro- 
priate days through- 
out nine months from 
the 22nd of February. 
This celebration was 
launched officially with 
extraordinary c e r e- 
monies of oratory and 
song on Capitol Hill in 
Washington, D. C., the 
formal opening of 
which was an address 
by the President of the 
United States before a 
special joint session of 
the Senate and House, 
and in that audience 
were gathered the 
principal executive 
and judicial officers of 


the Federal Government, Governors of States, 
and diplomats from many foreign lands. Follow- 
ing this, in front of the Capitol, was the singing of 
“America” by a massed chorus of 10,000 children 
and 2,000 adults. 

At many other places on the 22nd, special exer- 
cises inaugurated the bicentennial celebrations. 
Of the many things that were said, and will be 
said, of him who was truly the Father of his 
Country, perhaps the highest tribute is that which 
presents his utter selflessness — that quality which 
took no regard of self where his country was con- 
cerned, on whose altar he sacrificed his own de- 
sires that he might help to make his country great 
and in very truth a land of liberty. For his coun- 
try he prayed such prayers as this, which should 
become a part of every history taught in our 
schools ; 

Washington’s Prayer for the United States of 
America. 

Almighty God, we make our earnest prayer that thou 

wilt keep the United 
States in thy holy protec- 
tion ; that thou wilt in- 
cline the hearts of the 
citizens to cultivate a 
spirit of subordination 
and obedience to govern- 
ment; and entertain a 
brotherly affection and 
love for one another and 
for their fellow-citizens of 
the United States at 
large. And finally, that 
thou wilt most graciously 
be pleased to dispose us 
all to do justice, to love 
mercy, and to demean our- 
selves with charity, hu- 
mility, and pacific temper 
of mind which were the 
characteristics of the 
Divine Author of our 
blessed religion, and with- 
out a humble imitation of 
whose example in these 
things we can never hope 
to be a happy nation. 
Grant our supplication, we 
beseech thee, through 
Jesus Christ our Lord. 
Amen. 

What country hath 
a greater than our 
Washington? May his 
spirit of patriotism be 
revived and followed 
in the coming years. 


HOUDON’S statue of WASHINGTON, WHICH STANDS IN THE 
ROTUNDA OF THE STATE CAPITOL, RICHMOND, VA. 




86 


Qopfcderat^ l/eterap. 


THE FIRST OVERT ACT. 

BY DR. W. C. ALEXANDER, NASHVILLE, TENN. 

In an article in the Nashville Banner of Jan- 
uary 22, I called attention to the fact that the 
statement frequently made that the bombardment 
of Fort Sumter was the first overt act of war on 
the part of the South was erroneous. I stated that 
the authoritative attack on the vessel, the Star of 
the West, over three months before the reduction 
of Fort Sumter was the first overt act of war on 
the part of the South. 

I also stated that the men who manned those 
guns were not men at all — they were boys who 
had left their school in Charleston, then known 
as the Citadel Academy, and had been enrolled as 
State troops. I stated that my interest in this 
incident was in the fact that I had been once a 
cadet in that famous school, and was anxious that 
this incident should not be overlooked. 

The article referred to called forth a number 
of letters, and one of them is so interesting that 
I have been requested to give it to the Confeder- 
ate Veteran. It is from a classmate of mine, 
Col. 0. J. Bond, who has been prominently con- 
nected with the Citadel Academy ever since his 
graduation, first as professor, then for many 
years the very able superintendent, and at pres- 
ent the Dean of the School, whose present name 
is “The Citadel, the Millitary College of South 
Carolina.” This is his letter, of date January 
28: 

“Dear Will: Your article, according to our rec- 
ords, is entirely correct as to the facts about the 
‘first hostile shot of the War of Secession.’ .... 
The Charleston Mercury of January 10, 1861, in 
its account of the Star of the West incident, used 
the headlines: 

“ ‘THE WAR BEGINS 
ENGAGEMENT AT FORT MORRIS 
ATTEMPTED RE-ENFORCEMENT OF FORT SUMTER 
THE STAR OF THE WEST IS FIRED INTO AND DRIVEN 
BACK 

THE CITADEL CADETS FIRE THE FIRST SHOTTED GUN 
THE UNITED STATES FLAG HAULED DOWN 
THREE OF THE SHOTS TAKE EFFECT.’ ” 

“Similarly, Harper’s Weekly, New York, in its 
issue of January 19, 1861, headlines its article on 
the engagement : 

“ ‘THE FIRST OF THE WAR,’ 
and gives its readers a picture of the Star of the 
West and a map of Charleston Harbor. 

“Just after the Ordinance of Secession, in or- 
der to protect the entrance to Charleston Harbor, 


Governor Pickens ordered fortifications to be 
constructed on Morris Island; and on January 1, 
1861, the Zouave Cadets, German Riflemen, and 
Citadel Cadets, under the command of Lieut. Col. 
John L. Branch, of the First South Carolina Regi- 
ment of Rifles (and a Citadel graduate of the 
Class of 1846), occupied Cummings Point on this 
island and began the construction of the ‘Sand 
Battery.’ When completed, it was armed with 
four smoothbore 24-pounders, and manned by the 
Citadel Cadets, who were the only troops there 
familiar with artillery. 

“When the Star of the West appeared in the 
early morning of January 9, the Cadets were 
ordered to their posts, Maj. P. F. Stevens, the Su- 
perintendent, in command. When the vessel came 
opposite the Battery, Major Stevens ordered the 
Cadets to fire, and the Cadet Captain gave the 
command: ‘Number One, Fire!’ Cadet G. E. 
Haynesworth, of Sumter, pulled the lanyard, and 
was, therefore, the man who fired the first shot 
of the war. After that the firing was by the four 
guns in turn. 

“Captain McGown, in command of the Star of 
the West, made the following report of the ac- 
tion : 

“ ‘When we arrived about two miles from Fort 
Moultrie — Fort Sumter being about the same dis- 
tance — a masked battery on Morris Island, where 
there was a red Palmetto flag flying, opened fire 
upon us, a distance of about five-eighths of a mile. 
We continued on under fire of the battery over 
ten minutes, several of the shots going clean over 
us. One passed just clear of the pilot-house. An- 
other passed between the smoke-stack and the 
walking beam of the engine. Another struck the 
ship just aloft of the fore-rigging, and stove in 
the planking, and another came within an ace of 
carrying away the rudder.’ 

“The New York Evening Post quoted an officer 
on board the vessel as saying, jokingly: ‘The peo- 
ple of Charleston pride themselves upon their 
hospitality, but it exceeded my expectations. They 
gave us several halls before we landed.’ 

“As this action occurred before the inaugura- 
tion of President Lincoln, it has been passed over 
as ‘an incident,’ and the actual beginning of hos- 
tilities at the later date when the policy of the 
United States was decided upon, and the State of 
South Carolina, seeing that a conflict was inevi- 
table, ordered the reduction of Fort Sumter.” 

I beg leave also to append the following ex- 
tract from the historic sketch in the present cata- 
log of the School : 


87 


Qopfedcrat^ l/eterai)., 


“The value to the State of the military train- 
ing given at The Citadel is strikingly shown by 
the fact that, of the two hundred and forty gradu- 
ates before the close of the War between the 
States, about two hundred were officers in the 
Confederate service, and forty-three laid down 
their lives on the battle field. The list of Citadel 
officers in that great conflict is an honor roll of 
which any institution may well be proud. 

“There are two dates in the history of the two 
State military academies, the Citadel and the Ar- 
senal (in Columbia) which mark the boundaries 
of this greatest military struggle of the century. 
Between January 9, 1861, and May 9, 1865, what 
a tragic history was enacted ! On the former date, 
Maj. P. F. Stevens, Superintendent and graduate 
of The Citadel, in command of a detachment of 
Citadel Cadets, manning a battery of 24-pound- 
ers, drove off the steamer Star of the West, which 
was attempting the relief of Fort Sumter — thus 
firing the first hostile shot of the War. 

“On the latter date, Capt. J. P, Thomas, Su- 
perintendent of The Arsenal, and also a graduate 
of The Citadel, with the cadets at his command, 
had a skirmish with Stoneman’s raiders near 
Williamston, S. C., thus firing the last shot of the 
War delivered by any organized body of troops 
east of the Mississippi River. 

“At the present time, the corps of cadets has an 
annual drill for the Star of the West medal, for 
the best drilled cadet of that corps, presented 
many years ago to the institution by Dr. B. H. 
Teague, a veteran of the Confederate army. This 
medal gets its name from a piece of oak wood, in 
the form of a star, taken from the historic ves- 
sel.” 

We believe that these facts should not be for- 
gotten. 


THE FIRST OVERT ACT OF THE SIXTIES. 
BY MRS. FANNIE E. SELPH, NASHVILLE, TENN. 
Much has been written and said about the first 
overt act which brought on the conflict known as 
the War between the States. Some say it was the 
firing on the Star of the West in January, 1861; 
others that it was the firing on Fort Sumter, and 
that this “was a great blunder.” 

A close student of history will give a different 
version of the facts and will make the incontro- 
vertible statement that it was neither of these 
happenings, but that it was the act of the Federal 
Government in sending heavily armed warships 
with provisions to seize and hold Fort Sumter, 


which was the lawful property of South Carolina 
and necessary for her protection. 

A brief review of historic data will clearly 
show the situation which made it a necessity. At 
the close of the Revolutionary War, the treaty of 
peace was not made between England and the 
American Nation, but between England and the 
thirteen Colonies, each one being recognized as a 
separate and independent power, its sovereignty 
fully recognized. These Colonies then became 
thirteen independent, sovereign States. 

When the Constitutional Convention was held 
to organize a government covering these States, 
each State sent instructed delegates, and their 
instructions emphasized the title of “sovereignty.” 
This was the “Ark of the Covenant” — ^the one 
foundation upon which that covenant rested, and 
not until this was firmly guaranteed to these 
States did they ratify the Constitution. When 
South Carolina withdrew from this union, it was 
a peaceful withdrawal with no thought of any- 
thing but the peaceful enjoyment of her consti- 
tutional rights. 

Fort Sumter was the lawful property of South 
Carolina and necessary for her protection. It was 
also one of the important gateways to the South. 
It was then a necessity, and not a blunder, to fire 
on Sumter. When the Federal government sent 
warships to seize and hold Sumter, it was a vio- 
lation of the covenant between the States without 
a cause. The seriousness of the situation was 
further emphasized by the expressions from the 
higher authorities in regard to holding Sumter 
after promising to evacuate it. Members of the 
Supreme Court waited on members of the Cabinet 
with the information that “without serious vio- 
lations of the Constitution and statutes, coercion 
cannot be successfully effected by the Executive 
Department.” 

General Scott, Commander in Chief of the Fed- 
eral Army, advised against it. It was discussed 
by the Senate of the United States, and Mr. Doug- 
las, of Illinois, made a strong speech condemning 
it. Also, Major Anderson, in command of the 
fort, advised against holding it. Notwithstand- 
ing all this, the Federal Government persisted in 
its course, and the war vessels were sent to hold 
the fort with the notification that “unless peace- 
fully allowed to enter with provisions, an entrance 
would be made by force.” 

This made it a necessity to demand an evacua- 
tion of the fort, and this having been denied, the 
fort was fired on. This caused the evacuation of 
the fort, but it bore no evidence of a warlike 


88 


C^oi^federat^ Ueterap. 


spirit. The Stars and Stripes was given a salute 
and the Confederate commander, Beauregard, as- 
sisted Major Anderson in removing the Federal 
troops and property. 


CRITICAL COMMENT. 

BY BRISCOE B. BOULDIN, GREENSBORO, N. C. 

The S. C. V. Department of the Veteran 
for January contains interesting notes and 
comments upon the battle at Bethel, in Vir- 
ginia, June 10, 1861, this article based upon 
statements in a letter of Col. Alfred H. Baird, 
Springdale, Ark., a color bearer in that battle. 
The editor quotes from the letter and says that 
Colonel Baird’s statement needs no verification. 
With due respect for both his and Colonel Baird’s 
statements, I beg leave to quote Colonel Baird’s 
letter and point out some of the striking utter- 
ances therein contained. The Colonel writes : 
“This was a big battle, lasting from sunup until 
four o’clock in the evening, and I hate to see it 
overlooked. There were three hundred Union 
soldiers dead on the field. We lost one man by 
the name of Wyatt. There is a monument to his 
memory as the first soldier to die for his country. 
It is in Raleigh, N. C. I was color bearer in this 
battle, and the old flag I carried is now in the 
State Museum at Raleigh, with my name on it.” 

Now, so far from having been overlooked, the 
fight at Bethel has been, with the exception, may- 
be, of Gettysburg, more discussed, particularly 
in North Carolina, than any of the more important 
battles of the war. It is a matter of history — 
undisputed — that it antedated Manassas. It is 
known of all men that Henry Wyatt (the brave 
Virginian), who volunteered to burn the house 
which General Hill said hid the enemy from his 
view, proceeded alone, and was shot square in 
the forehead when about halfway to the house. 
The others who volunteered were called back to 
cover (D. H. Hill, Magruder, Randolph). 

The battle was opened at about fifteen min- 
utes past nine by a shot fired from a Parrott gun 
of the Richmond Howitzers, which gun was aimed 
by Major Randolph and fired by Major Carter, 
both of Virginia. “The fight at the angle lasted 
about twenty minutes. It completely discouraged 
the enemy, and he made no further effort at as- 
sault, but the troops were called in and started 
back for Hampton” (Hill). On the Confeder- 
ate side one man, Wyatt, of Richmond, Va., was 


killed and seven were wounded (Hill, Randolph) . 
Colonel Baird states there were three hundred 
Union soldier dead on the field. General Hill and 
Major Randolph saw only seven, though both 
thought there must have been a greater number 
killed. Gen. B. F. Butler, of the Union army, re- 
ported officially eighteen killed, including those 
killed on the retreat. 

The fight at Bethel was in no sense a great bat- 
tle, but the moral effect was fine. 

Of the monument in Raleigh, Colonel Baird says 
that it was erected to the memory of Wyatt as 
“the first soldier to die for his country.” The 
erection of this monument to the memory of 
Wyatt (the Virginian) was a gracious act on the 
part of North Carolina. It is not claimed, how- 
ever, that Wyatt was “the first soldier to die for 
his country.” There was another encounter be- 
tween soldiers of the Northern and Southern 
armies which antedated Bethel ten days, and in 
which there was exactly the same number of 
casualties as at Bethel. At Fairfax Court House, 
Va., on the morning of June 1, 1861, there was a 
sharp encounter, and the gallant Captain Marf of 
the Warrenton Rifles fell pierced through the 
heart while defending the town against the raid 
made by Lieutenant Tompkins. Colonel Ewell 
(later General Ewell), wounded in this fight, took 
command, and was assisted by Governor William 
(“Extra Billy”) Smith, of Virginia. A monument 
stands at Fairfax Court House to the memory of 
Captain Marr, who fell fighting for his country 
ten days before the other gallant Virginian, Henry 
Wyatt, fell at Bethel. 

Many feel, however, that the honor of being 
first to die for the Confederate flag belongs to 
the hotel proprietor at Alexandria. He had raised 
a Confederate flag on the roof of his hotel. A 
Union officer cut it down, and the proprietor killed 
him. A squad of Union soldiers then killed the 
proprietor — the first man who died in defense of 
the Stars and Bars. 

Why North Carolina claims “First at Bethel,” 
and what that may mean, has puzzled many a 
reader of Confederate history. 

A Virginian aimed the first gun fired at Bethel; 
a Virginian fired the first gun aimed at Bethel; 
a Virginian was the only one killed at Bethel. 
Does “First at Bethel” belong to North Carolina, 
or can Virginia justly claim it? 

Keep History straight. 


89 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 


THE NATIONAL PARK AT VICKSBURG. 

BY MRS. JOHN VERNON, LAUREL, MISS. 

As a native Alabamian, with only four years 
residence in Mississippi, I had my first view of the 
National Military Park at Vicksburg recently. 
The only unsatisfactory feature of the trip was 
that it had to be a brief one. 

Vicksburg is situated on the Mississippi River, 
among the Walnut Hills, and is about forty miles 
west of Jackson, below the mouth of the Yazoo 
River. It is approximately halfway between the 
cities of Memphis, Tenn., and New Orleans, La. 

The city has a Federal Building, a National 
Cemetery, and several hospitals, in addition to the 
park. Its industries are varied. Among them, 
there are railroad repair shops, lumber, and cotton 
seed oil mills, machine works, and an extensive 
trade in cotton. 

Vicksburg has been called the “Gilbraltar of the 
Confederacy.” The reason for its importance lay 
in its strategic position. Vicksburg was the only 
real stronghold that barred free navigation of 
the Mississippi River. General Grant has been 
quoted as saying, “When Vicksburg fell, the fate 
of the Confederacy was sealed.” The capture of 
Vicksburg severed Arkansas, Louisiana, and 
Texas from their sister States of the Confederacy. 
It also meant the end of the most important 
source of supplies for the Southern armies. The 
starving of the South counted for more in its final 
defeat than did victories on the battle field. 

As one walks over this park, which is the 
former battle field, a history of the seige of Vicks- 
burg is interesting to contemplate. 

In January, Grant attempted its capture with- 
out success. He tried to dig a canal across the 
peninsula, which was only about a mile wide. 
This ended disastrously after six weeks of hard 
labor. A fiood drowned many horses, and the men 
had to flee for their lives. Later, the Northern 
troops went down on the west side of the river, 
and, in April, supply boats ran past the eight 
miles of batteries. These enabled the army to 
cross the river, and the city was soon besieged. 
Pemberton was in command of the Confederates, 
and the bombardment continued at intervals from 
"May 26 to June. Grant had more than twice as 
many men as Pemberton. At last, Pemberton 
was forced to ask terms for an armistice from 
Grant and Porter. Grant answered that nothing 
but unconditional surrender could be accepted, 
adding, “Men who have shown so much endurance 
and courage as those in Vicksburg will always 


challenge the respect of an adversary, and I can 
assure you will be treated with all the respect due 
to prisoners of war.” Vicksburg people say, “The 
Yankees could have shelled the city till hell froze 
over without capturing it.” The capture was due 
to starvation. The entire battle consisted of the 
closing in of the Union soldiers and the brilliant 
defense of the Confederates. 

In order to commemorate the campaign siege 
and defense, the United States government has 
constructed this Military Park. A commission 
was appointed under the direction of which the 
work was done. The beauty of the countryside 
adds enormously to the attraction. The rolling 
hillsides and the valleys and bluffs in themselves 
make a scene worth far more than a passing 
glance. Where once there were scarcely any 
trees, the growth is thick and lovely. The wind- 
ing roads afford views of great natural beauty. 
The park contains thirteen hundred and twenty- 
three acres. It practically includes the battle 
lines of the two opposing armies from May 
to July. I was informed that the roads in the 
park cover eighty miles. 

As I passed under the Memorial Arch at the 
entrance, I was able to see tall towers and memo- 
rial buildings in the distance, and, as I rode along, 

I saw markers which indicated Confederate and 
Union trenches. Some of them seemed very small 
and insignificant ditches to me. On my return 
home, my imagination was active in considering 
what admirable trenches various bluffs and small 
declivities which I saw would make. Some of the 
trenches consisted of deep bluffs, and, on the hill- 
sides, occasionally might be seen the cannons 
placed as they were during the siege. They 
seemed very heavy and cumbersome for moving 
from one position to another. In order to load 
them, the soldiers were compelled to step in front 
in full view of their opponents. In all, there are 
one hundred twenty-eight mounted guns on the 
old battery sites. 

I was quite interested in the bronze statues and 
busts. There is a lifelike statue of Jefferson 
Davis, with the Confederate flag. Other statues 
include those of Generals Grant, Logan, and Ste- 
phen D. Lee. With one exception, a bronze por- 
trait of each brigade and division commander en- 
gaged in the struggle has been placed in the park. 

Three huge observation towers are located in 
the Military Park. Each has a spiral staircase. 

I was anxious to go up and look over the entire 
park. However, the only observation tower that 


90 


Qopfcderat^ l/eterai). 


I had time to approach was not in a very safe con- 
dition, so I did not mount it. The steps seemed to 
be crumbling. One of these concrete observation 
towers is located on Logan Circle, one on the area 
bounded by Confederate Avenue and Observation 
Circle, and the third on Confederate Avenue near 
All Saints College. 

A Union Navy Memorial is located at Battery 
Selfridge in memory of the service of the Union 
Navy. 

Sixteen State memorials have been finished — 
those of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Michi- 
gan, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Mis- 
souri, New Hampshire, New York, North Caro- 
lina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, West Virginia, 
and Wisconsin. I was disappointed on finding 
that Alabama Circle had nothing more than a 
marker. However, I did see several markers fur- 
ther on to indicate the different lines of the Ala- 
bama divisions. Three remarkable memorials are 
those of Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Iowa. 

Illinois has a beautiful marble rotunda with a 
classic portico. I mounted the many steps that 
led to it, and looked within. More than thirty- 
five thousand names are engraved upon the inside 
walls. In this way, Illinois has preserved the 
identity of her soldiers in this campaign. 

The Iowa memorial has six artistic bronze 
battle field pictures, each in a separate panel. 

There are sixteen bridges, some of steel and 
some of re-enforced concrete, in the park. 

The United States government has placed seven 
statues, forty-nine busts, and fifty portrait tablets 
there. Various states have contributed twenty- 
one busts, statues, and tablets. An equestrian 
statue, four statues, five busts, and twenty-nine 
tablets were gifts. 

There are eight hundred ninety-eight tablets, 
largely of bronze, which tell briefly of the siege 
and defense. Five hundred sixty-nine of these are 
Union, and three hundred twenty-nine are Con- 
federate. 

Anyone interested in seeing the South has sure- 
ly failed if this National Military Park at Vicks- 
burg, Miss., is omitted from the itinerary. 


COURTESY IN WAR. 

BY JUDGE E. A. McCULLOCH, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

I read with much interest the narrative in the 
December Veteran written by Rev. J. W. Ware 
of an incident in which a Federal officer, Gen. 
Wesley Merritt, appeared in a generous attitude 
in his dealings with a Southern family during war 


time. This reminded me of a somewhat similar 
incident in the military career of General Grant 
during his Mississippi campaign in 1863, preced- 
ing the siege of Vicksburg. I do not think this 
story has heretofore appeared in print. General 
Grant had headquarter's at Holly Springs, Miss., 
in the home of Mr. E. P. Govan and family. He 
occupied headquarters there for several months — 
Mrs. Grant joining him, and bringing their small 
son, Jesse, who related one of the incidents here 
referred to in his book published a few years ago. 
My information was received from members of the 
Govan family — especially from Capt. Frank H. 
Govan, a son of Mr. E. P. Govan. 

The Govan family was a distinguished one in 
Mississippi. There were five brothers — E. P., 
John J., William H., Daniel C., and George M. — 
each of them serving in the Confederate army ex- 
cept E. P. Govan, who was too old for military 
service. Maj. William H. Govan moved to Arkan- 
sas before the war, and became Adjutant of Hind- 
mand’s Division. Gen. Daniel C. Govan also went 
to Arkansas before the war, and commanded a 
brigade of infantry in Cleburne’s Division. Capt. 
Frank H. Govan, son of E. P., enlisted in the Con- 
federate army at Holly Springs in April, 1861, 
when he was just fifteen years of age, and became 
a captain during the last twelve or fifteen months 
of the war, serving on the staff of his uncle Daniel. 

General Grant occupied a room downstairs in 
the Govan home as his official headquarters, and 
he and Mrs. Grant lived in a suite of rooms up- 
stairs. They boarded regularly with the Govans, 
sitting at the family table, and always joining in 
conversation with members of the family, there 
being a large family circle — four daughters and 
three sons. Capt. Frank Govan has often related 
to me his experiences at home on furlough while 
General Grant was there. He was a mere boy, not 
over seventeen or eighteen, and, of course, had 
laid aside his uniform and all evidences of military 
life. He told me that he sat at the General’s elbow 
during meals for nearly a month, and was morally 
certain that the General was aware of his being a 
furloughed Confederate soldier, but never took 
notice of the fact — merely treating the young 
soldier in the same manner as he did the other 
members of the family, that of friendliness and 
quiet courtesy. When the furlough expired, the 
young soldier quietly slipped away and rejoined 
his command, leaving the Grants still there as 
guests or boarders. 

If that incident had occurred in the presence or 


91 


Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 


knowledge of some other Federal officers, a great 
noise would have been made about it, and doubt- 
less young Govan would have been arrested and 
executed as a spy. 

Later, General Forrest made a raid on Holly 
Springs and came very near capturing General 
Grant, who made a hasty escape by a margin of 
less than an hour. Jesse R. Grant tells of this in 
his book, but here is an incident of which he 
doubtless was not apprised. In making his hasty 
departure. General Grant carried away his official 
papers from his office, but left behind all private 
baggage of his wife and himself. A squad of For- 
rest’s cavalry raided the house, and, discovering 
the General’s escape with his official matters, 
dashed upstairs for further search of the rooms 
and baggage. Mrs. Govan followed them, re- 
questing that the trunks be left undisturbed, as 
they were the private property of Mrs. Grant. 
The cavalrymen were not disposed to be thus 
thwarted in their search, but the old lady threat- 
ened to report them to General Forrest, and re- 
minded them that the General would not tolerate 
such a discourtesy. They then desisted. Mrs. 
Govan was not aware, at that time, of the fact 
that one of the trunks contained the sword pre- 
sented to Grant by Congress as a memorial of the 
capture of Fort Donelson. 

After the raid ended. Grant returned to Holly 
Springs with a stronger guard and, with his wife, 
resumed headquarters at the Govan home. When 
he left there later to movp further South on his 
Vicksburg campaign, he voluntarily gave to the 
Govan family a “protection order” entirely in his 
own handwriting and signed as “Major General, 
U. S. A.” I have seen the document several times, 
and it is still in the posses"sion of Captain Frank 
Govan’s widow, at Marianna, Lee County, Ark. 


ALEXANDER HAMILTON STEPHENS. 

BY MARGARET HEARD DOHME, AUGUSTA, GA. 

Some years ago, among ante-bellum relics in 
the attic of our home in Elberton, Ga., I found an 
autographed photograph of Hon. Alexander Ste- 
phens and his servant, Alex Kent. The discovery 
excited my interest, and research followed, re- 
sulting in the facts brought out in this article. 

Mother told me that the photograph had been 
given to her by Mr. Stephens the last time he was 
the guest of her family in Augusta. She also said 
that my grandfather. Col. James Lawrence Heard, 
was a close friend of Mr. Stephens, and had al- 
ways entertained him when he visited Elberton. 


Without waiting for more, I ran across the 
garden to the old home next door, where I found 
grandmother knitting by the big wood fire in her 
bedroom. Yes, Alexander Stephens had often 
been their guest, and she described his visits as 
though they were of yesterday. As I listened, the 
gentle voice carried me far from the present to 
those difficult post-war days between 1873 and 
1882, when Mr. Stephens was representing his 
State in Congress. I could see the big coach stop 
at the front gate, the doors open, and the frail 
little man, aided by his servant, descend from 
it on crutches and swing himself slowly up the 
box-bordered walk to the white columned porch, 
where my grandparents waited to welcome him. 

After the exchange of greetings, Alex Kent 
would pick his master up and carry him to his 
room upstairs. The servants followed with the 
luggage, and the household walked on tiptoe and 
spoke in whispers till the guest had rested from 
his journey and returned to his favorite chair on 
the front porch. Friends called, refreshments 
were served by the old butler, and finally the aft- 
ernoon was gone and supper was being announced. 
Supper was more than a meal. It was a sym- 
posium which leaders in the community, special 
friends of the guest of honor, shared. Southern 
problems, principles, and ideals were discussed 
with typical Southern wit and animation. 

Sometimes the older children of the family 
were permitted to be present. On one occasion, 
when the conversation waxed hot over the ques- 
tion of higher education of women — a movement 
that Mr. Stephens strongly advocated — the host’s 
young daughter volunteered her opinion on the 
subject. Mr. Stephens’ hashing eyes located the 
little speaker near the end of the long table, and, 
in a tone of voice which would have silenced the 
average child, said, “Young lady, children should 
be seen, not heard.” To which she replied, “But, 
Mr. Stephens, I can not help being heard.” The 
company laughed and Mr. Stephens chuckled and 
resumed his argument.' Several days later, when 
he returned to his home, he wrote the little girl a 
charming letter. He loved children. My father, 
then a very small boy, remembered being patted 
on the head and put at ease when he stumbled into 
his presence clad in embarrassment and very stiff 
new boots. 

Aunt Martha, now a family pensioner, but cook 
at the time of Mr. Stephens’ visits, was smoking 
in front of her cabin. She removed her pipe and 
pulled her gold-rimmed glasses far down on her 
nose to peer over them at the photograph I held 


92 


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before her. “Well, if dat aint Marse Alex Ste- 
phens an’ his body-servant!” she exclaimed, her 
black face crinkling up in a toothless smile. “Sho, 
I ’members him, Li’l Miss. We had some moving 
about up at de house when Marse Alex was cornin’ 
to visit Marse Larence and Miss Melisse. 

“His room had to be fixed specially for him. 
De bed had to face a certain way, de windows had 
to be open, and de bed linen changed every day 
and in between times if Marse Alex laid down 
during de day. No, ma’am, he wouldn’t sleep twixt 
de same sheets twice, an,’ frail as he wuz, he would 
let de night air in his room. 

“He wuz curious ’bout his eaten, too. Couldn’t 
eat certain things, and dat Alex Kent would stan’ 
back o’ his chair in de dinin’-room, an’ when de 
butler would pass Marse Alex something dat he 
couldn’t eat, Alex would reach over an’ whisper, 
‘Mr. Stephens, you don’t want that,’ an’ Marse 
Alex wouldn’t take none o’ dat dish. 

“It made Sam, de butler, mad, but what riled 
me wuz dat Alex coming out to de kitchen wid dat 
upity air o’ his to watch me cook. He was faith- 
ful to Marse Alex and respectful to de white folks, 
but he sho was sassy to us niggers. He’d say to 
me, ‘What you cooking dat for? Mr. Stephens 
can’t eat it! Or, ‘You sho don’t do dat like we 
does at Liberty Hall.’ One day I done stood him 
as long as I could, an’ I says to him, ‘Look here, 
nigger, if you wornt Marse Alex’s body-servant, 
I’d run you outen dis kitchen.’ Den he look at me 
an’ roll his eyes an’ say, ‘Valet.’ I say, ‘What dat 
you call me?’ ‘I say, “Valet,” says he. Den I 
reach for a stick o’ wood, an’ if dat triflin’ Alex 
hadn’t dodged outen de door, Marse Alex wouldn’t 
had no body-servant. No, Li’l Miss, I ain’t low no 
young nigger to call me outen my name.” 

Aunt Martha was still shaking her bandannaed 
head and mumbling about the shortcomings of the 
younger generation when I left her to find my 
grandfather. 

He was in the back yard, having the smoke- 
house prepared for the curing of the winter’s 
meat. Very busy, but he sat down on the steps 
and told me of his friendship with Mr. Stephens. 
He spoke reverently as men of his generation 
spoke of their fathers, for he was some twenty 
years younger than the great man whose friend- 
ship and political views he had shared. Even now 
I can see his face shine with enthusiasm and pride 
as he showed me Alex Stephens the man, the slen- 
der, pale cripple with burning dark eyes, shrill 
voice, brilliant brain and great heart, who rose 


from obscurity to become a leader of his State 
and the Southland. 

Alexander Hamilton Stephens was born near 
Crawfordville, Ga., on February 11, 1812, and 
three months later his mother died. Left with 
three little children his father married again. 
One of the five children of this second marriage, 
and Alexander Stephens’ favorite, became the fa- 
mous lawyer and Georgia Supreme Court Judge, 
Linton Stephens. 

Alexander Stephens’ childhood was spent in 
farm work and irregular attendance at the near- 
by rural school, for his people were very poor. 
Through the efforts of his Sunday school superin- 
tendent, a Mr. Mills, he was sent to an academy in 
Washington, Ga., soon after his father and step- 
mother died within a few days of each other. He 
became devoted to the headmaster of this school, 
Alexander Hamilton Webster, and, because of this 
affection, adopted Hamilton for his middle name 
and Mr. Webster as his model. Fortunately, the 
schoolmaster was a real teacher, one of those rare 
beings who live again in the lives of their pupils, 
so the lonely, precocious boy developed rapidly 
under his leadership. 

When he was ready to enter Franklin College, 
there was no money, so a society of the Presby- 
terian Church made him a loan, which he later re- 
turned. At the time of the loan, he was thinking 
of becoming a preacher, but was so undecided 
about it that he accepted the loan on condition that 
he return it if he did not enter the ministry. He 
was still undecided at the time of his graduation, 
and accepted a teaching position in Madison, Ga. 
He was five feet seven inches in height, and 
weighed only seventy pounds at the time. 

By 1834, he had abandoned the idea of the minis- 
try for law. It was the day of “reading law” be- 
fore schools of law were considered essential prep- 
aration for the profession, so Mr. Stephens began 
to “read law.” After several months of hard 
study, he passed an excellent examination and was 
admitted to the bar in the summer of the same 
year. No small accomplishment. Law was evi- 
dently the wise choice, for he became one of 
Georgia’s greatest lawyers. 

Two years later he was elected to the legisla- 
ture, where he served till the end of 1840. During 
this time he worked hard for his college, the high- 
er education of women, and the building of the 
Western and Atlantic Railroad, Georgia’s first 
railroad. It is interesting to read in his diary: 

“July 3, 1834 The stupendous thought of 

seeing steam engines moving over our hills with 


93 


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the safe rapid flight of fifteen miles an hour pro- 
duces a greater effect in the discussion of the 
undertaking than any discovered defect in the 
chain of argument in its favor.” 

It is amusing to imagine what his opponents in 
this successful fight for the railroad would think 
of the recent record of over sixty-nine miles per 
hour made by the Cheltenham Flier of the English 
Great Western Railways, or of Majar Doolittle’s 
transcontinental flight at an average of two hun- 
dred and thirty-two miles an hour. 

Between 1840 and 1842, Mr. Stephens had a 
brief vacation from public service and devoted 
the time to his increasing law practice. Then he 
was elected to the State Senate, and the following 
year was sent to Congress, where he remained for 
sixteen years. 

It is not possible in this brief sketch to describe 
those years in Congress, nor to discuss his po- 
sition on the many important questions of that 
critical period, but, whatever the issue, he re- 
mained true to his belief in the sovereignty of the 
States under Constitutional government and the 
protection of the liberties of the people. 

It was at this time that a Washington reporter 
described him in the following manner: “A little 
way up the aisles sits a queer looking bundle — an 
immense cloak, a high hat, and, peering some- 
where out of the middle, a thin, pale, sad little 
face. This brain and eyes, enrolled in countless 
thicknesses of flannel and broadcloth wrappings, 
belong to Honorable Alexander H. Stephens, of 
Georgia.” 

He does not tell how the great brain functioned 
and the dark eyes flashed with enthusiasm as the 
Georgian fought for the admission of Texas, 
against the War with Mexico, or in favor of the 
compromise of 1850. Whatever the fight, so domi- 
nant was the personality of the speaker and so 
logical and forceful the speech that he held the 
attention of his listeners in spite of the handicap 
of a shrill voice. 

The nature of his public service is best de- 
scribed in these words from one of his speeches: 
‘T am afraid of nothing on earth, or above the 
earth, or beneath the earth, except to do wrong. 
The path of duty I shall ever endeavor to travel, 
fearing no evil and dreading no consequences. 
I would rather be defeated in a good cause than 
triumph in a bad one.” 

He was placed on the Douglas electoral ticket 
in 1860, and the next year was sent to the Georgia 
Secession Convention. Here he worked against 
immediate secession, but signed the ordinance 


when it was passed and represented his State at 
the Confederate Convention in Montgomery. He 
was elected Vice-President of the Confederate 
States, and filled the office so creditably that he 
won the loyal support of all factions of the Con- 
federacy. 

Near the close of the war, he was sent to the 
Peace Conference at Hampton Roads and soon 
afterward was imprisoned for several months in 
Boston Harbor, at Fort Warren. As soon as he 
was released, Georgia sent him to the United 
States Senate, where he was refused a seat. By 
1873, the worst of Reconstruction was over and 
conditions were more normal. He was returned 
to Congress from his district, to remain there 
till elected Governor of Georgia, nine years later. 

By this time his physical strength was rapidly 
failing; only his mind and will power were as 
strong as ever. For one year he literally gave the 
last full measure of his useful life to his people. 
It was 1883, the year af the Sesqui-Centennial in 
Savannah, and he felt that the Governor of the 
State should attend. In spite of the efforts of his 
friends to dissuade him, he went to Savannah, 
contracted a cold, grew rapidly worse, and died 
on March 4. Georgia was crushed, and the na- 
tion joined her in honoring his memory. 

Years passed, and he was chosen one of Geor- 
gia’s representatives in Statuary Hall in Washing- 
ton. The Stephens’ Monument Association was 
organized and bought Liberty Hall, his home at 
Crawfordville, and erected a monument over his 
grave there. On this monument they carved the 
words. Non sibe sed aliis — “Not for himself, but 
for others.” 

What more appropriate words could have been 
used? At Liberty Hall he extended hospitality to 
great and lowly alike. There a room was kept in 
readiness at all times to offer shelter to any poor 
traveler who chanced to pass that way. A large 
part of his income was spent in helping others, 
and he made college education possible for more 
than fifty young men and women. 

His mental energy was unusual. Besides the 
strenuous political activity outlined above, he 
found time to keep a diary and write “The War 
between the States,” a brief history of the United 
States, and countless charming letters to his 
friends. 

Being very human, he had his weaknesses. He 
had to fight melancholy, over-sensitiveness, and a 
high temper. But with it all he was kind and 
considerate, loyal to his friends, just to his ene- 
mies, extremely patriotic — a statesmen of great 


94 


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purity and strength of character. He was a man 
of great refinement and loved music and flowers. 
My grandmother said he never failed to express 
appreciation of the flowers in his room or about 
the place at the time of his visit. 

Mr. Stephens never married, but he had the 
highest regard for women and treated them with 
courtly courtesy. Nor was he blind to their 
charms, for he once told grandfather that one of 
the prettiest pictures he had ever seen was the 
face of a beautiful Southern girl framed in a pink 
sunbonnet. 

Was Alexander Stephens also a prophet? It 
seems so, for he said in a speech soon after the 
war, “Cotton will be the curse of the South. I 
wish there were only one cotton seed left in the 
world. Then, gentlemen, I would swallow it.” 

[Note. — In writing the above, I wish to ac- 
knowledge indebtedness to the various excellent 
biographies of Mr. Stephens as well as to a 
Fourth of July speech made by Judge Henry 
Lumpkin at Crawfordville, Ga., some years ago, 
soon after the interviews mentioned in the first 
part of this article. 

My grandfather. Col. James Lawrence Heard, 
was a major in the Confederate Army, and died 
at his home in Elberton in 1922 in his ninety-first 
year. He was the first Mayor of Elberton, Ga., 
and, at the time of his death, the oldest living 
alumnus of the University of Georgia. — M. H. D.] 


WHERE PATRIOTS REST. 

BY GENEVA ELTIE IN DALLAS NEWS, 1925. 

The old cemetery of Austin, Tex., comprises 
fourteen city blocks. It is situated on a knoll, 
which slopes gently to the east. The view from 
the top of this knoll reveals the city in every di- 
rection, with its beautiful trees, homes, churches, 
and schools. 

The location of the cemetery is ideal. On it 
are many beautiful trees ; and flowers from every 
State in the Union are growing there. The grass 
forms a carpet of green all over the ground where 
there are no flowers. The cemetery is surrounded 
on the east, south, and west by a low concrete 
wall, and on the north by an unpainted picket 
fence. The wall was built in 1912. 

I walked up seven white concrete steps to a 
little iron gate. On the tip of each little upright 
rod is a white Texas star, and there are four of 

these stars in the center of the gate Passing 

through this gate, I walked up three more steps 
and found myself on top of the knoll, in the city 
of the illustrious dead. 


The first grave to my right was marked by a 
small headstone on which was carved “Brazier.” 
Next to this grave is an imposing monument of 
gray marble, low and square, with this inscrip- 
tion : “George W. Smyth, Sr., born in North Caro- 
lina, May 16, 1808. Died Austin, Tex., February 
21, 1866. Second Land Commissioner of Texas. 
First Congressman from East Texas. A signer 
of the Texas Declaration of Independence. Rep- 
resentative to second constitutional convention.” 

On the first grave to my left was an old 
weather-beaten and blackened marble monument, 
from one-half of whose base rises a tall shaft, 
upon which sits a vase with a Texas star carved 
upon it. Upon the other half of the base stands 
a life-size figure of an angel carved in marble, 
represented as weeping over the grave below. The 
inscription on this monument is as follows : “Here 
lies John Hemphill, born in Chester District, 
South Carolina, on the 18th day of December, 
A.D. 1803. Died at Richmond, Va., on the 3rd day 
of January, A.D. 1862. From 1840 to 1857 he was 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Texas. 
From 1857 to 1861 he represented Texas in the 
Senate of the United States.” 

Only a few steps from this grave are two beau- 
tiful cedar trees, between which I walked, and 
looking up I found myself at the base of a won- 
derfully beautiful monument of gray marble. Its 
base is built in the form of a stairway of three 
steps, and from the top of the massive pile is a 
tall marble shaft rearing its stately and graceful 
length many feet up toward the sky, looking down 
upon the many discolored, weather-beaten and in- 
significant little stones which mark the resting 
place of so many of the Texas heroes. Carved on 
the massive base of this monument in bold out- 
line is this word, “Davis.” Other inscriptions 
are, “Edmond J. Davis, born October 2, 1827 at 
St. Augustine, Fla. Died February 27, 1883, at 
Austin, Tex. Erected to his memory by his 
brother. Judge of the District Court of Texas, 
Brigadier General United States Volunteers, Gov- 
ernor of the State of Texas from 1870 to 1874.” 

Over by the side of the Davis monument is a 
small marker, so faded and dim and dark that the 
inscription is difficult to read, “Judge Abner S. 
Lipscomb, born February 10, 1789, in Edgefield 
District, South Carolina. Came to Washington 
County, Texas, in 1839. Secretary of State un- 
der President Lamar, Associate Justice Supreme 
Court from the State organization until his death 
in 1856.” 

The oldest grave in the cemetery is marked by 


95 


QoQfederat^ l/eteraQ. 


a small blue marble shaft resting on a dark base, 
bearing these words : “In memory of General Ed 
Burleson, of the Texas Revolution. Died Decem- 
ber 26, 1851. Age 53 years.” 

A small stone near-by bears this inscription: 
“Take thy rest, dear father. Last survivor of the 
battle of San Jacinto. W. P. Zuber. July 6, 
1820-September 22, 1913. Age 93 years.” 

On a dark low monument are these words: 
“Erected by Thankful Hubbard Chapter, Daugh- 
ters of American Revolution, in memory of Ste- 
phen Williams, a sergeant in the Revolutionary 
War and a gallant soldier in the struggle which 
gave Texas her independence.” 

A tall marble monument, blackened and weather 
beaten is inscribed: “In memory of Gen. William 
Scurry of the Confederate States Army. Died 
April 30, 1864. Age forty-two years.” 

Only a few feet east of the Davis monument is 
a small square covered with beautiful growing 
flowers. There are four graves in this square. 
On a low, blue granite marker are these words: 
“Died July 27, 1893, aged 61 years. Daughter 
of Colonel James W. Fannin of the Goliad massa- 
cre, 1836. Hero, martyr for Texas liberty.” On 
the base below, “Fannin.” The other three mark- 
ers are inscribed as follows: “Frank W. John- 
son,” “William L. Hunter,” and the last one, 
“Col. T. Ward, died November 25, 1872, aged 
sixty-six years.” 

Under the shadow of the Stephen F. Austin 
monument stands a tall marble shaft, marred, 
blackened and weather beaten, all its beauty and 
attractiveness gone. The name on this monu- 
ment was entirely unfamiliar to me, but I dis- 
covered that the man whose body was sleeping 
there was one of the bravest and most romantic 
soldiers who ever lived in any age. These are 
the words which startled and amazed me, “August 
Buchel, killed at the Battle of Pleasant Hill, La., 
April 15, 1864. We know that those who for 
their country die, live again immortally. Bred 
an officer in Germany, an officer in the Foreign 
Legion of France, knighted by the Queen for gal- 
lantry in the Carlist War in Spain, also Pasha in 
the Turkish Army. Immigrated to Texas in 1845. 
Chaplain Company H, First Texas Foot Rifles 
and aide-de-camp to Major General Taylor, Mexi- 
can War; Lieutenant Colonel Third Texas Infan- 
try ; Colonel, First Texas Cavalry ; Brigadier 
General, Confederate Army.” 

It is well worth a visit to the State Cemetery 
to see the grand and imposing monument of Ste- 
phen F. Austin. It is built of red Texas granite. 


on top of which stands the full size bronze figure 
of “the father of Texas.” On a bronze tablet at- 
tached to the base of this monument in raised let- 
ters is the following: “Stephen F. Austin, the 
father of Texas. Was born in Wythe County, 
Virginia, November 3, 1793, and died in Brazoria 
County, Texas, December 22, 1836. Wise, gentle, 
courageous, and patient. He was the founder of a 
mighty commonwealth.” 

The bronze figure on this monument is so won- 
derfully made and so real that you can with very 
little imagination hear his voice, and he stands 
with his right hand raised and holding a manu- 
script in his left hand, which is resting upon the 
stump of a tree. Commissioned by the Legisla- 
ture in 1910, V. 0. Weed, who has been an under- 
taker in Austin for many years, went to Peace 
Point, Brazoria County, Texas, disinterred the 
body of Stephen F. Austin, brought it to Austin 
and placed in its present resting place in the 
State Cemetery. More than 200 people stood 
reverently by the side of the grave as it was 
opened and viewed the remains. The coffin was 
gone — melted to dust — but the skeleton was in- 
tact and in perfect condition. It was carefully re- 
moved and taken to Austin, where it lay in state 
in the Capitol building, from which place it was 
followed to the cemetery by a funeral procession 
which slowly wound its way through the streets 
of Austin as the bells were tolled and the can- 
nons fired. A fitting tribute it was from the 
State he loved, showing that, although he had 
been dead seventy-four years, he still lived in the 
grateful hearts of Texans. Many noted men 
from all parts of the State acted as pallbearers on 
that occasion. 

A small granite monument is inscribed, “Wal- 
lace,” and below this one word are the following 
words: “Big Foot Wallace. Here lies he who 
spent his manhood defending the homes of Texas. 
Brave, honest, and faithful. Born April 3, 1817, 
died January 7, 1899.” 

A large Texas granite monument marks the 
last resting place of Gen. William P. Hardeman. 

The monument over Governor Lubbock’s grave 
is of white marble, inscribed: “October 6, 1815- 
June 22, 1905. Governor of Texas 1861-1863. 
State Treasurer 1879-1891.” The remains of Mrs. 
Lubbock lie beside those of her husband. 

Beautiful flowers cover the grave of Judge W. 
L. Davidson, who died January 25, 1921, in Aus- 
tin. 

A large and most attractive monument stands 
on the west side of the only drive in the cemetery. 


96 


Qopfederat^ \/eteraQ* 


On top of this monument is a life-size statue of the 
woman who sleeps beneath, Joanna Troutman. 
A bronze tablet attached to this monument at the 
height so that all may read, tells the beautiful 
story of this patriotic woman as follows: “This 
monument is erected in honor of Joanna Trout- 
man for the service she rendered the cause of 
Texas independence. Born in Crawford County, 
Georgia, February 19, 1818. She lived to see 
Texas free and one of the mightiest States in the 
American Union, and died August 1880.” 

When Texas was struggling to establish her 
rights as a State in the Mexican Republic she 
sent forth an appeal for help. Georgia responded 
by raising a battalion of volunteers, and Miss Jo- 
anna Troutman, then eighteen years of age, first 
with her love of liberty and the zeal of the volun- 
teer, with her own hands made a beautiful Lone 
Star flag and presented it to the Georgia bat- 
talion, and they landed in Texas with it in De- 
cember, 1836. The flag was symbolic of the lone 
struggle Texas was making. 

The flag was unfurled at Velasco and later 
carried to Goliad, where it proudly waved over 
the walls of the fortress. The flag was raised as 
the national flag on the walls -of Goliad by Fannin 
when he heard the Declaration of Texas Inde- 
pendence on March 8, 1836. It was constructed 
of white silk, with an azure star of five points. 
On one side was “Liberty or Death,” and on the 
reverse side, in Latin, “Where Liberty dwells 
there is my country.” The tattered shreds of 
this flag silently witnessed the murder of Fannin 
and his men at Goliad, March 27 following. Gen- 
tle, pure, patriotic, the hands of Joanna Troutman 
wrought her love of liberty in the beautiful Lone 
Star flag which witnessed the sacrifice of the men 
who brought it to Texas as the emblem of in- 
dependence. 

On the north, south, and west sides of this 
monument are also bronze tablets, and on these 
three tablets is a list of the names of the “Martyrs 
of Texas Independence at Goliad.” Ex-Gov. Os- 
car Colquitt is said to have paid $500 of his pri- 
vate means to have these three tablets placed 
upon this monument. 

East of the driveway is the magnificent tomb 
of Albert Sidney Johnston. Inside the locked 
doors lies the lifelike statue of this hero, the won- 
derful creation of Elizabeth Ney, the world- 
famed sculptress. 

Miss Ney lived in Austin until her death, and 
her home, known as the “Elizabeth Ney Studio,” 
is under the care of the Texas Fine Arts Associa- 


tion. There are many famous pieces of art in the 
collection at the Ney Studio, all executed by this 
talented woman. The bust of the German phi- 
losopher, Schopenhauer, is in the collection. At 
one time Miss Ney won the prize of thousands of 
dollars given by the German government for the 
best statuary submitted in a contest on Grecian 
art. The doors of the Elizabeth Ney Studio are 
opened to the public from time to time during the 
year. 

These words are carved on the Johnston tomb: 
“Albert Sidney Johnston. By the State in the 
year, 1904.” 

The life of Albert Sidney Johnston was one of 
heroism and romance and has been told over and 
over in song and story. It was he who followed 
the redskins into their camp and rescued Mrs. 
Rebecca Fisher and her little brother when they 
were small children. Mrs. Fisher lived in Austin 
past her ninety-eighth year, and she was an his- 
torical figure in Texas. When she was a very 
small girl, about eight years old, the Indians 
murdered and scalped her father and mother and 
other members of her family, and burned their 
frontier home, taking Mrs. Fisher and her little 
brother away with them. 

East of the driveway is a monument with the 
inscription: “John Wharton, Major General C. S. 
A. Born July 5, 1827. Died April 6, 1865.” 

On the sloping side of the knoll on the north 
are eighteen rows of graves, with forty-one little 
white markers in each row, and on the east side 
eleven rows of graves, with ninety-one markers 
in each row, making a total of 1,739 graves. In 
these graves on the hillside, over which the ever- 
green cedars cast their grateful shades, rest gal- 
lant and heroic Confederate soldiers of Texas. 

There are a number of women buried in this 
part of the cemetery. Occasionally, in the old 
part of the cemetery will be found the grave of 
a woman, usually the wife of some hero who is 
buried there. 

Masonic emblems are carved on a great num- 
ber of the monuments in the cemetery. 

The Stephen F. Austin monument cost $10,000 
and that of Joanna Troutman $5,000. The bronze 
statues on each of these monuments were exe- 
cuted by Coppini. 

Beautiful flowers grow in this old cemetery, 
and at the time of my visit there was a bed of 
bluebonnets planted to represent a Texas star, 200 
feet in circumference and 41 feet in diameter. 
There were over one thousand plants in this star. 


97 


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RECOLLECTIONS AND REFLECTIONS 

BY HENRY W. BATTLE, D.D., CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA. 

During the War between the States, mother and 
I lived with my paternal grandparents at 
Tuskegee, Ala., father having organized a com- 
pany and gone to be with Lee in Virginia. My 
grandfather. Dr. Cullen Battle, a man of large 
wealth and sterling character, was a Unionist in 
theory. He maintained that if the South had 
wrongs that called for the arbitrament of the 
sword (which we did not deny) , that sworJ should 
be drawn beneath the flag of the Union. This con- 
viction, openly avowed, did not prevent his whole- 
hearted and absolute enlistment in the cause of 
the Confederacy after secession had actually oc- 
curred and the die irrevocably cast. He owned 
hundreds of slaves, but he did not believe in the 
institution of slavery — the spacious sophristry 
of the times could not convince him that it was 
morally right. But he argued that as it was too 
firmly entrenched in the political and social 
structure to be affected by anything he could do, 
his wisest and best course was to provide the 
negro with a humane master, protect him in 
rights essential to the enjoyment of home, health, 
and religion, and, in turn, require from him rea- 
sonable and faithful service. He had observed, 
too, that the experiment of emancipation, in the 
midst of the almost universal operation of the ex- 
isting institution, usually resulted disastrously. 
Accustomed to depend on some white master for 
judgment and authority, the suddenly freed black, 
even when provided with land and equipment for 
farming, soon grew dissatisfied and often came to 
want ; and, strange as it may seem, a bitter social 
breach between the enslaved and the emancipated 
negroes was thereby created — “a free nigger” and 
“poor white trash” were phrases in which the 
slaves of a well-to-do and respectable master ex- 
pressed their utmost contempt. In view of the 
serious complications with which the practical 
problem was enmeshed, it is not strange that 
Lincoln should have declared, six years before he 
became President, “I surely will not blame them 
(the Southerners) for not doing what I should 
not know how to do myself. If all earthly power 
were given me, I should not know what to do as 
to the existing institution.” 

I have dwelt at some length on the attitude of 
my honored grandfather toward the existing in- 
stitution of slavery because I regard him as rep- 
resentative of a highly respected and influential 
class, the large planter of the South. 


My father, gifted and eloquent, was the inti- 
mate friend of William L. Yancey, the flaming 
advocate of secession. Together they spoke on 
many platforms North and South. Yancey, when 
at the height of his impassioned eloquence before 
an emotional audience, must have been irresist- 
ible. I recall this incident as related to me by 
my father, who was present and witnessed it. It 
was during the session of the famous Charleston 
Secession Convention. Mr. Yancey was replying 
to Mr. Pugh, of Ohio, I believe, “in sentences that 
blazed like comets and cut like knives,” when the 
immense audience broke into wild applause. To 
the utter amazement of all, Mr. Pugh joined en- 
thusiastically in the applause. When the noise 
had subsided sufficiently for him to be heard, Mr. 
Pugh sprang to his feet and shouted : “Mr. Chair- 
man, I did not applaud the gentleman’s senti- 
ments; I applauded American genius!” 

It is believed that this phenomenally eloquent 
man, Yancey, grieving over his failure to win 
from Great Britain recognition of the Southern 
Confederacy, died of a broken heart. 

Those were the days when untutorted eloquence 
on a background of passionate feeling was in the 
ascendant in the South. They continued long 
after the war. Youth always reacts in its own 
ardent way to the temper of the times. The hero 
of every school then was the orator, as the hero of 
every school today is the athlete. The type of 
youthful oratory, as displayed in the schools each 
Friday afternoon, and on special public occa- 
sions, was significant: Regulus defying the 

vengeance of Carthage; Patrick Henry crying, 
“Give me liberty or give me death”; Robert Em- 
mett exclaimed : “Let no man write my epitaph ; 
for as no man who knows my motives dares how 
vindicate them, let not prejudice or ignorance 
asperse them.” 

Let it not be thought that the temper of the 
times was conducive to spineless sentimentality 
in the growing generation of the South. No school 
day ended normally without a fight. All the boys 
knew where it would take place, and usually who 
would be the combatants, though this essential 
feature was sometimes left to be determined after 
“the battle ground” had been reached. The funda- 
mental requirements were that the two should be 
physically well matched ; that the combat should 
be fair; and that there should be no hard feelings 
afterward. The law of the ring was unwritten, 
but inviolate. 

With the surrender at Appomattox, followed by 


98 


^opfederat^ l/eterai). 


the assassination of President Lincoln, the reign 
of the odious triumvirate, Carpetbagger, Scala- 
wag, and Negro adventurer, was ushered in. The 
legislatures of proud states changed their com- 
plexion; strangers or more ignorant and detested 
Scalawags presided over the courts; not infre- 
quently Negro soldiers paraded the streets, revel- 
ing in the intoxicating consciousness of a trans- 
formation so new and wonderful, with all its 
glittering insignia of dignity and authority, that 
no mortal could be reasonably expected, in such 
circumstances, to behave reasonably. One of these 
metamorphosed soldiers, in sheer exuberance of 
new-found pomp and authority, wantonly thrust 
his pistol in my face, and poured forth vile pro- 
fanity and dire threats, to try the nerve of a 
child, for the delectation of his comrades. It was 
not unusual for ladies to be insultingly taunted 
and rudely pushed from the sidewalks by their 
erstwhile maids. The genial air of the proud, but 
now conquered and humiliated South carried on 
its bosom the strident notes of a new song; “De 
Bottom Rail’s on Top Now, and We’s G’wine to 
Keep It Dar.” It contained a statement that was 
absolutely true, and a prophecy that was yet to be 
tested. Conditions grew more and more intoler- 
able until, out of the darkness of the midnight, 
there rode silent, mysterious, white-robed horse- 
men, and through chattering teeth there came a 
whisper that the ghosts of the armies that had 
died for the Confederacy had come to earth to 
wreak terrible vengeance. Nor were superstitious 
terrors the only means these mysterious horsemen 
employed — foolhardy indeed the man who failed 
to heed a warning signed, “K. K. K.” Congress 
hastened to pass a special act for the protection of 
“the wards of the nation” in the exercise of all 
their high and extraordinary privileges, and the 
victorious army of the Union was again sent South 
to enforce its provisions. For once that army met 
defeat — a mighty, subtle, illusive moral force, 
such as has often changed the course of history, 
was inexorably at work for the salvation of South- 
ern civilization. About the year 1872 this cabilis- 
tic band disappeared as suddenly as it had come, 
and passed into the history of the troublous times 
that gave it birth. Its mission had been accom- 
plished. 

The Federal cavalry general, James H. Wilson, 
passed through my native town, Tuskegee, dur- 
ing his expedition into Georgia and Alabama, 
1865. My father had been seriously wounded at 
the battle of Cedar Creek, and was at home. His 
wound had not healed, and he was still very 


feeble. As General Wilson’s troops moved down 
the wide street fronting our home, father, 
mounted on Old Frank, an ancient race horse, rode 
leisurely toward the advancing column. He ap- 
proached within easy reach of their rifles and 
drew rein. 

There he sat rigid as a statue, gazing at the on- 
coming enemy (technically the war had not 
ended), as if held in the grip of the memory of 
battle flelds in Virginia. I clung to mother’s hand 
and shared her terror. When there seemed no 
escape, he was seen to bend for one moment over 
the arched neck, as if whispering love and trust 
into the delicate, quivering ear ; then, as with one 
supreme response, the glorious old horse whirled 
and sped away with his precious burden fast as 
the eagle cleaves the air. Some of Wilson’s men 
left the ranks and started in pursuit, but soon re- 
turned empty-handed. 

General Wilson acted in knightly fashion to- 
ward the family of the foeman, the temper of 
whose steel he had tested, whatever may have 
been the experience of others ; and the same 
knightly courtesy is said to have characterized his 
treatment of his illustrious prisoner, Jefferson 
Davis. 

An officer with a squad of soldiers carrying a 
large United States flag came up the steps of the 
porch where grandmother, mother, and I stood, 
respectfully saluted, and inquired, “Is this Gen- 
eral Battle’s residence?” My grandmother drew 
her aged form up to its ulmost height and 
haughtily answered : “Yes, and I am proud of it!” 
Oh, wonderful, incomparable woman! — the same 
in all ages! A moment ago, pale and trembling, 
she is ready to fall at the conqueror’s feet and 
plead for the safety of her child; now, that she 
believes that child safe, she is ready, with haughty 
bearing and flashing eyes, to defy Wilson’s whole 
army! The officer continued: “You need not re- 
move your valuables, and you may feel entirely se- 
cure in your persons. This home is under special 
protection.” We subsequently learned that it was 
a soldier’s chivalrous courtesy. If my memory is 
correct, the flag was placed above our home. 
(There was no one to protest, and it meant pro- 
tection). I had a flag just like it, but that was 
a captured flag my father brought to me from 
Virginia. It was hastily hidden in the woods on 
the approach of Wilson’s army and never recov- 
ered. I love that flag now ! Since then it has been 
consecrated by the holiest of Southern tears and 
baptized in the richest of Southern blood. I love 
it notv; I did not love it then! 


99 


QoQfederat^ \/eterai). 


We had barrels of money, but it was Confed- 
erate money. Some of it was actually beautiful 
(or seemed so to me), with the picture of the 
handsome artillerymen and the cannon drawn by 
fine horses in a dead-run for the battle field. Some 
bore the signature of the husband of my father’s 
only sister, John Gill Shorter, War Governor of 
Alabama. I loved him very dearly, but I couldn’t 
buy anything with his money! Perhaps I should 
qualify that statement. One day a friend offered 
me twenty dollars for one of my white fan-tail 
pigeons. After much persuasion, I accepted the 
offer, with the condition that he must catch the 
pigeon. The pigeon was never caught. . I bought 
a fish hook with the twenty dollars from another 
boy. Alas, pathetic symbol of a brave people’s 
resistance to oppression and wrong ! It was that 
beautiful Confederate money. 

But — we were made rich at another time by the 
possession of a sure enough, shining five-dollar 
gold piece. It came to us with a beautiful story 
told by the negro nurse of my baby sister. This 
was the story she told : 

“Some Yankees stopped me to look at baby. 
One of them said, Ts that a girl baby?’ I said 
‘Yes sir,’ then he said, ‘Whose baby is it?’ and I 
said, ‘General Battle’s baby.’ He looked like he 
jumped when I said that, and he up and said, 
‘I’ll give you five dollars in gold if you’ll let me 
kiss that baby.’ I knowed we needed some real 
money mighty bad, so I said, ‘All right.’ He 
kissed the baby mighty gentle like, and he up and 
said to the other soldiers, ‘When I get home. I’ll 
swear that I kissed the daughter of a rebel Gen- 
eral and she didn’t care.’ ” 

It was literally true, but — ah, well, perhaps 
he was thinking of his own little blue-eyed darling 
far away, and the kiss was pure and gentle as an 
angel’s. 

After measurably recovering from his wound, 
the war being over, my father decided to enter the 
race for Congress. The time had almost passed, 
and there were two candidates already in the field. 
It was then too late to make a complete canvass of 
the district, so he assigned certain important 
points he could not reach to Prince, his beautiful 
black war horse. Prince had been brought back 
to his master, after the surrender, a pathetic 
shadow of his one-time beauty and pride; but a 
well-filled trough, and loving care had done won- 
ders for Prince. Bridled and saddled, the 
sheathed sword hanging from the saddle horn, 
he was led by a veteran in a tattered and faded 


gray jacket from place to place. The children 
stroked his shining neck, and the women decked 
him with garlands of flowers. Prince did not lose 
a vote! His master was triumphantly elected, but 
was not permitted to be seated for the policy of 
Reconstruction was still in force. 

There was a curious thing about that horse. 
While the war lasted, he did his duty superbly, 
and bore on his body scars that attested his 
courage and loyalty. At Seven Pines, the Wilder- 
ness, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, in fact, almost 
every great battle fought by that army until his 
master, faint and bleeding, was lifted from the 
saddle at Cedar Creek, he had been the living em- 
bodiment of the sublime picture — 

“He paws the valley proudly, facing the clash of 
arms ; 

He mocks at fear; unterrified, he flies not from 
the sword ; 

But on he charges with wild rage, straight ahead, 

never swerving ; 

The trumpet sounds — ‘Aha I’ he cries, scenting 
the battle from afar. 

Where captains thunder ’midst the shouts of 
war — ” 

But after the war was over. Prince was the 
most thoroughly and permanently reconstructed 
horse in all the world! He could not bear even 
the crack of a whip, and the explosion of a fire- 
cracker would almost throw him into convulsions. 
Once, when Prince was entitled to plead exemp- 
tion on account of the decrepitudes of age, father 
decided to ride him to a “dove-shoot,” promising 
that he would tie him to a tree where the reports 
of the guns would be dulled by the distance. The 
day had not far advanced before Prince came 
home at full speed, with the limb to which he had 
been tied tossing on his back at the end of the 
tangled halter. 

Prince was a soldier, and he had thought it all 
over and fully persuaded himself that when a 
soldier fights and honorably quits, he ought to 
stay quit. He was right ! 

Over what a strange way, scathed by passion 
and torn by suffering, have we passed to this glad 
day! Was it needful? Is there a power in this 
mundane order of things that weaves our blunders 
and sins into a fabric where discords are brought 
into harmony, deformity transmuted into beauty, 
and hate changed to love? 

Such has been our glorious national destiny. 


100 


^Of)federat^ Ueterai). 


MOSBY’S RANGERS. 

BY MRS. M. C. F. COATES, HISTORIAN SOUTHERN 
CROSS CHAPTER, U. D. C., SALEM, VA. 

What a thrill of adventurous memories awaken 
at the mention of the achievements of the brave 
men led by Col. John S. Mosby, who gave their 
peril-filled aid to the cause of the South when the 
War between the States was at the height of con- 
flict, and, all unknown to its participants, nearing 
a disastrous end. 

John Singleton Mosby was born in Powhatan 
County, Va., in 1833, consequently, when war was 
declared in 1861, was old enough to appreciate 
the aim for which he fought, and young enough to 
be filled with the esprit de corps of a cause that 
fired the spirits of the men of the South. He 
studied at the University of Virginia, was admit- 
ted to the bar of that state, and, in 1861, entered 
the Confederate army under Gen. Joseph E. John- 
ston. In 1862, under General Stuart, he secured 
command as a scout of a force of volunteers, with 
whom he made devastating raids into the North- 
ern States, many of which were disastrous to the 
Union cause; and, for his efficiency in that re- 
gard, he was made Colonel of a battalion, 43rd 
Virginia Cavalry, Army of Northern Virginia, 
by General Lee. At the suggestion of General 
Grant, Mosby and his forces were treated as bel- 
ligerants. Some years after cessation of hos- 
tilities, President Hayes appointed him Consul to 
Hong. Kong, a post he held from 1878 to 1885, and 
from which he was removed by President Cleve- 
land. He was at one time Attorney General for 
the Southern Pacific Railroad and also Assistant 
Attorney for the Department of Justice in Wash- 
ington. He published his “War Reminiscences” 
and wrote a number of articles for periodicals. 

The story of his career as a fighter and pro- 
tector of that section of Virginia between the 
Rappahannock River and the Blue Ridge Moun- 
tains, comprising the counties of Fauquier, Clark, 
Loudon, and Fairfax, which became known 
through his deeds as “Mosby’s Confederacy,” is 
as fascinating as anything we find in the history 
of military achievements. 

James J. Williamson, in his “Mosby’s Rangers,” 
published in 1909, gives a most minute description 
of the Colonel’s operations from 1863, having 
kept a diary, as was his habit, acquired while in 
prison to while away the time, and when he was 
exchanged, and again participated in active war- 
fare, he continued the practice. Thus his de- 
scriptions of what took place are minute and 
accurate. 


The region occupied by Mosby was disputed 
territory outside of the lines of the regular army, 
and left unprotected by civil and military authori- 
ties on both sides, and but for “Mosby’s men,” 
the defenseless inhabitants would have been at 
the mercy of roving bands of deserters from both 
armies, as they wandered from Richmond to 
Fredericksburg and Washington. The mountains 
were infested with horse thieves and robbers, 
ready to prey upon the inhabitants, regardless of 
their allegiance to North or South, so the Rangers 
performed the duties of police while Mosby, act- 
ing as military ruler and judge, kept down the 
lawless element without fear or favor. This 
action was a necessity of the times and manners. 

Williamson gives Mosby’s personal character- 
istics as follows : “He was a brave man, and as a 
scout he was unsurpassed. He was generally taci- 
turn, particularly toward strangers. At times he 
was quite talkative and very agreeable, while at 
others he would scarcely answer a question put 
to him. In conversation his voice was low, his 
utterances slow and distinct, but when conversing 
upon a subject in which he took more than ordi- 
nary interest, he became a rapid talker. He spoke 
plainly and to the point, and there was no mis- 
taking the meaning of his words. He had a pleas- 
ant face^ white and regular teeth, and keen, rest- 
less eyes, which seemed an index to his mind. His 
reasoning was good, and the conclusions arrived 
at generally correct, yet he was very set in his 
opinions, and when he made up his mind it was 
hard to change. In his manner he was plain 
and unassuming. Cool in danger, quick to think, 
and practical in carrying out his ideas — ^these 
were qualities which aided in his success. 

“There was a rich vein of humor running 
through his nature so close to the surface that it 
required little digging to reach it, and no school- 
boy ever enjoyed a bit of fun with keener relish 
than Mosby.” 

Speaking of his characteristics as a solider. 
Lieutenant Channing Smith remarked of him, aft- 
er having witnessed a fight between one hundred 
and twenty-eight of Mosby’s men and the 12th 
Pennsylvania Cavalry, Colonel Rino, and a regi- 
ment of infantry under General Bino: “I acted 
independently in this fight, and had good oppor- 
tunity to see and judge of the fighting qualities of 
Mosby’s men, and came to the conclusion that the 
conscientious, brave soldier who loved the excite- 
ment and danger of battle could be accommodated 
as well with Mosby on the border as in the ranks 
of the regulars who followed the lead of Stuart. 


101 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 


And the impression this made upon me of the cool- 
ness, presence of mind, and courage of Colonel 
Mosby has never been effaced.” 

Of the many brilliant exploits of the Rangers, 
it is difficult to select examples, but the capture 
of General Stoughton, commander of a large troop 
of Yankee soldiers which occupied and surrounded 
Fairfax Court House where he was quartered, by 
a small detachment, amidst the utmost danger, 
stands out conspicuously. 

The best description of this event is given by 
Mosby himself in an article published in Belford’s 
Magazine in 1892. It is too long to quote in full, 
but after giving the motives that inspired the at- 
tempt, the location of the hostile troops, and de- 
scribing the triangular line of pickets that sur- 
rounded them, leaving one small, unprotected, pos- 
sible entrance into the enemy’s lines, all informa- 
tion having been given by one Ames, a deserter, 
he continues his narrative, as follows : 

‘T had only twenty-nine men ; we were sur- 
rounded by hostile thousands. Ames, who also 
knew to what point he was piloting us, rode by 
my side. Without being able to give any satis- 
factory reason for it, I felt instinctive trust in 
his fidelity, which he never betrayed. When we 
reached the Court House square, which was ap- 
pointed as a rendezvous, the men were detached 
in squads; some were sent to the stables to col- 
lect the fine horses I knew were there, others to 
the different headquarters, where the officers were 
quartered. We were more anxious to capture 
Wyndham than any others. 

“There was a hospital on the main street in a 
building that had been a hotel. In front of it a 
sentry was walking. The first thing I did was to 
send Ames and Frankland to relieve him from 
duty, and to prevent any of the occupants from 
giving the alarm. Ames whispered gently in his 
ear to keep quiet, that he was a prisoner. A six- 
shooter has great persuasive powers. I went di- 
rectly with the command to the house of a citizen 
named Murray, which I had been told was Wynd- 
ham’s headquarters. This was not so. He told 
us they were at Judge Thomas’ home which we 
had passed in the other end of town. So we 
quickly returned to the Court House Square. 
Ames was sent with a party to Wyndham’s head- 
quarters. Two of his staff were found there 
asleep, but the bHd we were trying to catch had 
flown. Wyndham had gone down to Washington 
that evening by train. My men identified them- 
selves to some extent for the loss by appropriat- 


ing his fine wardrobe and several splendid horses 
that they found in the stables. 

“The irony of fate made Ames the captor of his 
own captain. He was Captain Barker, 5th New 
York Cavalry, detailed as assistant adjutant gen- 
eral. Ames treated his former comrade with the 
greatest civility and seemed to feel great pride in 
introducing him to me. Joe Nelson saw a tent in 
the courtyard. He went in and took the tele- 
graph operator who was sleeping there. We had 
already cut the wires before we came into the 
town to prevent communication with Centerville. 
Joe had also caught a soldier, who told him that 
he was one of the guard at General Stoughton’s 
headquarters. This was the reason I did not go 
with Ames after Wyndham. I took five or six 
men with me to go after Stoughton. I remember 
the names of Nelson, Welt Hatcher, and Frank 
Williams. Stoughton was occupying a brick 
house on the outskirts of the village, belonging 
to a Dr. Gunnell. 

“When we reached it, all of us dismounted, and 
I gave a loud knock on the front door. A head 
bobbed out from an upper window and inquired 
who was there. My answer was, ‘Fifth New 
York Cavalry with a dispatch for General 
Stoughton.’ Footsteps were soon heard tripping 
down the stairs and the door opened. A man 
stood there with nothing on but his shirt and 
drawers. I immediately seized hold of his shirt 
collar, whispered in his ear who I was, and or- 
dered him to lead me to the General’s room. He 
was Lieutenant Prentiss of the Staff. We went 
straight up a stairs where Stoughton was, leav- 
ing Hatcher and George Whitescarver to guard 
the houses. When a light was struck, we saw 
lying on the bed before us the man of war. He 
was buried in sleep and seemed to be dreaming 
in all the fancied security of the Turk when Mar- 
co Bozarris with his band burst on the camp 
from the forest shades — 

‘In dreams through court and camp we bore 
The trophies of a conqueror.’ 

There were signs in the room of revelry that 
night, and some uncorked champagne bottles fur- 
nished an explanation of the General’s deep sleep. 
He had been entertaining a number of ladies from 
Washington in a style becoming a commanding 
general. The revelers had retired to rest just be- 
fore our arrival with no suspicion of the danger 
hovering over them. The ladies had gone to spend 
the night in a citizen’s home. Long and loud, I 
have been told, were the lamentations next morn- 


102 


C^oi}federat^ Ueterap. 


ing when they heard of the mishap that had be- 
fallen the gallant general. He had been caught 
asleep ingloriously in bed, and spirited off with- 
out being able to say ‘goodbye.’ As the general 
was not awakened by the noise we made when we 
entered the room, I walked up to his bed and 
pulled off the covering, but even this did not awak- 
en him. He was turned over on one side, snoring 
like one of the seven sleepers. With such en- 
vironments, I could not afford to await his con- 
venience or to stand on ceremony. So I just 
pulled up his shirt and gave him a spank. Its 
effect was electric. The brigadier arose from 
his pillow and, in an authoritative tone, inquired 
the meaning of the rude intrusion. He had not 
realized we were not of his staff. I leaned over 
and said to him, ‘General, did you ever hear of 
Mosby?’ ‘Yes,’ he quickly answered. ‘Have you 
caught him?’ ‘No,’ I said, ‘I am Mosby. He has 
caught you!’ In order to deprive him of all 
hope, I told him that Stuart’s Cavalry held the 
town and that General Jackson was in Center- 
ville.” 

Mosby succeeded in getting out of Fairfax 
Court House with his captures — one general, two 
captains, thirty privates, and fifty-eight horses. 
The result was that Stoughton’s reputation was 
blasted, Wyndham was relieved of his command, 
also his successor, who was as unable as he to 
cope with Mosby. The latter won high praise 
from General Stuart for this exploit, and he con- 
fessed he was never able to duplicate it, as the 
Northern troops were ever after on the qui vive 
for a similar surprise. The result was his pro- 
motion to the rank of Major, with authority to 
organize a battalion. 

Many notables of Virginia were amongst 
Mosby’s Rangers, three of them being preachers 
who thought they could at that time best serve 
God by serving their country. A remarkable in- 
stance of bravery was the act of the Rev. Sydnor 
Ferguson; who unhorsed a cavalryman, after his 
own revolver refused to shoot, by striking him in 
the face with the butt end of his pistol. Drs. 
Dunn and Monteiro were surgeons with his 
forces, Dunn being accused by Mosby of being 
more fond of fighting than of curing the sick. 

He became known throughout America and be- 
yond the seas. Soldiers of fortune came from 
Europe to join him. He never had more than five 
hundred men, but they did the work of many 
thousands of ordinary troopers. They took cap- 
tive six thousand Northern soldiers and seized 
millions of dollars’ worth of supplies. Once they 


captured two of Sheridan’s paymasters with 
$173,000 in greenbacks. At times, by threatening 
Washington, they made ineffectual 50,000 Fed- 
eral troops. 

On March 20, 1916, at Washington, where he 
held the post of Assistant Attorney General in 
the Department of Justice, this brave warrior an- 
swered his last roll call, and found a last resting 
place in Warrenton, Va. 

In deference to his love of poetry (he carried 
a copy of William Cullen Bryant’s poems in his 
pocket into battle), this article is closed with the 
following quotation from Pope: 

“Statesman, yet friend to truth of soul sincere. 

In action faithful, and in honor clear! 

Who broke no promise, served no private end. 
Who gained no title, who lost no friend ; 
Ennobled by himself, by all approved. 

Praised, wept, and honored by the men he loved.” 


BATTLES FOUGHT ON MARYLAND SOIL. 

BY SALLY WASHINGTON MAUPIN. 

The records of the War Department at Wash- 
ington show that during the history of the United 
States one hundred and sixty-one battles, minor 
engagements and skirmishes in which blood was 
shed, have been fought in Maryland, distributed 
as follows: One in the Revolutionary War, three 
in the War of 1812, and one hundred and fifty- 
nine in the War between the States. 

The names and places of these engagements and 
the dates on which they were fought follow: 

Revolutionary War. 

Gwyn’s Island, Chesapeake Bay, July 8-10, 
1776. 

War of 1812, 

Blandensburg, August 24, 1814; McHenry 
Fort, September 13, 1814; Moore’s Field, August 
30, 1814. 

War Between the States, 1861-65. 

Adamstown, October 14, 1864; Altamont, April 
26, 1863; Antietam (3), September 16, 17, 1862, 
July 6, 1864; Antietam Bridge, July 8, 1864; 
Antietam Creek, September 15, 1864; Antietam 
Ford, August 4, 1864; Antietam Iron Works, Au- 
gust 27, 1861 ; Baltimore, April 19, 1861 ; Barnes- 
ville, September 9, 1862; Beaver Creek, July 9, 
1863; Benevola, July 9, 1863; Berlin (2), Sep- 
tember 18-29, 1861, September 4-5, 1862 ; Boones- 
borough (3), September 14, 15, 1862, July 8, 1863 ; 
Boonesborough Gap, September 14, 1862; 

Brownsville, July 7, 1864; Budd’s Ferry, October 


103 


(^OQfederat^ l/eterai>. 


22 to November 12, 1861 ; Carroll, Fort, April 21, 
1861; Catoctin Creek, June 17, 1863; Catoctin 
Mountain (2), September 13, 1862, July 7, 1864; 
Cavetown, July 10, 1863; Clear Spring (2), July 
10, 1863, July 29, 1864; Conrad’s Ferry, Potomac 
River (2) , June 17, 1861, October 4, 1862 ; Cramp- 
ton’s Pass, September 14, 1862 ; Cranberry Sum- 
mit, April 26, 1863; Cumberland (3), June 11, 
1861 ; Dam No. 1, Potomac River, April 16, 1862 ; 
Dams Nos. 4 and 5, Potomac River, December, 
1861; Downville, July 7, 1863; Edward’s Ferry 
(5), June 18, October 23, 24, 1861, September 3, 
4, 1862, August 27, 1863; Emmitsburg (2), July 
4, 1863, July 30, 1864; Fair Haven, April 4, 
1865; Fairview Heights, October 10, 1862; Fall- 
ing Waters, July 14, 1863; Flintstone Creek, Au- 
gust 1, 1864; Four Locks, October 9, 1862; Fred- 
erick (6) September 6, 12, 1862, June 21, 1863, 
July 7, 8, 11, 1864; Frederick, Fort, December 25, 
1861; Funkstown (2), July 1, 10-13, 1862; Great 
Falls (3), July 1, August 25, September 4, 1861; 
Green Spring Furnace, October 10, 1862 ; Gun- 
powder Bridge, July 10, 1864; Hager’s Moun- 
tain, July 7, 1864; Hagerstown (8), September 
20, 1862, July 6, 10-12, 13, 1863, July, 5, 6, Au- 
gust 5, 15, 1864; Hancock (3), January 5, 1862, 
July 31, August 2, 1864; Jefferson, September 
13, 1862; Keedysville (3), September 15, 1862, 
July 5, August 5, 1864; Leitersburg, July 10, 
1863; McCoy’s Ferry, October 10, 1862; Mag- 
nolia, July 11, 1862; Maryland Heights (3), Sep- 
tember 12, 13, 1862, June 30, July 7, 1863; 
Mattawoman Creek, November 14, 1861; Middle- 
town (3), September 13, 1862, June 20, 1863, 
July 7, 1864; Monocacy (3), October 12, 1862, 
July 9, 10, 1864 ; Monocacy Aqueduct, September 
4, 1862; Monocacy Church, September 9, 1862; 
Monocacy Junction, July 30, 1864; Monocacy 
River, October 12, 1862; Montgomery County, 
October 7-11, 1864; Muddy Branch, June 29, 
1863 ; Nolan’s Ford, October 12, 1862 ; Oakland, 
April 26, 1862; Offutt’s Crossroads, June 28, 
1863; Old Antietam Forge, July 10, 1863; Old- 
town, August 2, 1864; Point of Rocks (8), Au- 
gust 5, September 17, 24, December 19, 1861, 
September 4-5, 7, 1862, June 17, 1863, July 5, 
1864; Poolesville (6), September 4, 5, 8, 9, No- 
vember 25, December 14, 1862, July 14, 1864; 
Poplar Springs, June 29, 1863; Relay House, 
May 6, 1861; Rockville (4), June 28, September 
22, 1863, July 10, 13, 1864; Rockville Expedition, 
June 10 to July 7, 1861; Sandy Hook (2), August 
1, 1861, July 8, 1864; Seneca, June 28, 1862; 
Seneca Creek (2), September 16, 20, 1861; Se- 


neca Mills (2), June 14, 1861, June 11, 1863; 
Sharpsburg (5), September 15, 16-17, 19, October 
1, 1862, June 24, 1863; Solomon’s Gap (2), July 
5, 7, 1864; South Mountain (2), September 13, 14, 
1862; Sugar Loaf Mountain September 10, 11, 
1862; Turner’s Pass, September 14, 1862; Ur- 
bana, July 9, 1864; Westminster, July 29, 30, 
1863; White’s Ford, October 12, 1862; Williams- 
port (12), September 11, 18, 19, 20, October 1, 
29, 1862, June 15, July 6, 8, 14, 1863, July 25, 
August 5, 26, 1864. 

SLAVE LIFE IN THE SOUTH. 

An interesting letter comes from Rev. Frank- 
lin W. Irvin, 2 Holden Street, Walden, Mass., ask- 
ing for information on slave life in the South 
befo’ de wah. Doubtless many of the Veteran 
readers can give such information from personal 
knowledge, which will be all the more worth while 
to him. The Veteran has suggested some books 
which would be of value to him in his research, 
and such suggestions could be made by others to 
good effect. This is his letter : 

“I am a native of Kentucky, of Virginia ances- 
try, and the son of a former owner of slaves in 
Kentucky. I recall many things that mother used 
to tell of the happenings of those days, but, being 
only a child then, I have forgotten, or never was 
told, many of the details of life that I should like 
to know now. 

“Incidentally, I might say that I am a Baptist 
minister, and have on many occasions mentioned 
certain facts and incidents incident to slave life 
in the South. Whenever I started relating these 
experiences it was a signal for rapt attention on 
the part of these Northerners, whose ideas and 
thoughts of those days are so crude and warped, 
and miles away from the real facts. So interested 
have they been from time to time, that they have 
repeatedly begged for more, or asked me to give 
them evenings from time to time that they might 
hear more of the romance of the South of those 
days. 

“Personally, I am deeply interested, and for my 
own sake as well as theirs, I should like to know 
more. These folk in the Northern sections have 
had no opportunity to learn the truth, and know 
nothing of those wonderful days forever gone. I 
want information as to who called the slaves from 
their cabins in the morning, how it was done, 
what then did they do ; who told them what to do 
for the day; who or what called them to break- 
fast; where did they eat; what next; did they 
(Continued on page 118) 


104 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 



Sketches In this department are given a half column of space without 
charge extra space will be charged at 20 cents a line. Engravings, 
$3.00 each. 


IN TRIBUTE. 

To My Father, Gen. Pinckney Rayburn Young. 
BY CHARLOTTE YOUNG. 

“Dead? Is he dead? 

So thoroughly alive was he,” they say, 

“Last week, last Sunday — yesterday — ” 
Dead ! We who loved him bow the head 
And grieve. But love undaunted heard 
And gently said, 

“I do not know the meaning of that word,” 
And then went questing, winging 
Out, out beyond the sound of falling clod. 
And found you, 0 Beloved, resting, singing. 
Upon the warm, kind heart of God. 


Commander Charles Francis Sevier. 

Charles Francis Sevier, born October 16, 1842, 
in Greene County, Tennessee, died December 22, 
1931, at Savannah, Tenn. He was a member of 
pioneer families, a great-grandson of Valentine 
Sevier. He entered the Naval Academy at An- 
napolis in 1859, resigned in June, 1861, and joined 
the Confederate Navy, going aboard the Curlew on 
the North Carolina coast, where he participated in 
the battle of Roanoke Island. He served on the 
Livingston about New Orleans, and was on the 
Palmetto State in Atlantic Coast patrol for six- 
teen months. In the James River fleet, he was 
aboard the Patrick Henry, and became first of- 
ficer of the Drury. He was again ordered into 
coast service as Commander of the cruiser Chick- 
amauga, and destroyed ships from New England 
to the Bermudas. He witnessed the fall of Wil- 
mington and was ordered to Richmond, where he 
organized a battalion of infantry, and became 
captain of a company of volunteer sailors. He 
fought at Sailor’s Creek, and was captured and 
taken to Washington the night Lincoln was as- 
sassinated. From the Old Capitol prison he was 
taken to Johnson’s Island, where he remained un- 
til the end of the war. 

Charles Sevier served one year, 1860, on the 


famous ship Constitution, and eagerly anticipated 
seeing her again on the proposed cruise in South- 
ern waters. A number of his comrades included 
Dick Floyd (uncle of William G. McAdoo), Mar- 
maduke, Pearson, Benton, and Long Berny. 

Captain Sevier rounded out a well spent life 
as a cotton planter in Hardin County, Tennessee, 
honored and revered by all who knew him, idol- 
ized by his family and the local Daughters of the 
Confederacy. His zeal for the South’s cause never 
waned. Dignified in life, in death he was every 
inch the soldier as he lay in state under the Stars 
and Bars. 

Miss Nannie Maria Sevier. 

Miss Nannie Maria Sevier, former President 
and active leader of Shiloh Chapter, No. 371, 
U. D. C., of Savannah, Tenn., passed away on 
June 14, 1931. She was descended from dis- 
tinguished Virginia and East Tennessee families, 
a great-granddaughter of Valentine and Robert 
Sevier, brothers of Governor John Sevier. As 
an active and consecrated believer in the South 
and all things Southern, she held sacred the prin- 
ciples for which her father laid down his life in 
the battle of Atlanta, and devoted her talents to 
keeping alive in the minds of today’s youth the 
glory of the heritage left by the heroes who wore 
the gray. 

Shiloh Chapter showered honors upon her and 
was blessed by her undivided love and attention. 
In service she found her greatest pleasure. Calm- 
ly as she faced every problem has she gone from 
our midst, but the inspiration of her life lives on 
in the hearts of her friends. 

[Mrs. A. M. Patterson, President Shiloh Chap- 
ter No. 371 and First Vice-President Tennessee 
Division, U. D. C.] 

Capt. John H. Hatfield. 

Capt. John H. Hatfield, a member of St. Louis 
Camp, No. 731 U. C. V., died at the Confederate 
Home of Missouri, at Higginsville, on February 
10, at the age of eighty-nine years. He was born 
in Mesopotamia, Ala., and enlisted in the Con- 
federate army at Aliceville, Ala., in 1861, being 
one of the original members of Captain McCaa’s 
Rangers, and served with Generals Forrest and 
Wheeler. He took part in the battle of Mission- 
ary Ridge, Shiloh, Brice’s Cross Roads, and other 
bloody engagements, until the close in 1865. 

Captain Hatfield came to St. Louis in 1870, and 
was associated with Samuel C. Davis in a dry- 




105 


^OQfederat^ l/eterai). 


goods company. He was a former Commander of 
the St. Louis Camp, U. C. V., in a day when the 
Camp boasted a membership of hundreds, the 
majority of them being Missourians and citizens 
of St. Louis who had served the most glorious 
cause. More recently he was a member of the 
staff of Gen. William A. Wall, present State Com- 
mander of Missouri Confederate Veterans. He 
was a staunch Democrat, the kind most popular 
in Missouri. The passing of Captain Hatfield is 
much lamented by his comrades and the members 
of the Southern Society of St. Louis. He is sur- 
vived by his wife, three sons, and a daughter. 

[William E. Wootten, Adjutant Colonel.] 

Hon. Scott Field. 

Hon. Scott Field passed away on Sunday, De- 
cember 20, 1931, at Calvert, Tex. Eighty-six 
years of age. 

He had long been a sufferer because of the loss 
of his eyesight, and he was not disturbed by the 
summons from the Grim Reaper. I know also 
that he met him fearlessly and confidently — he 
was not afraid. 

Scott Field was the last survivor of Harvey’s 
Scouts, a famous company that served every com- 
mander of the Army of Tennessee from first to 
last. He entered the service from Madison 
County, Miss., when sixteen years of age. He and 
I were boyhood friends ; we sat on the same bench 
at school. His passing leaves me alone, the last of 
those who enlisted from that neighborhood. 

After the war, Scott Field attended the Uni- 
versity of Virginia. He was admitted to the bar 
at Canton, Miss., in 1872, but later moved to 
Texas. He was District Attorney for Robertson 
County, Tex., and was a member of the Texas 
Senate for two terms. He was elected to Con- 
gress in 1902, and served until 1909, when he re- 
tired voluntarily. Was the author of much con- 
structive legislation. 

God never blessed our race with a more 
courageous specimen of humanity than when he 
gave us Scott Field. As a friend, soldier, and 
citizen he measured up to manhood’s loftiest 
heights, and his very faults as comprehended in 
the decalogue’s vast outlying claims were almost 
virtuous as weighed by those who knew him. 
Brave to recklessness,wise, sympathetic, thought- 
ful, honorable, graceful in manners, speech, and 
deportment, he was a most chivalrous gentleman. 

He left his footprints on the sands of the South. 
Goodbye, old comrade, until we meet again. 

[James Dinkins, New Orleans.] 


Gen. John N. Johnson, U. C. V. 

After a brief illness, Gen. John N. Johnson, 
Commander of the Forrest Cavalry Association, 
and President of the Pension Board of Tennessee, 
died in Nashville in the early morning of Feb- 
ruary 4, in his eighty-fifth year. He had also 
been Commander of the Camp at Bristol, Tenn., 
where he lived at one time, and of the Forrest 
Camp of Chattanooga, which city had been his 
home just before coming to Nashville. Forrest 
Camp once numbered a membership of 558 vet- 
erans of the Confederacy, now reduced to seven- 
teen. 

General Johnson was given a military burial in 
the Confederate Circle of Mount Olivet Ceme- 
tery, with the Confederate Ritual, after lying in 
state two days at the State Capitol. 

Although a mere lad when the war came on in 
1861, John N. Johnson twice ran away from home 
to fight, and was brought back each time; but in 
1864 he was allowed to enlist, and entered the 
ranks of Company C, 1st Battalion, Kentucky 
Cavalry, and thus became one of Morgan’s men. 
Cut off from his command during a battle at 
Cynthiana, Ky., he and his companions wandered 
for days through enemy territory. Finally, aft- 
er swimming their horses across the river at 
Paducah, the party made its way to Corinth, Miss., 
and there became attached to Forrest’s command. 
At Harrisburg, Miss., this young soldier was left 
for dead on the field of battle, and, when peace 
did come, found himself in a hospital at Jones- 
boro, Tenn., not many miles from his birthplace in 
Bedford County, Virginia. 

John N. Johnson was born August 18, 1847, his 
parents being descendants of English nobility. 
The family removed to Bristol, Va.-Tenn., while 
he was still young, and there he attended private 
schools, later going to Emory and Henry College 
and then studying under tutors here and abroad. 

In 1882, General Johnson was married to Miss 
Lucy Herndon Botts, of Savannah, Ga., where he 
was then in business, and three children were 
born to them, a son and two daughters. Ten 
years after marriage, he bought a large farm near 
Bristol, Tenn., where he lived for some years, 
dealing in real estate. He located in Chattanooga 
in 1912. 

General Johnson recently became a member of 
the 109th Calvary, Tennessee National Guard, 
with the honorary rank of Colonel. He held the 
rank of Major General in the United Confederate 
Veteran Association. 


106 


Qoi)federat^ Ueterai). 


Rev. John Harbour. 

A veteran of the Cross as well as a veteran of 
the Confederacy, Rev. John Harbour, of Missis- 
sippi, died at the home of his son, J . L. Harbour, 
in Kemper County, Miss., October 29, 1931. He 
was born November 24, 1844, in Mississippi. Just 
after the close of the war in 1865, he married Miss 
Susie Lee, who, at the age of eighty-six, still lives. 
Six splendid sons also survive him, one of whom, 
J. L. Harbour, is sheriff of Kemper County; E. 
A. Harbour is a member of the Board of Super- 
visors of the county, and T. L. Harbour is a Bap- 
tist minister ; the other sons are prosperous farm- 
ers. 

John Harbour joined Company I, 5th Missis- 
sippi Regiment of Volunteers, at Enterprise, 
Miss., in 1861, and served through the whole war, 
being wounded slightly once. Only one of the 
members of his company survives him, Joe Shep- 
herd, of Kemper County, who also was a valiant 
and faithful soldier of the Confederacy. 

Just as faithful a soldier of the Cross and citi- 
zen of his country in time of peace was John Har- 
bour as a soldier of the Confederacy in the time 
of war. For fifty years he was a consistent Primi- 
tive Baptist minister, giving the gospel to those 
about him for the greater part of his long and 
useful life. Falling on sleep in his eighty-seventh 
year, his body was laid tenderly to rest in the old 
family burial ground in Kemper County, beside 
the father and mother who had preceded him in 
death many years. 

(R. L. Breland.) 

Samuel Handley. 

Samuel Handley, a former resident of Saline 
County, Mo., died at Steamboat Springs, Colo., on 
January 2, at the age of ninety-six years. He was 
born near Nashville, Tenn., March 15, 1834, his 
parents removing to Missouri before the War be- 
tween the States, and from Saline County, young 
Handley went in to the Confederate service with 
Missouri troops in the Trans-Mississippi Depart- 
ment. He first joined a company of State Guards 
organized at Marshall, Mo., early in 1861, and this 
company participated in the engagement at Boone- 
ville, June 17, 1861. In September, they were in 
the fighting at Lexington, when two Federal gun- 
boats were captured. At the end of their six 
months’ enlistment, the State Guards went into the 
Confederate service, and young Handley became 
a member of Company A, 5th Regiment, Missouri 
Cavalry, commanded first by Joe Shelby, later by 


Frank Gordon, and with this company partici- 
pated in numerous engagements in Missouri and 
other parts of the Trans-Mississippi; then in 
Mississippi and Louisiana, opposing Grant; in 
1864 was with the Missouri troops in the Atlanta 
campaign ; and in 1865, was captured in the gen- 
eral assault on Fort Blakeley, near Mobile, and as 
a prisoner of war was paroled some weeks after 
the close of hostilities. 

Going to Colorado after the war. Comrade 
Handley engaged in farming and the raising of 
fine horses. His fine qualities were appreciated 
in the community, for the officiating minister at 
his funeral spoke of him as “one of the richest 
men in the county in friends and character.” 

[Mrs. G. E. C. Sharp, Marshall, Mo., a niece.] 

James D. Tillman, Sr. 

James D. Tillman, Sr., who died at the home 
of his son, James D. Tillman, Jr., in Meridian, 
Miss., on January 1, 1932, was born in Anson 
County, N. C., November 8, 1842, and thus had 
passed into his ninetieth year. He was the son 
of Dr. Richard Henry Tillman and Narcissa Ben- 
nett. His ancestors, at the close of the Revolu- 
tionary War, had moved from near the present 
site of Petersburg, Va., to Montgomery County, 
N. C., and at the beginning of the War between 
the States, young Tillman joined the Anson 
Guards, Company C, 14th North Carolina Regi- 
ment, which was commanded by his cousin. Col. 
R. T. Bennett, who was a congressman from North 
Carolina after the war. He was in many engage- 
ments, including Williamsburg, Seven Pines, An- 
tietam, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, The Wilder- 
ness, Kelley’s Ford, Spottsylvania C. H., Bethesda 
Church, Front Royal, New Market, Mount Jack- 
son, Winchester, Martinsburg, Strasburg, Fort 
Stedman, Petersburg, South Mountain, etc. He 
was wounded at Bethesda Church and later was 
captured, being in prison when the war closed. 

Comrade Tillman was in the same company 
with Gen. William A. Smith, now commanding the 
North Carolina Division, U. C. V., and their 
friendship continued through life. He was a 
loyal member of Camp Walthall, U. C. V., and for 
years had served as its Chaplain, retiring only 
because of the infirmities of age. He was also a 
life member of Carrollton Lodge, F. & A. M., and 
faithful in his membership in the Central Method- 
ist Church. 

The oldest of ten children, James D. Tillman 
was the last but one left of the family, a sister 
only, the second child, surviving him — Mrs. Ella 


^OQfederat^ l/eterai). 


Pettigrew, of Marion, S. C. In 1880, he was mar- 
ried to Miss Rachel Caroline Bryan, daughter of 
Samuel Washington Bryan, and of the six chil- 
dren born to them a son and three daughters sur- 
vive him. His father died during the War be- 
tween the States, and in 1867 the family removed 
to Mississippi, where James D. Tillman engaged 
successfully in farming until 1905, when he went 
into business with his son at Carrollton, later re- 
moving to Meridian. He was laid to rest in Mag- 
nolia Cemetery there. 

Gen. E. R. Oldham, U. C. V. 

On the 6th of February, after an illness of sev- 
eral weeks, Gen. E. R. Oldham, Commander of the 
3rd Brigade, Tennessee Division, U. C. V., died at 
his home in Henning, at the age of eighty-seven 
years. Burial was at Maplewood Cemetery in 
Ripley, with Confederate veterans of the county as 
pallbearers. 

At the grave, four comrades, one of them being 
Gen. C. A. DeSaussure, Commander in Chief, U. 
C. V., in Confederate uniforms, held the four cor- 
ners of the Confederate flag, forming a canopy 
over the casket as it was lowered. 

At the close of the funeral services, Lewis Nel- 
son, an old negro of ante-bellum days, who served 
his master throughout the war, gave in his own 
words his estimates of “Mars Ed.” 

As the funeral cortege left the home, the old 
plantation bell, which had been rung for over a 
hundred years, decorated with a Confederate flag, 
was tolled eighty-seven times. 

General Oldham was born in Henning, and had 
lived in the county all his life. When war came on 
in 1861, he was fired with enthusiasm for the Con- 
federate cause and enlisted as a private in the 
command of Col. William Duckworth, 7th Tennes- 
see Cavalry, serving with Company M through the 
four years, and being mustered out at Gainesville, 
Ala., in 1865. He was a member of the local 
Camp U. C. V. and prominent in the State and 
general U. C. V. activities. 

General Oldham was interested in politics, and 
had served one term in the lower house of the 
Tennessee General Assembly, making an excellent 
record. As a leading Democrat, he always stood 
for those things that uplift and ennoble mankind 
— a man of decided convictions, true and loyal to 
his country and State. He was a member of the 
Episcopal Church of Ripley. 

Twice married. General Oldham is survived by 
his wife, who was Miss Daisy Scott, and a son of 
the first marriage. 


107 

Capt. George W. Blair. 

Capt. George W. Blair, who served for more 
than thirty-eight years as Clerk of the 5th Court 
of Civil Appeals at Dallas, Tex., died at his home 
in that city on January 11, 1932, as a result of in- 
juries received a few days before. He was in his 
eighty-eighth year. Surviving are his wife, three 
daughters, and two grandchildren. 

Captain Blair was born in Virginia, May 25, 
1844, and went to Texas in 1859. He served in 
the War between the States as a private of the 
11th Texas Battery, of which Capt. Sylvana 
Howell was commander. Though having few en- 
counters, the battery was successful in its chief 
duty, which was keeping Federal troops out of 
Texas. 

From 1871 to 1893, Captain Blair served as 
Clerk of the 6th District Court of Fannin Coun- 
ty, and then went to Dallas as Clerk of the 5th 
Court of Civil Appeals, and had served continu- 
ously since that time, seldom missing a day be- 
cause of ill health. Until his injury, he made his 
daily trips to and from work on the street cars, 
using two canes in walking to the car. At every 
meeting of the court he was on hand to call the 
docket, and was well known to lawyers through- 
out the State. He had been very active in the 
work of the Confederate Veterans’ Association, 
serving for many years as adjutant of Sterling 
Price Camp, more recently being connected with 
the Dallas Camp. 

Charles E. Edmondson. 

Charles E. Edmondson, a native of Tennessee 
and one of three veterans of the Confederate army 
living in the Tulare District of California, died 
at his ranch home near Tulare, on August 18, 1931, 
at the age of eighty-four years. He is survived 
by his wife. 

Born at McMinnville, in Warren County, Tenn., 
Charles Edmondson grew up in that community 
and from there entered the ranks of the Con- 
federacy as one of the boy soldiers — “the seed 
corn of the Confederacy.” He took part in a 
number of campaigns, though only eighteen when 
the war ended, and was taken prisoner once. 
Some fifty years ago he removed to California, 
and had lived in the Tulare District about twen- 
ty-three years. He had been in feeble health for 
some time, and practically blind the last few 
years. 

His funeral was from the First Christian 
Church of Tulare, and burial in the Cemetery at 
that place. 


108 


Qopfederat^ l/eterar). 


lUniteb ©augbtecs of tbe donfeberacip 

Mrs. William E. R. Byrne, . President General 

Charleston, W. Va. 


Mrs. Amos H. Norris First Vice President General 

City Hall. Tampa, Fla. 

Mrs. Chas. B. Faris Second Vice President General 

4469 Westminster Place, St. Louis, Mo. 

Mrs. R. B. Broyles Third Vice President General 

5721 Fifth Court, South. Birmingham, Ala. 

Mrs. W. E. Massey Recording Secretary General 

738 Quapaw Avenue. Hot Springs. Ark. 

Mrs. L. U. Babin Corresponding Secretary General 

903 North Boulevard, Baton Rouge, La. 


Mrs. George Dismukes Treasurer General 

1409 Chickasha Avenue, Chickasha, Okla. 

Mrs. John H. Anderson Historian General 

707 West Morgan Street, Raleigh, N. C. 

Mrs. a. S. Porter, Hotel Monroe, Portsmouth, Y a. . Registrar General 

Mrs. J. W. Goodwin, Allendale, N. J Custodian of Crosses 

Mrs. j. L. Medlin Custodian of Flags and Pennant 

1541 Riverside Avenue, Jacksonville, Fla. 


All communications for this Department should be sent direct to Mrs. R. H. Chesley, Official Editor, 11 Everett Street, Cambridge, Mass. 


FROM THE PRESIDENT GENERAL. 

To the United Daughters of the Confederacy: 

Again it is my pleasure to greet you through the 
Veteran, to bring to you an account of the work 
accomplished, and direct your attention to the 
work yet to be done. 

The Historian General, Mrs. John H. Ander- 
son, in arranging radio programs for January 
19, has made a valuable contribution to our his- 
torical work. Lee programs were broadcast over 
two networks and reached a large part of the 
country. We wish to thank the N. B. C. and the 
Columbia networks for this courtesy. 

Mrs. Anderson has asked me to emphasize the 
fact that in the general prize list for the U. D. C. 
and the C. of C., prizes are offered for an essay 
on the subject “Why Stratford on the Potomac 
Should Become a National Shrine” ; and that data 
for such essays may be secured from Division Di- 
rectors, or from the R. E. Lee Memorial Founda- 
tion, 34 East Putnam Avenue, Greenwich, Conn. 

In my two former letters, I stressed the im- 
portance of completing our quota to the Lee- 
Stratford Fund and to the Mrs. L. H. Raines Me- 
morial Scholarship Fund. In this I wish to stress 
the importance of finishing the Jefferson Davis 
Historical Foundation. 

Mrs. William Cabell Flournoy, Director for the 
Virginia Division, has sent out a circular letter to 
the Virginia Chapters calling upon them to make 
a supreme effort to complete Virginia’s quota. 
She says, “The only corrective to partisanship and 
unfairness is supplied by the Historical Scholar- 
ship itself, and it can be guaranteed in no other 
way. Let us hasten the time when this Historical 
Foundation can be at work in the South.” Mrs. 
John F. Weinmann, Chairman of this Committee, 
has worked faithfully to complete the amount to 
be raised. Twenty-seven Divisions have com- 
pleted their quota. Twelve Divisions have theirs 


yet to complete. Let us make a determined effort 
to finish this work before the next Convention. 

The action of the Jacksopville Convention in 
instructing the President General to appoint a 
Committee to “Secure a Record of the Rebel Yell” 
has been widely advertised through the press, 
and I have received many letters regarding de- 
tails in connection therewith. 

Mrs. Charles Bolling, Chairman of the Com- 
mittee for “The Manufacture of Correctly De- 
signed Confederate Battle Flag,” has been hard 
at work ; the contract has been let, and I am glad 
to announce that the new flags will be ready for 
distribution by April 1. 

The Memphis Chapters have held their first 
meeting, and have chosen Mrs. T. W. Faires as 
General Chairman of the 1932 Convention, and 
the Hotel Peabody as Headquarters Hotel. 

At the Jacksonville Convention, Mrs. Faris, 
Second Vice President General, introduced the 
following resolution, which was adopted as read : 
“Be it resolved by the United Daughters of 
the Confederacy in Convention assembled, as fol- 
lows : 

“That, whereas, the prosperity and well-being 
of the people of the South are dependent upon 
the production and sale of cotton ; and, 

“Whereas, The price of cotton is largely regu- 
lated by the use and consumption of cotton goods, 
we do hereby urge upon the people of our country 
to inaugurate a more general use of cotton goods, 
and that wherever possible they select for domes- 
tic use cotton goods and the manufactured prod- 
ucts of cotton of every kind; and that we es- 
pecially urge that every member of our organi- 
zation use every means possible to encourage this 
movement for the use of cotton goods.” 

As this resolution has been adopted by the or- 
ganization, it behooves each and every member to 
encourage this movement for the use of cotton. 


109 


<;^OQfederat^ l/eterar). 


It has been my privilege to be the guest at Lee 
and Jackson birthday celebrations held by three 
of the West Virginia Chapters. On Wednesday, 
January 20, the Charleston Chapter entertained 
with a reception at the home of Mrs. R. R. Woolf, 
President of the Chapter, in my honor. On the 
21st, I was the guest of honor of the Jackson-Lee 
Chapter, of Huntington, W. Va., at a tea given 
in the home of its President, Mrs. F. M. Robert- 
son. At this time I delivered the tribute to Gen- 
eral Lee and General Jackson. On the 22nd, I 
was the guest of honor of the Hinton Chapter and 
gave the tribute to General Jackson. I was ex- 
tremely sorry to be unable to accept all the many 
gracious invitations extended. 

In Memoriam. 

It is with deep regret that we record the death 
of Mrs. Christine Ray Osborne, the mother of our 
beloved friend and co-worker, Mrs. John L. Wood- 
bury, of Louisville, Ky. Our hearts go out to her 
in love and sympathy in her deep sorrow. 

Mrs. Christine Ray Osborne, eighty years old, 
widow of Thomas D. Osborne, died at 5 o’clock 
Saturday morning at her winter home in Sanibel, 
Fla. 

Mrs. Osborne was a pioneer in kindergarten 
work in Louisville. She was a member of the 
United Daughters of the Confederacy. 

Mrs. Osborne is survived by four daughters, 
Mrs. John L. Woodbury, of Louisville; Mrs. Wil- 
liam McGarity, Fort Worth, Tex.; Mrs. Charles 
H. Bauer, New York; and Mrs. A. T. Wishart, 
High Point, N. C. ; seven grandchildren, and a 
great grandchild. 

Faithfully yours, Amanda Austin Byrne. 


C7. D. C. NOTES. 

California. — “Dixie” floated down from the 
music balcony of the Elite Party House and three 
hundred guests of the United Daughters of the 
Confederacy stood to proclaim the eleventh annual 
Southern Luncheon, in Los Angeles, a success. 
Honoring the birthdays of Robert E. Lee and 
Stonewall Jackson were veterans from Dixie 
Manor and Camp 770 U. C. V., and a host of 
Daughters and friends. 

Among the honor guests were Division Officers : 
Mrs. Helena T. Riche, President; Mrs. Collier 
Willey, Second Vice-President; Mrs. Mary 
Schweitzer, Recording Secretary; Miss Mary 
Vivian Conway, Historian ; Mrs. Charles C. Ward, 
Registrar; Mrs. Corinne King Wright, Parlia- 


mentarian; and Mrs. W. G. Prickett, Director of 
Children of Confederacy. 

Crosses of Military Service were awarded Col. 
James A. Mattison, Chief Surgeon of the Vet- 
erans’ Hospital at Sawtelle, Calif., and Los An- 
geles District Attorney Buron Fitts. 

While acclaiming this the most harmonious 
and representative of Southern luncheons, thanks 
are due to one of our former California Division 
Presidents, Mrs. J. Henry Stewart, under whose 
general chairmanship, committee chairmen func- 
tioned understandingly ; and to Mrs. F. B. Har- 
rington for publicity. 

The program featured Chapter Presidents, who 
responded to toasts to Robert E. Lee, Stonewall 
Jackson, Music of the Sixties, Slaves of the 
South, Confederate Veterans, The South in the 
World War, Women of the Sixties, Confederate 
Flags, The Old South, War between the States, 
and The New South. Interspersed with these re- 
sponses were musical numbers dear to the South- 
ern heart. 

Mrs. William Carter, from Nashville Chapter 
No. 1, Tennessee; Mrs. A. L. Devendorf, from the 
Robert E. Lee Chapter, Minnesota; Mrs. R. F. 
Blankenburg, Past President California Division, 
and other past Division Officers, were introduced. 

Maryland . — The thirty-fourth annual conven- 
tion of the Maryland Division was held in An- 
napolis, on October 28 and 29, the opening session 
being in the old Senate chamber of the State 
House. An orchestra from the Naval Academy 
played a processional march, and the officers of 
the Division, led by two of the veterans from the 
Confederate Home at Pikesville, Mr. Hobart 
Aisquith and Mr. Harry Atzrodt, entered the his- 
toric room. About one hundred and fifty mem- 
bers were present. 

Governor Albert C. Ritchie welcomed the con- 
vention to Annapolis, and expressed himself as 
very interested in the Daughters of the Confed- 
eracy and their work. Dr. Edward D. Johnson, 
of St. Anne’s Church, Annapolis, made the invo- 
cation. The orchestra played the “Star-Spangled 
Banner.” 

Following the address of welcome by the State 
President, Mrs. Charles O’Donnel Mackall, which 
was responded to by Mrs. John M. Green, Presi- 
dent of the William H. Murray Chapter, An- 
napolis, reports of committees were given until 


110 


Qo^federat^ l/etcrai). 


noon. Chapters were enthusiastic over the an- 
nouncement that the Division had gone “over the 
top” in its subscription to Stratford. 

As a part of its George Washington Bi-Cen- 
tennial work, the Maryland Division has given to 
Stratford a “grandchild” of the famous “Liberty 
Tree” at Cambridge, Mass., under which Wash- 
ington took command of the American Army. 
The formal presentation will take place at Strat- 
ford on April 28, anniversary of the time when 
“Light Horse” Harry Lee took his bride, Anne 
Carter Lee, to Stratford. 

The speaker of the evening. Senator Millard F. 
Tydings, was introduced by State Senator Ridge- 
ly P. Melvin. The Naval Academy orchestra 
played during the night session. Mrs. John M. 
Green was awarded a Cross of Military Service 
for her work on the Mexican border in 1917, the 
presentation being made by Mrs. Milton Dashiell, 
Custodian of Crosses. 

On Thursday, a memorial service was conducted 
by Rev. James M. Magruder, of Annapolis. 
Routine business and election of officers occupied 
the remainder of the session. Mrs. Mackall was 
re-elected President of the Division. 

The next annual convention will be held in 
Baltimore, in October, 1932, and the semiannual 
meeting in Rockville, in April. 

Maj. Joseph W. Byron, of Williamsport, gradu- 
ate of West Point, gave an inspiring talk on the 
fine characters of Generals Lee and Jackson in 
connection with his address on the “Battle of 
Antietam.” His talk was made more impressive 
with a map of the territory covered by the Union 
and Confederate armies. As this battle field is 
near Hagerstown, the audience found it interest- 
ing to have the viewpoint of a soldier of the 
United States on that battle. 

Mississippi . — Handsome portraits of Gens. 
Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson have been 
placed in the Biloxi High School, the presentation 
being made by Mrs. A. S. Gorenfio, President of 
the Beauvoir Chapter. These pictures will hang 
in the library alongside that of Jefferson Davis, 
President of the Confederate States, which was 
presented last year. The U. D. C. will recall Biloxi 
as the hostess city and Beauvoir Chapter as the 
hostess chapter to the 1929 general convention. 

The stage was beautifully decorated for these 
exercises, on each side three United States flags 
were arranged, and with two larger ones on each 
end. The two large pictures stood on easels, sepa- 


rated by a large Confederate flag, at the base of 
which were three smaller Confederate flags in a 
vase. 

Part of the program was carried out by the 
Bessie Hunt Dantzler Chapter, Children of the 
Confederacy, under the direction of their leader, 
Mrs. Dita Coleman Walker. 

The program was brought to a close by the sing- 
ing of “Dixie.” The Ocean Springs High School 
senior class were guests during the exercises. 

Several group conferences are arranged for 
April, preceding the division convention in May, 
when the new President General, Mrs. William E. 
R. Byrne, will be the guest of honor, if possible 
to attend. 

[Virginia R. Price, Director.] 

Missouri . — A very fine portrait, an etching, of 
Gen. Robert E. Lee, was presented to Hannibal 
High School with impressive ceremonies on Tues- 
day afternoon, January 19, before an assemblage 
of about six hundred students. The portrait is 
a gift of Hannibal Chapter, and the presentation 
was made by Mrs. Walter G. Curd, President, in 
a very gracious talk. Richard Scheidker, Presi- 
dent of the Student Council of the school, accepted 
the gift in a pleasing way. 

The assembly was opened with the singing of 
“America” and closed with the singing of “Dixie,” 
with Miss Helen Graves, supervisor of music in 
the Hannibal public schools, at the piano. 

The presentation of the portrait was in observ- 
ance of the 125th birthday anniversary of Gen- 
eral Lee, which fell on January 19. Miss Marian 
Fette of the High School faculty presented Mrs. 
Curd, and spoke briefly on the life of General Lee. 

North Carolina . — In accordance with the reso- 
lution of the North Carolina Director of the Jef- 
ferson Davis Highway in North Carolina, adopted 
by the 1930 General Convention, that this organ- 
ization join in the national movement of the Bi- 
centennial Commission to set out memorial trees 
for George Washington, both the President Gen- 
eral and Historian General are urging the Divi- 
sions to thus honor the Father of Our Country 
during 1932. To that end, the Chapters have used 
their February meetings as a special time for 
dedicating these Washington trees, and many 
have received certificates enrolling them in the Bi- 
centennial celebration. 

The Historian General, Mrs. John H. Anderson, 
had charge of the tree planting in North Caro- 
lina’s Capital City, Raleigh, and on February 22, 


Ill 


Qoijfederat^ Ueterap. 


following a radio address on how the U. D. C. is 
honoring Washington, tree planting exercises 
were held in the State’s Soldiers’ Cemetery, where 
lie buried many from other Southern States. 
These trees were taken from the county of Wash- 
ington’s birth, in Virginia. At the Confederate 
Home in Raleigh, the veterans took park in plant- 
ing a walnut tree from Mount Vernon. Another 
tree from Mount Vernon was planted on the lawn 
of the Capital’s oldest house, restored by the 
Colonial Dames. Along the Jefferson Davis High- 
way through North Carolina, its Director, Mrs. 
Anderson, has been active in having memorial 
trees planted, thus linking the names of two great 
statesmen whom the South delights to honor. 

Tennessee. — Mrs. T. W. Faires, General Chair- 
man for the U. D. C. Convention in Memphis, 
Tenn., November, 1932, reports that the Peabody 
Hotel will be general headquarters. Single rooms 
will be $3.50; double rooms, $3.00 per person. 
Chapter Presidents are vice-chairmen, are now 
working on committees and making plans for the 
convention. 

Tennessee’s State convention will be held in 
Knoxville, in October, with the Andrew Johnson 
Hotel as general headquarters. Mrs. Eugene 
Monday will be general chairman. 

The Chapters in Nashville joined in giving a 
luncheon on the 19th of January with the Confed- 
erate veterans of Nashville and vicinity as honor 
quests. Rev. Dr. Stoves, Pastor of West End 
Methodist Church, gave the address of the occa- 
sion, with world peace as his theme. The Chap- 
ters also had speakers in the different schools for 
the 19th, and many talks were made on the great 
Southerners born in January. 

On the 5th of February, the William B. Bate 
Chapter gave a program commemorating the life 
and services of Father Ryan, poet-priest of the 
Confederacy, at the Father Ryan High School in 
Nashville. The leading feature of the program 
was the presentation to the school of a copy of 
“The South in American Life and History,” writ- 
ten by Mrs. Fannie E. Selph. A paper on the 
life of Father Ryan was given by Mrs. W. J. 
Morrison, this having won the U. D. C. medal at 
the general convention in Biloxi. Mrs. Eleanor 
Gillespie read an unpublished poem by Father 
Ryan, which was read in New Orleans fifty years 
ago on a memorial occasion, at which Jefferson 
Davis was the honor guest. 

On the 22nd of February, Nashville Chapter 
No. 1 planted a tree on Capitol Hill, in Nashville, 


to commemorate the two hundredth anniversary 
of George Washington, an interesting program 
being carried out. Rev. E. P. Dandridge, Rector 
of Christ Church, gave a short address on the 
life of Washington, and Chapter officers took part 
in the ceremony of planting the tree, which stands 
near the statue of Sam Davis, Tennessee’s boy 
hero of the Confederacy. 

Virginia . — From over the State came reports of 
chapters swinging along in U. D. C. harness for 
work of 1932. The historical programs have been 
mailed each chapter by the newly elected histo- 
rian, Mrs. Fitzhugh Lee Palmer, of Emporia, and 
they will be a valuable aid to the work of the or- 
ganization throughout the year. The first organ- 
ization letter of the year from the President, 
Miss Annie V. Mann, outlines the work to be ac- 
complished for the year, stressing that which is 
most important, especially the work of securing 
subscriptions to the Veteran. Prizes have been 
offered in schools for essay work, effort is being 
made to equip libraries, and relief work is being 
stressed among all chapters. 

The one hundred twenty-fifth anniversary of 
the birth of Robert E. Lee was generally cele- 
brated by the Daughters all over Virginia. Pro- 
grams were given in schools. Special meetings 
with programs arranged appropriately for the 
occasion have been reported in all the newspapers. 

Impressive ceremonies marked the unveiling of 
the Lee Statue in the Virginia House of Dele- 
gates, which was attended by many notables of 
the State and the Sbuth, as well as Daughters of 
the Confederacy. And while Richmond paid her 
tribute to General Lee, in the city of Alexandria 
there was a dinner attended by U. D. C. and S. of 
C. and veterans, the speaker of the occasion being 
Representative Drewry, of Petersburg. In Staun- 
ton, Winchester, Lexington, Lynchburg, Dan- 
ville there were celebrations of equal interest. In 
Roanoke, the William Watts Chapter served a 
dinner in the flag-draped banquet hall of the 
Y.W.C.A. to the William Watts Camp, U. C. V. 
In Wytheville medals were awarded five World 
War veterans at appropriate exercises held in 
Wytheville High School, in which the Chapter of 
Wythe Grays and the pupils of the schools par- 
ticipated. 

The work of marking veterans’ graves is rapidly 
increasing in Virginia. A special effort along the 
line of this work will be pushed this year. This is 
an important piece of work for all chapters. 

[Claudia M. Hagy, Editor.] 


112 


^opfederat^ l/eterai)„ 


i^tBtnnral li 9. <K. 


Motto: “Loyalty to the Truth of Confederate History.” 
Keyword: “Preparedness.” Flower: The Rose. 
Historian General: Mrs. John Huske Anderson. 

Aims for 1932: To know your work — a fuller knowl- 
edge of the facts of our Confederate history. 


HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS OF THE CONFED- 
ERATE PERIOD. 

With Southern Songs 
April, 1932. 

Secret Service — Stories of Women Spies: Rose Green- 
how, Emmeline Pigott, Belle Boyd, and other heroines. 

Wit and Repartee of Southern Girls. 

Songs: “The Homespun Dress” and “The Girl I Left 
Behind Me.” 


CHILDREN OF THE CONFEDERACY. 

April, 1932. 

Stratford, Birthplace of Gen. R. E. Lee. 

Men and Women Who Called It Home. 

Why Stratford Should Be Preserved. 

The Gardens and Beauties of Stratford on the Potomac. 
Reading: Lee’s Last Farewell to His Soldiers, “General 
Orders No. 9.” 

Poem: “The Sword of Lee.” Father Ryan. 

Song: “Tenting Tonight.” 


U. D. C. PRIZES FOR 1932. 

The Raines Banner. — To the Division reporting the 
largest number of papers and historical records collected, 
and doing the best historical work. 

Jeanne Fox Weinmann Cup. — To the Division report- 
ing the greatest amount of historical work done in schools. 

Blount Memorial Cup. — To the Division bestowing the 
largest number of Crosses of Military Service during the 
year. 

McIver Rountree Trophy. — Offered by Mrs. J. A. 
Rountree, in memory of John S. McIver, Co. B, 8th Texas 
Cavalry, Terry’s Texas Rangers, and a tribute to John 
Asa Rountree, Jr., 1st Lieutenant Aviation, U. S. A. To 
the Chapter bestowing the largest number of Crosses of 
Military Service during the year. 

Alexander Allen Faris Trophy. — To the Division 
registering the largest number of members of the United 
Daughters of the Confederacy, between the ages of eight- 
een and twenty-five. 

Fannie Ransom Williams Medal. — Offered by Mrs. 
Thomas Lee Craig through J. D. Moore Chapter, Children 
of the Confederacy, as a memorial to Mrs. Fannie Ran- 
som Williams, pioneer Registrar-General. To the U. D. C. 
Chapter sending in the largest number of correct appli- 
cation papers. 

Frederick Trophy. — Offered by Mrs. Oscar McKenzie, 
in memory of ber father, a Confederate soldier, and her 
brother, a World War soldier. To the Division President 
giving the most concise, constructive, and comprehensive 
report on President’s Evening at the General Convention. 

Eckhart Loving Cup. — To the President of a Division, 
with less than 2,000 members, who makes the most con- 


cise, constructive, and comprehensive report at the General 
Convention. 

Babin Prize. — Offered by Mrs. L. U. Babin, in memory 
of her father, 0. A. Bullion, Co. B, 7th La. Inf., Army of 
Northern Virginia. To the Chapter, outside of a Di- 
vision, giving the most concise, constructive, and compre- 
hensive report at the General Convention. 

Lyllian Huntley Harris Loving Cup. — To the Division 
reporting the greatest number of new subscriptions to the 
Confederate Veteran. 

Edith Pope Loving Cup. — To the Chapter reporting the 
greatest number of new subscriptions to the Confederate 
Veteran. 

William Jackson Walker Loving Cup. — Offered by 
Mrs. R. B. Broyles, in memory of her father, a captain 
under General N. B. Forrest, to the Chapter placing the 
greatest number of books on Southern history and litera- 
ture, with U. D. C. bookplate in each, in any public li- 
brary. 

Hemphill-Quinby Loving Cup. — Offered by Mrs. L. D. 
T. Quinby to the Division President reporting the most 
outstanding work done for some Confederate Veteran, or 
“Girl of the Sixties.” 

Salley Medal. — Offered by Miss Marion Salley, in mem- 
ory of her parents. To the Division Historian reporting 
the largest number of interesting reminiscences, collected 
during the year, from Confederate Veterans and Women 
of the Sixties. 

Mrs. John A. Perdue Loving Cup. — For a copy of an 
original diary of a Confederate soldier, cup to be awarded 
for most interesting. Paper must be accompanied by an 
affidavit from the contestant, stating that this is a true 
copy, and has never been published in any book, magazine, 
or pamphlet. 

SUBJECTS FOR ESSAYS. 

To be written only by members of the United Daughters 
of the Confederacy, in competition for the following prizes: 

Mildred Lewis Rutherford LOving Cup. — For the most 
meritorious criticism, of some history or biography dealing 
with the period of the War Between the States, or Recon- 
struction Days. 

The Hyde-Campbell Prize. — $20.00 for the best review 
of Edgar Lee Masters’ book, “Lincoln.” 

Adelia Dunovant Cup. — Offered by Mrs. W. E. Cal- 
houn, in memory of her sister, former Chairman of the 
History Committee, United Daughters of the Confederacy, 
for the best essay on “John C. Calhoun, Apostle of 
States’ Rights.” 

Sydnor G. Ferguson Prize. — $25.00 offered by Mrs. 
Bessie Ferguson Cary, in memory of her father, one of 
Mosby’s men, for the best essay on “Mosby’s Rangers.” 

Martha Washington House Medal. — For the best es- 
say, “Alexander H. Stephen, Vice-President of the Con- 
federacy.” 

Anna Robinson Andrews Medal. — For the best essay 
on “The Old South” as a dominating power in the Nation 
with special reference to its statesmen. 

The White Prize. — $25.00 for the best essay on “To 
Advance the Name of Sidney Lanier. Poet, Musician, 
Soldier of the Confederacy for the Hall of Fame.” Given 
in memory of Miss Mary Lou Gordon White, by the Ten- 
nessee Division U. D. C. 

The Parker Prize. — $25.00 for the best essay on “The 


113 


^opfederat^ l/eterai). 


Military Genius of Stonewall Jackson,” given by Mrs. 
James Henry Parker, Honorary President U. D. C. 

The Mims Prize. — $25.00 for “Cavalry Leaders of the 
Confederacy,” given by Mrs. Fred Greer of Tennessee, 
in memory of her father. Col. Drury Anderson Mims. 

The Schade Prize. — $25.00 for “The Trial of Henry 
Wirz of Andersonville Prison,” given by Miss Anita Schade 
in memory of her father, Louis Schade, legal defender of 
Major Wirz. 

The Smith Prize. — $10.00 for “Why Stratford on the 
Potomac Should Become a National Shrine.” Given by 
Mrs. B. H. Griffin, of Raleigh, N. C., in memory of her fa- 
ther, Wiley Hopton Smith, a fourteen-year-old soldier of 
the Confederacy. 

Roberts Medal. — For best essay in any contest by mem- 
bers of U. D. C., offered by Mrs. C. M. Roberts. 

Essay Prizes for College Students Only, in Any 
Section. 

Offered through Mrs. Lizzie George Henderson for the 
Mississippi Division, U. D. C. 

$25.00 for Jefferson Davis, American soldier. 

$25.00 for Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War in the 
United States Cabinet. 

$25.00 for Jefferson Davis and Secession. 

$25.00 for The Capture and Imprisonment of Jefferson 
Davis. 

Rules for Essays. 

1. Essays must not contain over 2,000 words. Number 
of words must be stated at top left-hand corner of first 
page. 

2. Essays must be typed, double spaced, on good quality 
paper, eight and one-half by eleven inches, and signed 
with fictitious signature. Real name, chapter, and ad- 
dress of writer must be in sealed envelope, clipped to 
essay, and on the outside of the envelope must be the 
fictitious name and subject of essay. 

3. Essays must be sent to Division Historian by Septem- 
ber 20, 1932, and she will forward to Historian General by 
October 1. 

4. Essays on all subjects may be submitted, but only two- 
members to the U. D. C., on each subject can be forwarded 
by Division Historian, and winners are not to try for the 
same prize again, if the subject is the same from year to 
year. 

5. Prize-winning essays are to become the property of 
the United Daughters of the Confederacy. 

6. No essay which has been published can be entered in 
this contest. 

SPECIAL PRIZES U. D. C. 

The United Daughters of the Confederacy announce 
that the $250 prize given by the late Miss Mary Lou Gor- 
don White, of Nashville, in memory of her brother. Dr. 
Gordon White, for the best story of real literary merit 
founded on the life of early colonists in one of the South- 
ern states, to bring out in fictional form contribution made 
by this section to the making of American history, is con- 
tinued. Half of the prize is to be paid the writer when 
the judges have made their decision and the other half on 
appearance of the story in a well-known magazine. 

The contest as held last year brought in nearly one 


hundred manuscripts, but none, in the opinion of the 
judges, five leading literary critics and authorities on the 
short story, had the outstanding qualities requisite for this 
award. 

Mrs. John H. Anderson, of Raleigh, N. C., Historian 
General, U. D. C., is in charge of the contest. Rules are 
as follows: 

The story must be original and must never have been 
published. 

The story must not exceed six thousand words in length. 

All manuscripts must be typewritten, double spaced. 

A contestant may submit only one story. 

The story must be submitted under a pen name, with 
the author’s real name and address and return postage 
inclosed in a sealed envelope. This envelope must bear 
on the outside the title of the story and the author’s pen 
name. 

All stories submitted, including the prize winner, re- 
main the property of the writers and will be returned after 
the contest is decided. 

Manuscripts must be submitted before June 15, 1932, 
to Mrs. John H. Anderson, 707 West Morgan Street, 
Raleigh, N. C. 

Announcement of the prize winner will be made at the 
November, 1932, convention, U. D. C. 

Judges are to have the right to continue the contest 
if no story of real merit is entered in the contest. 

Note . — Since this prize was offered, Miss White has 
passed into the “Great Beyond,” but the $250 had already 
been placed by her in the keeping of the Treasurer Gen- 
eral of the U. D. C. So this beautiful memorial has been 
continued for 1932. 

Contest Open to Writers in Any Section. 

The Freeman Prize. — $25.00 for best unpublished story 
of Robert E. Lee, given by Dr. Douglas Freeman, of Rich- 
mond, Va., in honor of his father, Gen. W. B. Freeman, past 
Commander in Chief of the United Confederate Veterans. 

The Thomas D. Osborne Cup. — Offered by Mrs. John 
L. Woodbury, in memory of her father, a member of the 
“Orphan Brigade,” for the best unpublished poem (not 
free verse) founded on some incident of the War between 
the States, or carrying a story of Southern chivalry or 
heroism of men or women. Limited to one thousand words. 

[C. of C. Prizes will be given in April number.] 


HELPS IN HISTORICAL WORK. 

Short sketches of Lee, Davis, and Jackson, at 15 cents 
each, may be ordered from H. H. Smith, Blackstone. Va., 
suitable for schools. 

History of the Confederate flags, 25 cents. Confederate 
Museum, Richmond, Va. 

Extension study course on Confederate history. Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 

Book on “Flags of Confederate States of America,” the 
Norman Publishing Co., 15 South Gay Street, Baltimore, 
Md. 

Pocket-book edition of Southern poets and Southern 
orators, 50 cents, Macmillan Co., New York, for use in 
schools and declamations. 

Write the Confederate Veteran about pictures of Con- 
federate Generals and flags. 


114 


Qoi^federat^ I/eterai). 


<Ionfebecateb Soutbecn /Ibemorial Hssociation 


Mrs. a. McD. Wilson President General 

209 Fourteenth Street, N. E., Atlanta. Ga. 

Mrs. C. B. Bryan First Vice President General 

1640 Peabody Avenue, Memphis, Tenn. 

Miss Sue H. Walker Second Vice President General 

Fayetteville, Ark. 

Mrs. J. T. Hight Treasurer General 

Fayetteville, Ark. 

Miss Daisy M. L. Hodgson Recording Secretary General 

7900 Sycamore Street, New Orleans, La. 

Mrs. Bryan Wells Collier Historian General 

College Park, Ga. 

Miss Willie Fort Williams Corre'^ponding Secretary General 
Atlanta, Ga. 

Mrs. Virginia Frazer Boyle Poet Laureate General 

653 South McLean Boulevard, Memphis, Tenn. 

Mrs. Belle Allen Ross Auditor General 

Montgomery, Ala. 

Rev. Giles B. Cooke Chaplain General 

Mathews, Va. 

Mrs. L. T. D. Quinby National Organizer 

Atlanta, Ga. 



STATE PRESIDENTS 

Alabama — M ontgomery ..Mrs. R. P. Dezter 

Arkansas— L ittle Rock Mrs. Sam Wassell 

District of Columbia — W ashington Mrs. N. P. Webster 

Florida Gainesvill^. Mrs. Townes R. Leigh 

Georgia— A tlanta Mrs. William A. Wright 

Kentucky — 

Louisiana — N ew Orleans Mrs. James Dinkins 

Maryland Mrs. D. H. Fred 

Mississippi— B iloxi Mrs. Byrd Enochs 

Missouri— S t. Louis Mrs. G. K. Warner 

North Carolina— A sheville Mrs. J. J. Yates 

Oklahoma — O klahoma City Mrs. James R. Armstrong 

South Carolina — C harleston Mrs. S. Cary Beckwith 

Tennessee— M emphis Mrs. Mary H. Miller 

Texas — D allas Mrs. T. A. Buford 

Virginia — R ichmond Mrs. B. A. Blenner 

West Virginia — Huntington Mrs. D. D. Geiger 


All communicationa for this Department should be sent direct to Mrs. Ada Ramp Walden, Editor, Box 692, Augusta, Ga. 


THE PRESIDENT GENERAL’S MESSAGE. 

My dear Co-workers: Having been ill, my mes- 
sage this month will necessarily be short, but I 
want you to know that always you and the work 
are my uppermost thought. 

Since the time for the Reunion and our 
C. S. M. A. Convention is set for June 21 in Rich- 
mond, Va., it behooves you to make your plans 
early. Elect your delegates and secure your res- 
ervations at headquarters hotel well in advance, 
as the Richmond Reunion will be, possibly, the 
largest held in years. More people will take ad- 
vantage of the very low rates offered. It is hoped 
that by the time of the March issue the head- 
quarters hotel, rates, etc., will be available. 

A recent letter from Mrs. D. D. Geiger, State 
President of West Virginia and President of the 
Huntington Southern Memorial Association, gives 
a most gratifying report of their first meeting of 
the new year, and she reports eight new sub- 
scribers to the Confederate Veteran magazine 
— splendid work for the first meeting. Let us 
hope that many associations will do likewise. 
This association has most attractive meetings, 
with current news of the day, music, and short, 
interesting stories — sometimes a veteran recount- 
ing his experiences. 

Again, from Huntington comes a letter from 
Mrs. Irene Molter, Corresponding Secretary of the 
Junior Memorial, telling of their fine work. They 
have eighty-six members, and meet four times a 
year. They plan well ahead to make the pro- 
gram interesting and enjoyable. They sent four 
delegates and two alternates to the convention in 
Montgomery, and plan to send a large delegation 
to Richmond. 


Plan early for your Memorial Day, remember- 
ing that yours is the oldest patriotic organiza- 
tion of women in America — holding aloft your 
banner with its motto of sacred trust: 

“Lord God of hosts, be with us yet. 

Lest we forget, lest we forget.” 

With affectionate remembrance, faithfully 
yours, Mrs. A. McD. Wilson, 

President General. 


C. S. M. A. NOTES. 

BY ADA RAMP WALDEN, EDITOR. 

On the evening of February 12, the Ladies’ 
Memorial Association of Augusta, Ga., spon- 
sored the observance of the one hundred ninety- 
ninth birthday of Georgia by broadcasting a radio 
program at 9:30 p.m. 

Unfortunately for the State, the birthday of 
Abraham Lincoln falls on the same day; and 
Georgia patriotic societies all through the years 
have found it difficult to disassociate the two 
events in the minds of Georgia children. 

On this birthday mentioned, radio “fans” of 
the section enjoyed a delightful fifteen-minute talk 
by Dr. Lawton B. Evans, nationally known edu- 
cator and author and son of the late Gen. Clement 
A. Evans of Confederate fame, on “Why It’s 
Good to Be a Georgian”; song, “Georgia Land,” 
by Milton Guest; reading, “The Red Old Hills of 
Georgia,” by Beverly Brown, prominent member 
of Little Theater League; and vocal duet, “Geor- 
gia,” by Mrs. Harry Craig and Mrs. Nellie Bresna- 
han, the words by Mrs. Herbert Franklin, Poet 
Laureate of the Georgia Division, U. D. C., and 


115 


C^oi?federat^- l/eterap. 


orchestrated by Charles C. Fulcher, prominent or- 
chestra leader and musician. 

The Association, at the same time, suggested a 
program for use in the schools on that day, since 
years ago an act of the legislature made recogni- 
tion of the day obligatory by such observance; 
and urged through the papers that merchants spe- 
cially feature Georgia products, and that house- 
wives prepare their menu from such on the State’s 
natal day. 

* * * 

Tentative plans were made by the Association 
for the observance of Memorial Day, April 26, 
at its February meeting, when Thomas J. Hamil- 
ton, editor of the Augusta Chronicle, was named 
as orator; Dr. Charles Francis, as introducer. It 
is worthy of note that Dr. Francis, a Spanish- 
American War veteran, member of Archie Butt 
Camp, U. S. W. V., Augusta, whose efforts for 
many months had much to do with the award- 
ing of crosses of military service to descendants 
of Confederate soldiers by the U. D. C., is the 
first to receive such honor in Georgia. On the 
morning of Memorial Day, he will receive the 
emblem from Mrs. Ada Ramp Walden, Custodian 
of Crosses of Military Service, and Mrs. W. W. 
Battey, Chapter President; and when the rays 
of the afternoon sun shed their light as a bene- 
diction over the section in which lie sleeping 
those Confederate soldiers who died far removed 
from home and loved ones. Dr. Francis will in- 
troduce the orator, as has been done since Au- 
gusta featured its Memorial Day, which was 
April, 1866. 

* * * 

The Dallas News of Sunday, January . 24, car- 
ried a picture of the late Mrs. A. J. McNeill, who 
had passed away the day before at the age of 
eighty-five. This daughter of the Southland, 
typical of the days agone, was born in Ouachita 
Parish, La., but attended school in Shelbyville, 
Ky., where she was virtually a prisoner of Fed- 
eral troops. Although she married, in 1863, Colo- 
nel McNeill, who had recruited a company known 
as the Briarfield Rebels, she spent the last year 
of the war in taking a postgraduate course, finish- 
ing as valedictorian of her class in 1865. The 
young couple treked by oxcart to Ellis County, 
Tex., in an attempt to recoup their fortune in the 
frontier country, and with them went a number 
of slaves who refused to leave them when peace 
was declared. 

Mrs. McNeill was actively associated with va- 


rious patriotic societies, the Ladies’ Memorial As- 
sociation among them; and a charter member of 
the “Old Folks’ Society,” which had assembled in 
her home for twenty years, the members exchang- 
ing delightful reminiscences of the days that are 
gone. 

* * * 

(The editor, C. S. M. A., begs that every As- 
sociation send its news, that such may be in- 
corporated on this page of the official organ. 
Even though the meetings of the Associations are 
not as frequent as those of sister patriotic or- 
ganizations, almost every Association could send 
certain facts or history that could be given pub- 
licity.) 


AN OLD CONFEDERATE FLAG. 

BY MRS. L. U. BABIN, BATON ROUGE, LA. 

The stirring days of the War between the States 
were brought back to mind by the presentation to 
the Dixie Museum in the Louisiana State Li- 
brary, on January 28, of a Confederate flag, twen- 
ty feet in length, captured during the battle of 
Baton Rouge in May, 1862, as it waved above the 
State Capitol. 

The flag is the gift of Nathan W. Dudley, of 
Philadelphia, Pa., to the State of Louisiana, hav- 
ing come into his possession through his grand- 
father, Nathan A. M. Dudley, United States Army, 
then Colonel of the 30th Massachusetts Volunteer 
Infantry, and in Command of a brigade in the De- 
partment of the Gulf, stationed at Baton Rouge. 
Mr. Dudley stated that when this flag was on dis- 
play by his grandfather, it w^as marked with a 
card reading, “Captured in Baton Rouge, La., and 
flew from the Capitol building.” 

Mr. Dudley wrote the United States War De- 
partment that he wished to return the flag to 
Louisiana, and in September, 1931, the Governor 
of Louisiana was notified by the War Department 
of his wish to present the flag to the State, and 
the Governor accepted the flag in the name of the 
State of Louisiana. 

During the reunion of the Louisiana Confed- 
erate veterans at Baton Rouge, in October follow- 
ing, Governor Long presented the flag to the vet- 
erans, who, in turn, decided to present it to the 
Dixie Museum of the University Library, where 
so many war relics are preserved ; and through the 
Louisiana U. D. C. the flag was formally pre- 
sented to the Museum. 


ii6 


Confederate l/eterai) 


Sons of Confeberate Veterans 


Db. George R. Tabor, Commander in Chief, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

GENERAL OFFICERS. 


Walter L. Hopkins, Richmond, Va Adjutant in Chief 

J. Edward Jones, Oklahoma City, Okla. ../napector in Chief 
Maj. Marion Rushton, Montgomery, Ala. Judge Advocate in 
Chief 

C. E. Gilbert, Hoaston, Tex Historian in Chief 

Dr. W. H. Scudder, Mayersville, Miss... Surgeon in Chief 
Edward Hill Courtney, Richmond, W u. . .Quartermaster in 
Chief 

Arthur C. Smith, Washington, D. C. . Commissary in Chief 
Maj. Edmond R. Wiles, Little Rock, Ark. Publicity Director 
in Chief 

Rev. Nathan A. Sbagle, New York .. . Chaplain in Chief 
EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 

Dr. George R. Tabor, Chairman Oklahoma City, Okla. 

John Ashley Jones, Secretary Atlanta, Ga. 

Dr. Wiluam R. Dancy Savannah. Ga. 

Robert S. Hudgins Richmond. Va. 

Judge Edgar Scurry Wichita Falls, Tex. 

John M. Kinard Newberry, S. C. 

Walter H. Saunders St. Louis, Mo. 

COMMITTEE CHAIRMEN. 

Arthur H. Jennings, Historical Lynchburg, Va. 

A. W. Taber, Relief Austin. Tex. 

H. K. Ramsey, Monument Atlanta, Ga. 

Lucius L. Moss, Finance Lake Charles. La. 

Dr. Mathew Page Andrews, Textbooks Baltimore. Md. 

Rufus W. Pearson, Manassas Battle Field. .Washington D. C. 


VICE COMMANDERS IN CHIEF. 

Dr. William R. Dancy, Savannah, Ga. . . Army of Tennessee 
Robert S. Hudgins, Richmond, Va. 

Army of Northern Virginia 
Walter H. Saunders, St. Louis, Mo. 

Army of Trans-Mississippi 

DIVISION COMMANDERS. 


Maj. Jere C. Dennis, Dadeville Alabama 

J. S. Utley, Little Rock Arkansas 


Eujah Funkhouser, 7522 East Lake Terrace, Chicago, 

Ulinois 

Fred P. Myers, Woodward Building, Washington, D. C„ Dis- 
trict of Columbia and Maryland 
H. B. Grubbs, 320 Broadway, Eastern Division, New York 


John Z. Reardon, Tallahassee Florida 

Dr. Wiluam R. Dancy, Savannah Georgia 

James B. Anderson, Glengary Farm, Lexington . . Kentucky 

Joseph Roy Price, Shreveport Louisiana 

W. F. Riley, Sr., Tupelo .Mississippi 

James H. White, Kansas City Missouri 

J. M. Lentz, Winston-Salem North Carolina 

J. O. Parr, Oklahoma City Oklahoma 

Dr. John Parks Gilmer, Pacific Division, San Diego, 

California 

William J. Cherry, Rock Hill South Carolina 

Claire B. Newman, Jackson Tennessee 

C. E. Gilbert, Houston Texas 

R. M. Colvin, Harrisonburg Virginia 

George W. Sidebottom, Huntington West Virginia 



All communications for this department should be sent direct to Edmond R. Wiles, Editor, 1505 W. 22nd St., Little Rock, Ark. 


A MESSAGE FROM THE COMMANDER IN 
CHIEF. 

To all Camp Commanders of the Sons of Confed- 
erate Veterans: 

No doubt you have received letters from your 
Division Commanders calling attention to the ne- 
cessity of real work in securing new members for 
this year. Historic Richmond, the beautiful 
Capital City of the Old Dominion, the old and 
revered Capital of the beloved Confederacy, the 
last “official home” of our knightly leader, Jeffer- 
son Davis, the “City of Memories” of the cause of 
righteousness, will entertain the Sons of Confed- 
erate Veterans at the Confederate Reunion next 
June. 

Who does not want to go to Richmond ? Memo- 
ries of Washington, Jefferson, Patrick Henry, 
heroes of freedom of the War of the Revolution, 
and equal heroes of those are Virginia’s other 
sons, Lee, Jackson, and so many others, all “Im- 
mortals” of a cause too brilliant to ever be lost, 
will surround you on all sides, and you will leave 
Richmond with a holier reverence for the noble 
victories of the armies of our fathers. Even 
where we were overcome by overpowering num- 
bers, and forced to retreat or capitulate, the vic- 
tory was no less, as the cause was righteous, and 
no Confederate soldier came home from the dis- 
aster of the war feeling that he had been 
“whipped.” 


Keep the valor of our fathers before us at all 
time. 

Each Camp Commander is the Captain of his 
unit. No officer of the organization is in posi- 
tion to advise him what course he should pursue 
to create interest in our Camps or increase mem- 
bership. You must work out your own plans, 
but Do It Noiv. 

Our “organ,” the Confederate Veteran, is 
the only paper we have which is devoted solely to 
the cause we represent. Every son of a Confed- 
erate veteran should be a reader of it. Those 
who for any reason cannot subscribe for it should 
have it put in their hands to read. Every Camp 
should subscribe for the club number at least, and 
have the copies at each meeting for members to 
look over. They will soon find they can’t do with- 
out it. 

Get busy. Sons of Confederate Veterans, and 
let’s march on Richmond to the Reunion next June 
with an overwhelming number, which cannot be 
overcome by pessimistic predictions for future 
meetings. 

We should have the biggest membership at 
Richmond ever in our history. Every descendant 
of a Confederate soldier should be a member and 
a subscriber for our paper, the Veteran. 

I hope to personally greet thousands of you at 
Richmond. 


117 


^OQfederat^ l/eterai). 


God is always with the old veterans. May he 
be with you too. 

I fully expect there will be more Confederate 
veterans at Richmond than there were at Mont- 
gomery. Let us have a larger number there to 
carefully study their wishes. 

Your obedient comrade, 

George R. Tabor, 
Commander in Chief, S. C. V. 


DIVISION NOTES. 

North Carolina . — We have been favored by 
Comrade Clarence Griffin, Managing Editor of 
the North Carolina Historical and Genealogical 
Record of Forrest City, N. C., with some very en- 
lightening information regarding the procedure 
to be followed in securing from the United States 
government markers for the graves of Confed- 
erate soldiers who were either killed in the War 
between the States or who have died since. 

Commander Griffin has done a very remarkable 
piece of work in his native county, Rutherford. 
He has secured and placed markers over the 
graves of seven hundred veterans in his county, 
which sent to the front approximately eighteen 
hundred men during the sixties. 

It gives us great pleasure indeed to reproduce 
here an editorial which will appear in his publi- 
cation for April. We desire to urge the members 
of the S. C. V. throughout the Southland, and in 
other parts of the United States, to go about at once 
the securing of these markers from the Quarter- 
master General, U. S. A., in order that the graves 
of our heroes who fought in defense of the South 
may be properly marked. It was indeed a gracious 
thing on the part of the Federal Government to 
appropriate money for this purpose. It places the 
Confederate soldier on a parity with those who 
served their country in the Revolutionary War, 
the War of 1812, Indian wars, the War between 
the States, the Spanish-American War, and the 
World War. It is nothing but right that they 
should be so remembered, as it must not be for- 
gotten that the South today represents a very 
large part of the wealth, culture, and commercial 
leadership of our nation, not to mention the 
patriotic impulses of our people. 

Editorial from North Carolina Historical 
AND Genealogical Record 

Those interested in the preservation of local his- 
tory can render distinguished service to their re- 
spective communities and counties by securing 
application blanks from the War Department and 


applying for headstones for soldiers who sleep 
in unmarked graves in their community. At the 
present time there are thousands of unmarked 
graves of Confederate veterans in North Carolina, 
and within another generation the very location 
of many of the graves will be forgotten. 

Upon application, headstones will be furnished 
for unmarked graves of soldiers, sailors, marines, 
and army nurses who served in the army or navy 
of the United States (including Revolutionary 
soldiers and Confederate veterans) , whether regu- 
lar or volunteer, and whether they died in service 
or after muster out or honorable discharge. 

All interested in this undertaking should re- 
quest the Quartermaster General’s Office, of the 
War Department, Washington, D. C., to furnish 
a supply of Form 0. Q. M. G. No. 623 (application 
blanks). A notice in your local newspaper to the 
effect that you will make application for head- 
stones for unmarked graves of soldiers will bring 
a heavy response. 

Application blanks call for the following infor- 
mation: Name of soldier, rank, company, regi- 
ment, State organization, or vessel ; date of death ; 
name and location of cemetery in which interred ; 
name and address of consignees. In case of World 
War veterans, the Division Number and State are 
also required. Those handling applications should 
require as much of this information as possible to 
be brought in by applicants otherwise you may 
get a large number of applications on hand which 
will necessitate quite a bit of research work. Ap- 
plications must be made in duplicate. 

A number of individuals in this state, also U. 
D. C. Chapters, have already done a great work in 
securing markers for graves of soldiers, and in 
many instances have even gone further and 
searched out graves, applied for markers, and 
erected them at their own expense. 


Arkansas . — The most enjoyable, enthusiastic, 
and profitable meeting held by the Robert C. 
Newton Camp, of Little Rock, occurred on the 
evening of January 27, 1932, at the Albert Pike 
Hotel, the occasion being the commemorating cere- 
monies in honor of the birthdays of Generals 
Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson, to elect 
officers for the ensuing year, and to discuss mat- 
ters of vital importance to the organization now 
confronting us in this State — particularly pen- 
sions. 

The newly elected Commander of this Camp, 
Hon. C. P. Newton, is one of Arkansas’s outstand- 
ing citizens, having been Speaker of the House 


^oi)federat^ Uetera9. 


of Representatives twice, Secretary to Governor 
McRae, County Judge of Pulaski County, and has 
held many other positions of honor and responsi- 
bility in his native State. The Camp is very for- 
tunate this year in having a group of outstanding 
men to head its activities for the coming year. 

Robert C. Newton Camp, Sons of Confederate 
Veterans, at a meeting at the Albert Pike Hotel 
last night, adopted a resolution declaring it to be 
the sense of that organization that the proposed 
contract for the development of a bauxite mine on 
the Confederate Home property, near Little Rock, 
should be resisted in the courts, “to the end that 
residents of the Confederate Home may not be dis- 
turbed in the remaining days of their living 
among us.” 

“In the event that the contract is sustained by 
the courts,” the resolution said, “it is the sense 
of this body that all funds derived therefrom 
should be devoted exclusively to the aid and relief 
of surviving Confederate veterans and widows.” 

The contract to lease the bauxite mining rights 
to the property to the Pulaski Mining Company 
for a period of ten years, with a minimum royalty 
of $10,000 a year, was executed by Revenue Com- 
missioner David A. Gates, January 16. 

Four chapters of the United Daughters of the 
Confederacy in Little Rock and North Little Rock 
adopted a resolution last week asking Governor 
Parnell to have the lease contract conceled. After 
the governor had told a delegation of U. D. C. re- 
presentatives that this could not be done, it was 
announced that the U. D. C. will institute a suit to 
test validity of the contract. 

In Memoriam. 

We pause at this time to express as best we 
can, though we find words inadequate, our very 
deep grief at the passing of the distinguished 
Confederate soldier, citizen, and statesman, Gen. 
John N. Johnson, U. C. V., of Chattanooga, Tenn., 
Chairman of the Pension Board of Tennessee, 
and Commander in Chief of Forrest Cavalry. 

No nobler man, no truer nor more valiant 
patriot, ever lived than General Johnson. Peace 
to his memory and deepest sympathy to his loved 
ones and friends. 


SLAVE LIFE IN THE SOUTH. 

(Continued from page 103) 

have sub-overseers who were appointed by the 
white master; the women and children .... the 
routine of their daily life, etc. These and a thou- 
sand other questions arise from time to time.” 


REUNION RATES. 

The Southeastern Passenger Association has 
agreed on the usual rates for the U. C. V. Reunion, 
Richmond, Va., June 21-24, 1932, as follows : 

Basis of Fares: For members of U. C. V. proper 
and members of their families : One cent per mile 
distance traveled on identification plan for the 
round trip in accordance with detailed fares pub- 
lished in tariff 38 account 1931 Reunion, Mont- 
gomery, Ala. For auxiliary bodies. Sons of Con- 
federate Vetrans, Confederated Southern Memo- 
rial Association, United Daughters of the Con- 
federacy, Children of the Confederacy, Sponsors, 
Matrons, and Maids of Honor, Official Bands in 
Uniform, and Boy and Girl Scouts officially ap- 
pointed : one fare for the round trip on identifica- 
tion plan with the same exceptions as published 
in tariff No. 38 issued account 1931 Reunion, 
Montgomery. 

Dates of Sale: June 18-23, inclusive, also on 
J une 24, from stations and for trains of that date 
scheduled to arrive Richmond on or before noon. 

Final Limit: July 24, 1932. 

Form of Ticket: Non-signature, non-transfer- 
able, non-validation, non-transit-limit form. 

Class of Tickets: Tickets to be good for first- 
class passage. 

Baggage: Baggage to be checked under current 
regulations. 

Stopovers: Stopovers to be allowed at all sta- 
tions on either going or return trip or both within 
final limit upon application to conductor. 

Children’s Fares: Children of half fare age to 
be charged one-half of the fares for adults. 

Parking Charges: $12 per car per day of 24 
hours or fraction thereof, the charge to commence 
as soon as car is parked, and continue until moved 
from parking location. This charge includes 
light, water, ice, and necessary sanitation. 

Side Trips: Side trip tickets to be sold to Wash- 
ington, D. C., and points in Virginia on basis of 
one fare plus twenty-five cents for the round trip 
for use of original purchasers holding return por- 
tions of tickets sold account this occasion, selling 
dates June 24, 25, and 26, with final limit July 23, 
1932. 

Identification Certificates will be sent to Mr. 
C. C. Stewart, Quartermaster General, U. C. V., 
Memphis, Tenn., for distribution to Camps. 


Qopfederac^ l/eterap 


119 


PUBLIC ECONOMY. 

There has never been a time when 
it was more important to keep gov- 
ernmental expense down to reasonable 
levels than now. 

Businesses and individuals are 
striving to make both ends meet. Au- 
thorities, public and private, are 
working on plans to stimulate indus- 
trial activity and thus provide em- 
ployment for those who are out of 
work. And rising taxes are one of 
the principal barriers in the way of 
success of such plans. 

Extravagance and waste on the 
part of officials are enemies of pros- 
perity and result from “government 
in -business” in competition with its 
private citizens and taxpayers. — Ex- 
change. 


WHERE TAX MONEY GOES. 

Two-thirds of the total estimated 
expenses of the Federal Government 
for the fiscal year 1932 will be needed 
for the following purposes: 

Payment of debt, mainly for wars. 

Expenses of the army and navy. 

Payments to veterans of wars. 

Of a total estimated expense of 
$4,112,909,950 for the fiscal year 1933, 
$2,812,709,200 will go for the purposes 
enumerated above — all connected with 
wars, past or future — an expenditure 
looking back to hatred and hostility 
between the nations of the world. 
Even preparation for war is caused 
by the past. — Dyersburg State Ga- 
zette. 


BYRON’S EULOGY OF WASH- 
INGTON. 

Where may the wearied eye repose. 
When gazing on the great — 
Where neither guilty glory glows 
Nor despicable state? 

Yes — no — -the first — the last — the best. 
The Cincinnatus of the West, 
Whom Envy dared not hate. 

Bequeathed the name of Washing- 
ton 

To make Man blush there was but one. 


A discouraged countryman, who 
watched his tobacco sell for almost 
nothing on the Harrodsburg market 
recently, turned to the bystanders and 
remarked: “Heck! What’s the use of 
raising crops? I’m never again going 
to say ‘git up’ to a mule unless he’s 
a-settin’ in my lap.” — Harrodsburg 
(Ky.) Herald. 


THINKING RIGHT! 

Think smiles, and smiles shall be; 
Think doubt, and hope will flee. 
Think love, and love will grow; 
Think hate, and hate you’ll know; 
Think good, and good is here; 
Think vice — its jaws appear! 
Think joy, and joy ne’er ends; 
Think gloom, and dusk descends. 
Think faith, and faith’s at hand; 
Think ill — it stalks the land. 
Think peace, sublime and sweet. 
And you that peace will meet; 
Think fear, with brooding mind. 
And failure’s close behind. 

Think this: “I’m Going to Win!” 
Think not on what has been. 
Think “Victory.” Think “I can!” 
Then you’re a WINNING MAN! 

— Anonymous. 


"THE HARVEST WAITS” 

God hath been patient long. 

In eons past. 

He plowed the waste of Chaos. 

He hath sown 

The furrows with his worlds, and 
from His throne 

Showered, like grain, planets upon 
the Vast. 

What meed of glory hath He from 
the past? 

Shall He not reap, who hears but 
prayer and groan? 

The harvest waits .... He cometh to 
His own — 

He who shall scythe the starry host 
at last. 

When the accumulated swarms of 
Death 

Glut the rank worlds as rills are 
choked by leaves. 

Then shall God flail the million orbs, 
as sheaves 

Unfruitful gleaned; and, in his age 
sublime. 

Winnow the gathered stars and with 
a breath 

Whirl the spurned chaff adown the 
void of Time. 

— Lloyd Mifflin (1846-1921.) 


A LATE LARK TWITTERS. 

A late lark twitters from the quiet 
skies; 

And from the west. 

Where the sun, his day’s work ended. 
Lingers as in content. 

There falls on the old, gray city 
An influence luminous and serene, 

A shining peace. 


J. A. Joel & Co. 

SILK AND BUNTING 
FLAGS AND BANNERS 
D. S., CONFEDERATE. 
AND STATE FLAGS 
SPECIAL FLAGS AND 
BANNERS MADE TO 
ORDER AT SHORT 
NOTICE 


147 Fulton street, New York, N. Y. 


The smoke ascends 

In a rosy and golden haze. The spires 
Shine, and are changed. In the valley 
Shadows rise. The lark sings on. The 
sun. 

Closing his benediction. 

Sinks, and the darkening air 
Thrills with a sense of the triumphing 
night — 

Night with her train of stars 
And her great gift of sleep. 

So be my passing! 

My task accomplished and the long 
day done. 

My wages taken, and in my heart 
Some late lark singing. 

Let me be gathered to the quiet west. 
The sundown splendid and serene. 
Death. — William Ernest Henley. 


SPRING. 

Again the violet of our early days 

Drinks beauteous azure from the 
golden sun. 

And kindles into fragrance at his 
blaze ; 

The streams rejoice that winter’s 
work is done. 

Talk of tomorrow’s cowslips, as they 
run. 

Wild apple, thou art blushing into 
bloom ! 

Thy leaves are coming, snowy-blos- 
somed thorn! 

Wake, buried lily! spirit, quit thy 
tomb! 

And thou shade-loving hyacinth, be 
born! 

Then haste, sweet rose! sweet wood- 
bine, hymn the morn. 

Whose dewdrops shall illumine with 
pearly light 

Each grassy blade that thick em- 
battled stands 

From sea to sea, while daisies infinite 

Uplift in praise their little glowing 
hands 

O’er every hill that under heaven 
expands. — Ebenfzer Elliott. 



. 1 


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July 12 AMSTERDAM - VOLENDAM- July 29 

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July 13 BRUSSELS July 31 

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TOUR August 

July 19 INTERLAKEN August 

July 20 MILAN August 

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July 25 ROME August 

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July 27 ROME August 


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2 PARIS 

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7 LONDON 

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h 








J 




VOL 


XL 


APRIL 


1932 


NO 




;»«-*• 


APPOMATTOX 

From the painting by John A. Elder in Virginia State Library, Richmond, Va. 


122 


^^opfederat^ Ueterai^ 


LEADING ARTICLES IN THIS NUMBER. 


Veterans, “On to Richmond!” 123 

April Blossom Magic. (Poem.) By Susan C. Milner 124 

The Challenge to the South 124 

For Wider Circulation. By Miss Mamie Graham 12.5 

Reunion Echoes. By Charles M. Evans 126 

The First Overt Act. By Robert W. Barnwell, Sr 127 

Virginia’s Ordinance of Secession. By Sterling Boisseau 128 

Warning Against Unfair Textbooks. By Mrs. John H. Anderson 128 

U. D. C. Assault on Muzzey’s History. By Miss Claudia Hagy 129 

In Reconstruction Days. By Ada Ramp Walden 130 

Boyhood Homes of George Washington. By Mrs. Charles N. Boulden. . . 132 

The Story of a Confederate Flag. By Lennie Sue Daughtry 134 

Old Gardens of Natchez. By Edith Wyatt Moore 136 

No Furlough for the Rangers. By Richard D. Steuart 138 

Southern Newspapers of the War Periods. By Mrs. W. Cabell Flournoy 140 

Youngest Confederate Courier. By Henry E. Vaden 143 

In March. (Poem.) By Archibald Lampman 143 

Alabama: State Song 158 

Departments: Last Roll 144 

U. D. C 148 

C. S. M. A 154 

S. C. V. 156 


INFORMATION WANTED. 

Information is wanted of the war record of Thomas B. (Benton) Binyon, 
who enlisted April 1, 1862, at Decatur, Tenn., as a private in Company D, 
43rd Tennessee Infantry, C. S. A. Was appointed Ordnance Sergeant in 
June, 1862; captured July 4, 1863, at Vicksburg, Miss., and paroled July 9, 
1863. Please respond to Mrs. Sarah J. Hanna, 458 7th Avenue, South, St. 
Petersburg, Fla. 

Mrs. Seleta Kimbro Hunt, of Bisbee, Ariz., Box 196, is anxious to get the 
war record of her father, John Kimbro, who was a scout under Forrest, and 
is so referred to in an article by William H. King, of Murfreesboro, in the 
Veteran for November, 1924. She hopes to hear from some comrade or 
friend who remembers his company and regiment and any incidents of his 
service. 

GOING ABROAD? 

A trip abroad for “Daughter” after her graduation will add to her educa- 
tion something that will be a pleasant memory through life — a gift far more 
valuable than jewels or cars. The Travel Service Bureau has trips to offer 
at such reasonable rates — perhaps the best that will ever be available — that 
they should be considered now. Write them at once. Room 314, 810 Broad- 
way, Nashville, Tenn. 

W. E. Doyle, of Teague, Tex., writes for a copy of “Wilkerson’s History,” 
written by a Northern man who wrote truthfully about our “War between 
the States.” He also refers to “a paper read before the Military Historical 
Society of Massochusetts by Charles A. Whittier, who spoke truthfully of the 
Confederate soldier.” He wants to get both book and paper, and any one 
who can supply them will please write to him. 


RIGHT AND WRONG OF IT. 

During a political campaign in 
southern Illinois, a former judge was 
the chairman of the Republican head- 
quarters of that city. One day a 
negro man came in and loitered about 
the place most of the morning. 
Finally the ex-judge went up to him 
and inquired: 

“How are the .colored people going 
to vote in this election?” 


“We’re all right, but the Demo- 
crats are trying to buy us,” replied 
the man of dusky hue. 

“They can’t do that, can they?” 
“No, judge, but come to think 
about it, don’t you think it would be 
better for the Republicans to reward 
us for doing right and not let the 
Democrats tempt us to do wrong?” 
— Canadian American. 


IT BEATS WAR. 

Carelessness in factories and 
homes and in the driving of motor 
vehicles now causes 100,000 deaths a 
year in the United States. Motor 
vehicles alone in the year just closed 
have killed over 32,000 persons. The 
other fatal accidents are of many 
sorts. But surveying the facts as 
an integral death list, rising to 100,- 
000 a year, one death in every five 
is the death of a child. 

It may be asked if there is the 
least exaggeration in this statement: 
A boy born today in the United 
States will be far less liable to be 
killed or wounded in war after reach- 
ing eighteen than to be killed or 
wounded by a motor vehicle before 
he has time to grow up. The fa- 
thers and mothers of this country 
have less to fear from the wars of 
the future, so far as their children’s 
lives are concerned, than from auto- 
mobiles. 

The aggregate toll of life already 
taken by this high-powered vehicle 
in the past twenty years is stagger- 
ing. Yet, at the present rate, the to- 
tal of deaths on the highways in the 
next twenty years will exceed by far 
the deaths of American soldiers in all 
the wars in which the United States 
has been engaged, beginning with the 
War for Independence. 

War between nations has been out- 
lawed as an instrument of national 
policy. Among ourselves, the motor 
car already surpasses war as an in- 
strument of national slaughter. — 
Springfield Republican. 


I think the immortal servants of 
mankind. 

Who from their graves watch by 
how slow degrees 

The World-Soul greatens through the 
centuries, 

Mourn most man’s barren levity of 
mind. 

The ear to no grave harmonies in- 
clined. 

The witless thirst for false wit’s 
worthless lees. 

The laugh mistimed in tragic pres- 
ences — 

The eye to all majestic meaning 
blind. — William Watson. 


Probably there would be fewer of 
those gigantic war bills if folks had 
to do the footing before the arming. 
— Boston Herald. 


Qo^federat^ l/eterap 


PUBLISHED MONTHLY IN THE INTEREST OF CONFEDERATE ASSOCIATIONS AND KINDRED TOPICS. 


Entered as second-class matter at the post office at Nashville, Tenn., 
under act of March 3, 1879. 

Acceptance of maiing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec- 
tion 1 103, act of October 3, 1917, and authorized on July 5, 1918. 

Published by the Trustees of the Confederate Veteran, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 



OFF it I ALLY REPRESENTS; 

United Confederate Veterans, 

United Daughters of the Confederacy. 

Confederated Southern Memorial Association, 
Sons of Confederate Veterans. 




— 

Though men deserve, they may not win, success; 

The brave will honor the brave, vanquished none the less. 



Price $1.60 Per Year, j 
Single Copy, 16 Cents. | 

VOL. XL. 

NASHVILLE, TENN., APRIL, 1932 

No. 4 

( S. A. CUNNINGHAM 
( Founder. 


UNITED CONFEDERATE VETERANS 

GENERAL OFFICERS. 

Gbn. C. a. Db Saussure, Memphis, Tenn Comander in Chief 

Gen. H. R. Lee, Nashville, Tenn.. Adjutant General and Chief of Staff 
Mrs. W. B. Kernan, 1723 Audubon Street, New Orleans, La. 

Assistant to the Adjutant General 
Rev. Thomas K. Gorman, Skiatook, Okla Chaplain General 

DEPARTMENT COMMANDERS. 

Gen. Homer Atkinson, Petersburg, Va Army of Northern Virginia 

Gen. Sims Latta, Columbia, Tenn Army of Tennessee 

Gbn. R. D. Chapman, Houston, Tex Trans-Mississippi 

DIVISION COMMANDERS. 

ALABAMA — Tuscaloosa Gen. John R. Kennedy 

Arkansas — R ussellville Gen. J. P. McCarther 

Florida — Gen. W. E. McGhagin 

Georgia — S avannah Gen. William Harden 

Kentucky — R ichmond Gen. N. B. Deatherage 

Louisiana — L aFayette , Gen. Gustave Mouton 

Maryland — 

Mississippi — L iberty Gen. W. R. Jacobs 

Missouri — S t. Louis Gen. W. A. Wall 

North Carolina — A nsonville Gen. W. A. Smith 

Oklahoma — O kmulgee Gen. A. C. De Vinna 

South Carouna — S umter Gen. N. G. Osteen 

Tennessee — U nion City Gen. Rice A. Pierce 

Texas — F ort Worth Gen. M. J. Bonner 

Virginia — R ichmond Gen. William McK. Evans 

West Virginia — L ewisburg Gen. Thomas H. Dennis 

Campornia — L os Angeles Gen. S. S. Simmons 

HONORARY APPOINTMENTS. 

Gen. W. B. Freeman, Richmond, Va Honorary Commander for Life 

Gbn. M. D. Vance, Little Rock, Ark Honorary Commander for Life 

Gbn. R. a. Sneed, Oklahoma City, Okla. . . Honorary Commander for Life 
Gen. L. W. Stephens, Coushatta, Va. . Honorary Commander for Life 
Rev. Giles B. Cooke, Mathews, \ a. Honorary Chaplain General for Lile 


VETERANS, “ON TO RICHMOND!” 
Seventy years from the time that soldiers of 
the Confederacy participated in the fighting about 
the city of Richmond, and in their brief respites 
enjoyed the hospitality of the people of that city, 
they will again be guests of the Capital City of the 


Confederacy. The Commonwealth of Virginia 
joined with the City of Richmond in inviting the 
United Confederate Veterans, the Sons of Con- 
federate Veterans, and the Confederated Southern 
Memorial Association to hold their annual reunion 
and conventions in the city so linked with the for- 
tunes of the Southern Confederacy, to enjoy again 
its hospitality, and to participate in the formal 
dedication of the Battlefield Park area, which was 
acquired by Richmond citizens and turned over to 
the commonwealth for development. In the 
formal invitation recently sent out, it is set forth 
that “the hospitality which brightened the life of 
the soldiers of 1862, Richmond will joyfully ex- 
tend to the survivors now, to their sons, and to 
the women who shared the holy service of memo- 
rializing the dead. She invites the veterans to 
march again over the streets that resounded to 
their martial tread, as they came from every 

Southern State In her recovered prosperity, 

risen from the ashes, she would have the South 
rejoice, and in her thanksgiving she would have 
her sister States share.” 

Richmond is making ready to throw open her 
Confederate shrines — the White House of the Con- 
federacy, home of Jefferson Davis as President 
of the Southern Confederacy, now the Confeder- 
ate Museum; the Confederate Memorial Institute, 
or “Battle Abbey,” magnificent memorial to the 
soldiers of the South ; the headquarters of General 
Lee when in Richmond, now the home of the 
Southern Historical Society; the Virginia State 
Capitol, State House of the Confederacy during 
the trying days of war; and many other places 
intimately associated with the Confederacy. 

Remember, boys, it’s “On to Richmond” ! 


124 


^opfcderat^ l/eterai). 


QoQfederat^ l/eterai}. 

Office: Methodist PublishitiK House Building, Nashville, Tenn, 
E, D, POPE, Editor. 


APPLE BLOSSOM MAGIC. 

There’s a lilt in my heart and a song in my soul : 
I’ve reveled in beauty today, 

For I’ve stood beneath boughs of an orchard’s old 
tree, 

The boughs where the apple blooms sway. 

Oh, I watched the soft petals come fluttering down. 
Pink tinged as the heart of a shell. 

And the scent of the blossoms that drifted around 
No Araby odor can tell. 

Though my heart had been burdened, my tears un- 
restrained 

Before the sweet flowers unfurled. 

Now I feel that God’s Springtime is healing my 
grief. 

And know that “All’s right with the world.” 

— Susan C. Milner, in the Poet’s Forum. 


THE CHALLENGE TO THE SOUTH. 

(From address by Claude G. Bowers, noted edi- 
tor and historian, during the centennial celebra- 
tion of the University of Alabama.) 

What a heritage of glory has the youth of the 
South! and what an obligation! When we who 
love liberty and human rights think of America, 
we think of Washington of the South and his 
sword; of Madison of the South and the constitu- 
tion ; of Mason of the South and the bill of rights ; 
of Monroe of the South and his doctrine of des- 
tiny; of Jackson of the South and his hostility of 
privilege; of Lee of the South, whose incompar- 
able patriotism and infinite patience under mo- 
mentary persecution ultimately shamed fanatic- 
ism into silence; of Henry Grady of the South, 
whose inspired eloquence literally loved a nation 
into peace. 

That South must never die; that South must 
never be obscured by the smoke factories; that 
South of ideas and ideals must resume its place 
of leadership in the council chamber of the sister- 
hood of states. 

The Birmingham News comments on this as a 
challenge to Southerners, saying: 

“In that brief passage is summed up the obli- 


gation of the South, growing out of its heritage 
and its needs; the danger confronting the South, 
arising from conditions of change, and the chal- 
lenge to the South. The challenge is to reverence 
its heritage, overcome the dangers and fulfil its 
needs and the nation’s needs intelligently and 
courageously. 

“The country is sorely in need of brave and en- 
lightened leadership. -The South has furnished 
such leadership in the past. The South can fur- 
nish such leadership in the future, if it builds 
soundly on the civilization of the past in the 
light of the conditions and needs of the present 
and the future. 

“The South is bound to become an increasingly 
industrial South, but it should never be purely in- 
dustrial. The South of ideas and ideals, as Bow- 
ers declares, must never be obscured by the smoke 
from the factories that are here now and that 
are to come in increasing numbers in the future. 

“Even as the South is now the country’s last 
industrial frontier, it is the last hope of America 
for a truly enlightened cilvilization, one in which 
industry will be made the servant of mankind 
and not its master.” 


FLOWERS FOR MEMORIAL DAY. 

Mrs. M. W. Crocker, President Ohio Division, 
U. D. C., asks for flowers or contributions of 
money to buy flowers for decorating the graves of 
Confederate soldiers on Johnson’s Island. The 
Chapter at Sandusky, which has this cemetery 
especially in charge, is small and has to depend 
upon others for help in this annual observance, 
and will appreciate response from friends and 
chapters everywhere. The service this year will 
be on Sunday, J une 5, and all contributions may be 
sent to Mrs. G. A. Renner, 110 Fifth Street, San- 
dusky, Ohio. 


Memorial Day will be observed at Camp Chase 
Confederate Cemetery, Saturday, June 4, 1932, 
at 2 P.M. Contributions of flowers or money for 
flowers are solicited by Robert E. Lee Chapter, 
No. 519, U. D. C., Columbus, Ohio. 

Send flowers to Mrs. Leroy Rose, 729 Oakwood 
Avenue. 

Send money to Mrs. Louise M. Skidmore, Treas- 
urer, 1204 Wyandotte Road. 

Mrs. Harry Hirt, President. 

Approved by President General Mrs. W. E. R. 
Byrne. 


125 


^opfederat^ l/eteraij. 


THE BATTLEFIELD PARK. 

In this number of the Veteran is an air view 
of the Battlefield Park area about Richmond, Va., 
which was purchased by public spirited citizens 
and turned over to the State for development. The 
formal dedication of this area, so connected with 
the triumphs of the Army of Northern Virginia 
in the early days of the war, will be one of the 
outstanding features of the reunion program. 
The Battlefield Park area contains a score or more 
of the famous battle sites, including Cold Har- 
bor, Malvern Hill, Mechanicsville, Fort Harrison, 
and Seven Pines. It has been appropriately 
marked, and the State has provided an excellent 
network of highways connecting the different 
battle grounds of the area, and the motorcade 
from Richmond in June will doubtless carry many 
over those roads who once tramped them with 
bleeding feet. 


TOMB OF THE UNKNOWN SOLDIER. 

A huge block of Yule Marble, one of the largest 
and finest ever quarried, has been set in place as 
the keystone of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier 
in front of the Amphitheater in Arlington Nation- 
al Cemetery. 

The marble block was quarried near the top of a 
mountain near Marble, Colo. It was then shipped 
to the monumental shops of the Vermont Marble 
Company at Proctor, Vt., where preliminary carv- 
ing was done. Now that the block has been set in 
place, the final carving will be begun. 

On the front panel, facing Washington and the 
Potomac, will be a composition of three figures 
commemorating “The Spirit of the Allies in the 
War.” Each of the sides is divided into three 
panels by Doric pilasters, and in each panel an 
inverted wreath will be carved. The panel on 
the back, facing the amphitheater, is reserved for 
an inscription. 

FOR WIDER CIRCULATION. 

BY MISS MARY GRAHAM, RUSTON, LA. 

In view of the great power of the Fourth Estate 
it seems quite essential that the official magazine 
of the Confederate organizations should have a 
wider circulation if it is to carry out its purpose 
of spreading the truth of Confederate history. 
The magazine is, beyond question, worth as much 
for that purpose as all the other activities of these 
organizations combined. 

By the use of a widely circulated paper many 
a politician is able to “put over big” a very small 


personality. The Confederate organizations have 
a great truth to put over. Not only have they 
the story of one of the world’s most brilliant and 
heroic struggles to repeat, but they still have, as 
truly as did our Confederate fathers, the princi- 
ples of constitutional right, of American democ- 
racy, of national honor to maintain. 

Our magazine is doing this quite well so far 
as it goes, but it needs to reach more people, and 
the suggestion offered is that the four Confeder- 
ate organizations undertake as their next great 
work the raising of an endowment fund for the 
Confederate Veteran, a fund that will enable 
the management to enlarge the magazine, to widen 
its appeal with new departments — rmost suitably 
and consistently of all a department of World 
Peace — and to send it not only into thousands of 
homes, but into every public library in the United 
States. 

“Truth crushed to earth will rise again,” but 
the truth of our crushed Confederacy can be made 
to rise more quickly through the united efforts of 
its votaries. 


THE STEADY SUBSCRIBER. 

How dear to our heart is the steady subscriber. 
Who pays in advance of the birth of each year. 
Who lays down the money and does it quite gladly 
And casts round the office a halo of cheer. 

She never says, “Stop it, I cannot afford it ; 

I’m getting more magazines now than I read,” 
But always says, “Send it; our women all like it — 
In fact, we all think it a help and a need.” 

How welcome her check when it reaches our sanc- 
tum. 

How it makes our pulse throb, how it makes 
our heart dance ! 

We outwardly thank her, we inwardly bless her — 
The steady subscriber who pays in advance ! 

[A good friend sends the above, taken from the 
February number of The Club Woman, official 
magazine of the General Federation of Women’s 
Clubs, as used in its subscription campaign, and 
suggests its appropriateness for the Veteran. 
Agreeing with her in that thought, the Veteran 
presents it here for the consideration of its pa- 
trons, and thanks all in advance who act on the 
suggestion, for it means the saving of a great ex- 
pense in printing, postage, and office help if we 
don’t have to send notice of expiration of sub- 
scription to its many thousands of subscribers. 
And here’s hoping that all will say, “Send it on ; 
we need it.”] 


126 


Qo9fe<lerat^ l/eterap. 

REUNION ECHOES. 


BY CHARLES M. EVANS, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

The Confederate Veteran is a wonderful re- 
pository of information concerning the South and 
the heroic struggle of her people to retain their 
Constitutional Rights. The splendid address of 
United States Senator Duncan U. Fletcher before 
the United Daughters of the Confederacy at Jack- 
sonville, Fla., published in the January Veteran, 
presents an array of facts pertaining to the War 
between the States and the causes thereof, and is 
worthy of reading and recording. 

As guests of the Albert Sidney Johnston Chap- 
ter, U. D. C., of Cincinnati, my wife and I greatly 
enjoyed the Reunion at Montgomery, Ala. We 
were greeted heartily by the veterans and all the 
people we met. The citizens gave all a royal re- 
ception. 

When shaking hands, a veteran invariably asks, 
“Where are you from?” unless one is wearing a 
badge that answers that question. When I told 
them I was from Cincinnati, Ohio, all were as- 
tonished, and some asked, “What are you doing 
here?” The astonishment was increased when I 
told them that my old home was Jackson, Miss., 
but for the past sixty years my home had been in 
Cincinnati. Then, in answer to the next question, 
I told them that though I had strayed from my 
Comrades, I had not deserted or been captured. 

We had a good time in Montgomery. After an 
interesting visit to the first “Confederate White 
House,” we went, with a few friends to the State 


Capitol. As we passed the open door of the Gov- 
ernor’s office, he saw us, came out in the hall and 
greeted us cordially. After giving us much his- 
toric information, he led us to the front portico, 
stopping at the bright metal star embedded in the 
floor, telling each of us to “Step on the Star,” 
which marked the spot where Jefferson Davis 
stood at his inauguration as President of the Con- 
federate States, as thousands had done before us. 
We cheerfully complied. Instantly, an incident 
that transpired seventy years before came to my 
mind as clearly as if it were but yesterday. May 
I relate it? 

Jefferson Davis was en route from his home in 
Mississippi to Montgomery, Ala., to be inaugu- 
rated President. He was to stop at Jackson, Miss., 
to deliver an address. Jackson had a military 
company of boys, organized in 1860 , of which 
Needham Hatch, seventeen, was captain, I think I 
was the youngest, fourteen, first sergeant. Our 
company, “The Jackson Guards,” reputed to be 
the best drilled company in the State, was officially 
requested to be at the train when Mr. Davis ar- 
rived and act as Guard of Honor in escorting him 
to the Capitol. We did so. On arrival at the 
Capitol, he came in front of us as we stood at 
“Present Arms” and we came to “Parade Rest” 
as he halted to address us. He was then escorted 
into the Capitol. 

Shortly after this incident, volunteers were en- 
listing for service. Our Captain was drafted to 
go into a training camp as Instructor, and I was 
the next called for similar duty. 

I related this incident 
to the Governor and 
asked him if I could claim 
participation in the In- 
auguration, to which he 
replied, “I certainly think 
so.” 

Leaving Montgomery 
on a side-trip, we went to 
Mississippi, visited rela- 
tives and friends in Jack- 
son, Brookhaven, and 
Vicksburg — going over 

the entire thirty -two 
miles of driveway on the 
battle field of Vicksburg 
— returning via Nashville, 
Tenn., where we made a 
short visit; arriving at 
home after a month of 
constant pleasure and al- 



( Courtesy the Richmond Magazine) 

AIR VIEW OF THE BATTLE FIELD PARK AREA ABOUT RICHMOND, VA., SHOWING 
CONNECTING HIGHWAYS 


127 


^09fe<ierat^ l/eterai). 


most a renewal of youth for all, for which we are 
very grateful. We hope to attend the Richmond 
Reunion. 

I greatly appreciate and enjoy the Veteran. 


THE FIRST OVERT ACT. 

BY ROBERT W. BARNWELL, SR., FLORENCE, S. C. 

There are two very excellent articles in the 
March issue of the Veteran under the above 
caption, and your readers can but feel grateful to 
Doctor Alexander and Mrs. Selph, of Nashville. 
I come into the field not so much as a disputant as 
one seeking to add and clear. 

The first gun was not the first overt act. Fort 
Moultrie had been dismantled by Major Anderson, 
of the U. S. Army. South Carolina claimed 
Moultrie, and South Carolina was a Sovereign 
State, or Nation, entirely independent of that 
Union of States of which she had formerly been 
a part. Troops of another nation, therefore, had, 
with the distinct purpose of rendering the fort 
useless, spiked its guns and burned their car- 
riages. This was an overt act of war, of course. 
South Carolina at once sent Commissioners to 
Washington, or, more correctly, the Commission 
already sent included this change of status in their 
treatment of the situation. The seizure of Sumter 
was a tremendous act of war — far more so than 
the firing of a gun, for its site and its armament 
gave it absolute command of the city and its 
harbor. It was a very foolish act, because its weak 
garrison and lack of supplies made it seem more a 
gesture of hostile intent than a military blow, but, 
if reinforced and supplied, it could do a world 
of damage. It soon became plain that the ad- 
ministration was far from having ordered this 
move, but when Anderson claimed and showed 
he was withinThe limits of his instructions for an 
emergency, and left to be the judge of such 
emergency, the administration backed up Ander- 
son and, still more, undertook to reinforce the 
fort. Even the sending of the merchant ship with 
supplies was in line with war, not peace; but 
when it appeared that troops were also aboard, 
there could be no denial that an act of war was 
committed. 

But even the Act of Secession was, under the 
circumstances, equivalent to an act of war. Se- 
cession, whether right or not, was as a red rag 
to a bull. President Buchanan did not believe 
there was any lawful right under the Constitu- 
tion to coerce a State, but he could have asserted 
that this new foreign nation on his borders was 


a menace, and could have proposed to Congress 
and his people to undertake its conquest. He 
chose, however, to leave the problem to his already 
elected successor. 

Now let us behold what the ingenuity of man 
can do! Six other States had joined South Caro- 
lina in a Confederacy, so that the menace of a 
foreign nation on its border was far greater to 
the “Union” than before. Secession being denied, 
coercion of States being unconstitutional, and a 
declaration of a war of conquest undesirable. 
President Lincoln hit upon the plan of calling the 
Confederacy “combinations too powerful to be 
suppressed by the ordinary course of judicial pro- 
ceedings or by the powers vested in the marshals 
by law.” This classification of the war as an 
insurrection made the war logically to begin with, 
and have as its first overt act in the eyes of the 
North, the passage of Secession ordinances. But 
it was nonsense to call the war an insurrection. 
It did indeed enable the North to call its enemies 
rebels and traitors, and often to resort to shame- 
ful procedures utterly repugnant to the laws of 
war, of civilization, and of humanity; but it was 
manifestly not an insurrection. That false course 
produced some foul fiends, whom history more 
and more classes as such. However, in fixing the 
date for the technical and legal beginning of the 
war, the United States and England agreed on 
the date of the proclamation of blockade of the 
ports of the Confederacy, and, while such a date 
does not fit the facts of history, yet legally it may 
serve. 

We may thus conclude : If secession was insur- 
rection (which it was not), then secession was the 
first overt act. For certain reasons, not here dis- 
cussed, the occupation by the various States of 
so called “government property” is not here 
brought forward as overt acts of war. The first 
overt act then would be the dismantling of Moul- 
trie. The second was the occupation of Sumter. 
The third was the invasion by the Star of the 
West. The fourth was the firing on that ship to 
stop the invasion. Next comes that great act of 
aggressive war, coupled with a threatening mes- 
sage, Lincoln’s fieet, which compelled the sixth 
act — the use of guns against Sumter to prevent 
it from aiding the fleet. 

History is bound to note that the sending of the 
Star of the West with troops aboard and of 
Lincoln’s fleet were acts of invasion, and the guns 
that in each case foiled their purpose were per- 
fectly justifiable defensive response to insult 
and injury. 


128 


^oi)federat^ l/etemTi). 


VIRGINIA’S ORDINANCE OF SECESSION. 

[The following was taken from the Richmond 
Times-Dispatch of some years ago as contributed 
by Sterling Boisseau, of that city, and is here re- 
produced for its contribution to our Confederate 
history.] 

It is gratifying to note the progress being 
made in restoring the Hall of the House of Dele- 
gates in the Capitol Building to its former condi- 
tion. 

While I have seen nothing of the Ordinance of 
Secession being placed there, it is to be hoped that 
it will be hung conspicuously on the wall. 

Unfortunately, there have been at least three 
different copies of this ordinance photographed 
and distributed ; one contains 140 signatures, one 
148, and another 143. The latter is assumed to 
be correct. 

The names of Delegates Chapman, Marr, and 
Young are omitted in the 140 list; and that of 
Young (Col. John B. Young) in the list of 142. 

This ordinance was at first signed amid the 
natural confusion after the ordinance was passed, 
April 17, 1861, and some hurried off to take their 
places in the military service. It is said that the 
first signatures were signed to the instrument in 
some disorder, even on the margin of the sheet, 
and on the back, and that this became lost. 

However, the history of the convention shows 
that there was a resolution passed that the dele- 
gates be allowed to sign at any time during the 
session of the convention. 

Another resolution passed was that not only 
the original delegates, but those elected or ap- 
pointed to fill vacancies could also sign the paper. 
This was done in many cases and signatures ap- 
pear to the ordinance of those who voted against 
the instrument; this accounts for so many more 
signatures than the votes cast for secession, for, 
in the latest analysis, 103 voted for secession, 46 
against it, and one was excused from voting by his 
request, Mr. Wilson, of Harrison County, now a 
part of West Virginia, and two not recorded. 

Two signatures were appended, by resolution, 
that of John Q. Marr, of Fauquier (killed in 
battle), and Richard H. Cox, from the counties of 
King and Queen and Essex, who died. Thus their 
names are signed for them. 

The original composition of this great conven- 
tion consisted of 152 delegates. There became 
many vacancies; not all of the vacancies were 
filled, but the records show that twenty of them 
were filled, thus making 172 taking part in the 
proceedings. 


Thirteen of the delegates from counties now in 
West Virginia were expelled, two others had their 
cases postponed from time to time, until the con- 
vention adjourned without disposing of their 
cases. 

Jubal E. Early, an out-aftd-out-against-seces- 
sion delegate, signed the Ordinance of Secession 
and asked permission to record his reasons. This 
was after Lincoln had called on Virginia for 
troops to put down the seceding States. Here is 
what Early wrote: 

“Abraham Lincoln, President of the United 
States, having set aside the Constitution and laws 
and subverted the government of the United 
States, and established in lieu thereof a usurped 
government, founded upon the worst principles of 
tyranny, the undersigned has, therefore, deter- 
mined to sign the Ordinance of Secession adopted 
by the Convention on the 17th of April last, with 
the intention of sustaining the liberties, inde- 
pendence and entity of the State of Virginia 
against the said Abraham Lincoln, his aiders and 
abettors, with the hope or desire of a reconstruc- 
tion of the old Union in any manner that shall 
unite the people of Virginia with the people of 
the non-slave States of the North.” 

Thus, Mr. Lincoln’s call on Virginia for troops 
changed the complexion of the convention from a 
Union sentiment to one of secession. 

This caused the Convention to vote, after some 
changes, 103 for secession, 46 against, two not 
voting, and one excused from voting. 


WARNING AGAINST UNFAIR TEXTBOOKS. 

BY MRS. JOHN HUSKE ANDERSON, HISTORIAN 
GENERAL, U. D. C. 

It is with satisfaction and approval that we 
note how courageously the Virginia Division’s 
President and Historian are endeavoring to fight 
the adoption of Muzzey’s History, which was 
“slipped over” that splendid State during the past 
summer by the Board of Education. This text- 
book replaced one by a native Virginian, Prof. 
John H. Latane, and came as a shock to the peo- 
ple of Virginia. 

Especially in this year of economy was it ill 
advised, as there were hundreds of copies of the 
other history already in the schools. The substi- 
tution of a book of fairness even for Dr. Latane’s 
excellent history would have been blameworthy 
but to have taken up the textbook which was 
black-listed by the Confederate organizations over 
twenty years ago, and by many distinguished peo- 


129 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai>. 


pie of the South, is inexcusable. So feel the 
Virginians and all other interested Southerns. 

The Richmond papers on February 17 state 
that officers of the Virginia Division, U. D. C., 
with Dr. Lyon G. Tyler, appeared before the Edu- 
cation Committee of the State Senate, protesting 
against the adoption of this textbook, which is 
so unfair to every period of the South’s history. 
We agree heartily with the Virginia Historian, 
Mrs. Fitzhugh Lee Palmer, when she stated that 
this book “is not only unfair, but it bristles with 
innuendo.’’ The Virginia President, Miss Annie 
Mann, brought out the fact that, besides many 
other errors, Muzzey teaches that the sole cause 
of the War between the States was slavery, and 
this war is spoken of as the “slavery contest.’’ 
Mrs. Palmer is also quoted as saying that “Muzzey 
would give no weight to the statement which Gen- 
eral Lee made before a committee of the Recon- 
struction Congress: “We had, I was satisfied, 
sacred principles to maintain and rights to defend, 
for which we were in duty bound to do our best, 
even if we perished in the endeavor.” 

Before the so-called “revised” edition, which 
Muzzey was supposed to make of his textbook, 
he stated that the cause for which the Confeder- 
ates fought was “unworthy.” In the revision, he 
states that this cause was “inexcusable.” Shall 
our hero fathers stand disgraced in the eyes of 
our children and sink into oblivion unhonored? 

A Richmond paper carried a very pertinent 
“cartoon” following this stand made by the Vir- 
ginia '“Daughters” and Dr. Tyler on February 16. 
This was a sketch showing Massachusetts and 
Plymouth Rock in the exaggerated proportion 
which Muzzey’s History of the American people 
gives. Jamestown, Va., is shown up in the text- 
book as a very small spot in importance, though 
there was gathered the First Legislative Assembly 
of the Colonies long before Plymouth was settled. 

A very comprehensive review of this American 
textbook has been prepared by Dr. Matthew Page 
Andrews in collaboration with Mr. Arthur H. Jen- 
nings, Chairman of History Committee, S. C. V., 
and with several teachers of note, for the Sons of 
Confederate Veterans. At the proper time this 
review will be released for the public to refresh 
themselves with the unfairness of this textbook 
for our schools, which many of our “Daughters” 
reviewed in our fight years ago. 

As Historian of the United Daughters of the 
Confederacy, I feel impelled to sound a warning to 
the organization, that we may be on the alert in 
regard to the Boards of Education of our States. 


Some of the publishers of textbooks are very 
powerful in ivealth and most astute in “slipping 
over” just such a thing as Virginia is now suffer- 
ing from. We can safely trust the Virginia 
Daughters and Sons to do everything humanly 
possible to remedy this evil, which has been put on 
them for five years. , 

Shall we free-born Americans bow down before 
the power of the book trusts? 


U. D. C. ASSAULT ON MUZZEY’S HISTORY. 

BY MISS CLAUDIA M. HAGY, WYTHEVILLE, VA. 

The Virginia Division, U. D. C., led by Dr. 
Lyon G. Tyler, President Emeritus of the College 
of William and Mary, with backing of many State 
newspapers, have waged a fight upon Muzzey’s 
History, adopted last fall by the Virginia School 
System. The assault which has continued through 
the past months culminated in an appearance dur- 
ing the term of the General Assembly in Rich- 
mond, in open attack. With Dr. Tyler was the 
Virginia President U. D. C., Miss Annie V. Mann, 
of Petersburg, and the Division Historian, Mrs. 
Fitzhugh Lee Palmer, of Emporia, and others of 
the Division. The complaint was entered before 
the Senate Educational Committee and to the 
effect that this history was unfair to the South. 

Mrs. Palmer, who has been actively engaged in 
arousing sentiment in regard to the history, 
stated: “It would be difficult to correct all the 
errors and defects as it is so subtly written and 
so filled with innuendoes. It would be equally 
hard to decide which are the greater — its sins of 
omission or commission.” 

Miss Mann stated that her group “would prefer 
no textbook at all to having Virginia children 
taught that their grandfathers had no justification 
for fighting the War between the States.” 

Mr. Tyler denounced the book as “something 
atrocious.” He stated that people ashamed of 
their past were on the road to degeneracy. “Don’t 
cater to Northern tastes and be afraid to call your 
soul your own,” he emphasized most emphatically, 
and he felt that Muzzey had no more idea of the 
War between the States than he had of the moon 
when he wrote this book. He used every subtlety 
in writing of the war to dodge the infamous con- 
duct of the North in refusing to recognize the 
independence of the South. He defines Lincoln as 
the greatest sophist ever in the Presidential chair, 
and seeks to show that President Davis did not 
have confidence in Gen. Robert E. Lee as com- 
mander. 


130 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 


Dr. Tyler further stated that Muzzey had a 
tendency to whitewash such as the needless burn- 
ing of the city of Columbia and Sheridan’s in- 
famous conduct, while ignoring the triumphs of 
men like Stuart, Forrest, and Jackson. 

Mrs. Palmer also said: “Feeling that no sub- 
ject is so important as history, we are anxious 
that all periods of our country’s history shall be 
correctly presented, but our organization is par- 
ticularly interested in that period prior to, during, 
and following the War between the States. To 
say that Muzzey incorrectly records this period 
is to state the matter mildly. He teaches that the 
war was brought about on account of slavery, and 
speaks of it as the slave contest. He teaches that 
the South had no justification for its actions, an^ 
the impression made is that the war was solely 
due to the burning desire on the part of a morally 
militant North to compel the South to give up an 
immoral institution.” 

The fight has not ended in Virginia, and the 
eiforts of the Virginia Division are receiving each 
day more enthusiastic support over the State. 
Our Historian is deluged with letters from Mary- 
land to Florida and clippings from papers large 
and small. Even the Neiv Yok Times gave a fine 
editorial on the subject recently while Richmond 
papers are most loyal in supporting Dr. Tyler, 
Miss Mann, and Mrs. Palmer in their fine efforts. 


IN RECONSTRUCTION DAYS. 

BY ADA RAMP WALDEN, EDITOR, C. S. M. A. 

“Everywhere a flush of posies. 

Everywhere a shower of roses; 

Strew them gently, softly cover 
All their cold graves thickly over — 
Roses, pansies, jessamine sweet; 

Let all things of beauty meet. 

Thus may flowers of fragrant breath 
Tell our love, outlasting death.” 

April is the month of sacred memories in more 
than one Southern State, and at various resting 
places of the dead will assemble hundreds to place 
a wreath or a cluster of blossoms on the graves 
of those who died in the beauty of their youth 
under the Stars and Bars. 

And just here, it is fitting that a story which 
has to do with the aftermath of the first Memorial 
Day observed in Augusta, Ga., be mentioned. It 
is a story gleaned by the editor in “turning back 
the pages of the yesteryear,” though there are 
few who recall it: 


The city observed its first Memorial Day, under 
the auspices of the Ladies’ Memorial Association, 
and, in response to the suggestion by the women 
of Columbus, Ga., on the afternoon of Thursday, 
April 26, 1866. Naturally, the attention of those 
who assembled — 4,000 in number, according to 
the papers of that day — was centered on the 
graves of the many who were interred in the 
Soldiers’ Section. These were youths who had 
died at local hospitals, far removed from home 
and loved ones, but whose dying hours had been 
alleviated by faithful women, and who received 
Christian burial in the section set apart in Mag- 
nolia Cemetery, established in 1818. 

There were no exercises at that first Memorial 
Day, but, if history be true, never since has there 
assembled such a tremendous crowd; and never 
since has such a wealth of wreaths and flowers 
been displayed on the Confederate Soldiers’ sec- 
tion as was seen that first Memorial Day, al- 
though the city was passing through the scourge 
of reconstruction. 

Now among the “carpetbaggers” were a num- 
ber of white women from the North, who entered 
at once upon the task of teaching the many negro 
children. Their attitude was not such as to win 
the admiration or co-operation of the citizens, 
and they resented the fact that they were ignored 
by the best people of the section. On the morning 
of the 27th, a servant happened to mention to her 
employer that the teachers were arranging for a 
big Memorial Day of their own, the 28th; that 
they had requested that the fact be kept gecret, 
but for every child to meet at Thankful (Negro) 
Church at nine o’clock that morning, with their 
parents and friends, and for all to bring flowers, 
that they might decorate the graves of the Union 
soldiers who, incidentally, had been interred 
temporarily in the same cemetery. These had died 
at improvised hospitals in Augusta, and had re- 
ceived the same care and attention while ill, and 
the same Christian burial as had the Confederates. 

The movement seems to have been started by the 
erstwhile head of the Freedmen’s Bureau, Capt. 
J. E. Bryant, and one Capt. Eberhardt, who was 
serving the reconstructionists as superintendent 
of negro schools. The former had been deposed, 
however, because of some irregularity, but re- 
mained to edit a paper called the Loyal Georgian 
and to pull various wires that might result in the 
falling of a political “plum” in his direction. 

Although there were no telephones then, the 
news seems to have seeped through the city by a 
“grapevine” system; for it was not long until 


131 


^opfederat^ Ueterai). 


nearly every citizen knew of the project fostered 
by the carpetbaggers “to humble the pride of the 
rebel women” — a remark attributed to the teach- 
ers. 

James Gardner, Mayor of Augusta, and Captain 
Kunze, keeper of the cemetery, went at once to 
General Tillson, who was in command of the re- 
construction work of the State, and expressed 
their objection to such demonstration, in the 
cemetery, on the part of a horde of negroes. 

“Does this mean you object to these ladies dec- 
orating the graves of the Union dead?” he asked 
the Mayor. 

“It does not!” Mayor Gardner emphatically re- 
sponded. “It means that these freedmen will not 
be allowed to desecrate our sacred burial ground, 
as is evidently their intention. If these ladies de- 
sire it, I shall be pleased to assist them in decorat- 
ing the graves of their dead ; but I insist that they 
designate a number of the freedmen to act as 
servants and assist in carrying into the cemetery 
the flowers — as was done by our own ladies yester- 
day ; but the crowd must remain outside the 
gates.” 

General Tillson, who was inclined to see the 
Mayor’s viewpoint, admitted that “such demon- 
stration would not be appropriate,” and that he 
would suggest to those in charge that the idea 
be relinquished. But the Mayor was “on the 
watchtower.” The next morning he found fif- 
teen men, deputized as extra policemen, taking 
their place inside the main gate. 

The church at which the freedmen were to as- 
semble is but one block from the cemetery; and, 
sure enough, at nine o’clock, there started a pro- 
cession of negroes, headed by the white teachers, 
for the cemetery! Captains Bryant and Eber- 
hardt trod the sidewalk, alongside the long pro- 
cession, and their voices joined those of the chil- 
dren and the teachers in “The Battle Hymn of the 
Republic.” 

At the locked gate stood the Mayor and the 
keeper of the cemetery, each of whom greeted the 
ladies with perfect courtesy. 

“The gates will be opened when you designate 
those who are to assist you,” the women were 
assured. 

“Well, we want them all to enter, all or none!” 
was the retort. 

“We thought it had been made plain that you 
could decorate your graves with the assistance 
of a specified number, but that this crowd would 
not enter. You have our co-operation to that ex- 


tent. But if they insist, we shall have the officers 
resort to force,” they were told. Bryant and 
Eberhardt remained silent as the women raved 
and stormed ; but the Mayor was adamant. 

The procession returned to the church from 
which a peremptory demand was sent by Bryant 
to General Tillson that he order the gates to be 
opened ; which demand was ignored. And history 
records no Memorial Day as was planned by the 
carpetbaggers on the eventful day, April 28. 


COMMANDER MISSOURI DIVISION, U. C. V. 



MAJ. GEN. WILLIAM A. WALL, U. C. V. 


Missouri is exceedingly proud of the Confederate rec- 
ord of its present State Commander, Maj. Gen. William 
Armistead Wall, U. C. V. Prior to his enlistment in a 
regular force, he was engaged in secret service and in- 
telligence work, in scouting, in securing medicine for the 
armies, and in smuggling small arms and contraband 
through the lines. He also engaged in hospital work in 
his vicinity, and his activities carried him to and from 
the armies, placing him under fire in many battles. 

Joining Company D, Little Fork Rangers, 4th Virginia 
Cavalry, J. E. B. Stuart’s Division, on February 1, 1863, 
General Wall was with this command until December 1, 
1863, when he was transferred to the 43rd Virginia 
Battalion, Mosby’s Cavaliers, with which command he 
served until his surrender June 1, 1865, at Fairfax Court 
House, Va. He was a first lieutenant under Mosby. On 
one occasion he was a personal body guard to President 
Jefferson Davis, and he served on the staff of Gen. Rob- 
ert E. Lee as a courier at Gettysburg. He participated 
in many important battles, skirmishes, and minor en- 
gagements. 



132 


Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 


BOYHOOD HOMES OF GEORGE 
WASHINGTON. 

BY MRS. CHARLES N. BOULDEN, BALTIMORE, MD. 

Sulgrave Manor, in Northamptonshire, is the 
only place in' England where the Stars and Stripes 
floats daily, except at the U. S. Embassy in 
London. 

The Manor House, once a Priory, was bought in 
1539 by Lawrence Washington, who had been 
Mayor of Northampton. Sulgrave Priory was 
made into a comfortable dwelling. Among the im- 
provements was a porch, with a Tudor doorway, 
on the south side of the house, where can still be 
seen the Washington coat of arms: two bars or 
stripes and three stars above, the origin of our 
Stars and Stripes. Over the south porch there 
was added the Royal Arms of England and the 
initials, “E. R.,” with the date 1564. 

Lawrence Washington died in 1585, and his 
son, Robert, became the owner of Sulgrave Manor. 
Robert’s eldest son, Lawrence, settled at Brington, 
about fifteen miles north of Sulgrave, and his 
son was Lawrence, third of the name, from 
whom George Washington descended. This third 
La\vrehc^ 'had' two *80118 who emigrated to Ameri- 
ca. John settled in Virginia in 1657, and was the 
great-grandfather of George Washington. 

One of the results of the Washington Bicenten- 
nial is the attention called to Tidewater, Virginia. 
The plantation, Wakefield, on the Potomac, 
granted in 1667 to John Washington, the great- 
grandfather of George, was a mile wide and 
comprised a thousand acres. It is said to have 
been called the Athens of Virginia. The house 
faced the Potomac, the lawn sloping to the bank 
about four hundred yards distant from the porch, 
which ran from corner to corner of the old dwell- 
ing. 

There were four rooms of fair size on the first 
floor, and the high roof had dormer windows 
which lighted a large attic. At each end of the 
house was a chimney built upon the outside of the 
frame dwelling, and each fireplace could hold half 
a cord of wood. 

Augustine Washington, the father of George, 
was born here in 1694. He purchased the estate 
from his brother John, and here he brought his 
bride, Jane Butler. There were four children of 
this marriage, two of whom, Lawrence and 
Augustine, reached maturity. 

To Wakefield Augustine Washington also 
brought his second bride, Mary Ball, whom he 
married in 1730, and there, on February 22, 1732, 



WAKEFIELD RESTORED VIEW FROM THE GARDEN. 


George was born. When he was about three 
years old, the destruction of Wakefield house by 
fire caused the family to move to Hunting Creek 
higher up on the Potomac, later known as Mount 
Vernon. This tract was given to John Washing- 
ton, the great-grandfather of George, for import- 
ing one hundred laborers, and was bought by 
Augustine, the father of George, in 1726, from 
his sister Mildred, who later was godmother for 
George at his christening. 

The family lived at Hunting Creek (Mount 
Vernon) until 1739, when they moved to Pine 
Grove, also known as Ferry Farm, on the Rappa- 
hannock, situated between Wakefield and Fred- 
ericksburg. It was the family home for a greater 
length of time than any other place, and in the 
vanished “Mansion House” Augustine Washing- 
ton died, leaving George, aged eleven, the eldest 
of his second marriage, the head of a family of 
younger children, three boys — Samuel, John, and 
Charles — and a girl, Betty, Mildred having died 
in infancy. 

Augustine Washington left much land, and, fol- 
lowing the old English custom, his elder sons re- 
ceived the larger share. To Lawrence, he gave 
Mount Vernon and 2,500 acres. In case of failure 
“to leave a child, or such child dying under age,” 
Mount Vernon was to go to George; therefore, it 
is apparent that George ultimately inherited 
Mount Vernon through his father’s will rather 
than direct from Lawrence, his half brother, 
which is the usual concept of the matter. Wake- 
field he left to his son Augustine, and Pine Grove, 
or Ferry Farm, to George. To the other children 
he left land, slaves, and money, Mrs. Washington 
to have the use of the children’s estate until they 
became of age. 

Mrs. Washington stayed on at Ferry Farm for 




133 


^09fe<lcrat^ l/etcrai). 


over thirty years after the death of her husband, 
a longer time than she resided anywhere else dur- 
ing her entire life. 

The Farm was the scene of the famous cherry 
tree episode, an incident which some historians 
are inclined to regard as closer to truth than fic- 
tion, and from the river bank there George is said 
to have thrown a Spanish dollar across the Rap- 
pahannock — quite possible at this particular 
place. George and Betty and his younger brothers 
crossed the river daily to attend school in Freder- 
icksburg. 

Shortly after the death of Augutine Washing- 
ton, George was sent to live at Wakefield to at- 
tend the Williams school at Oak Grove, about four 
miles distant. His half brother, Augustine, had 
married Ann Aylett and was living there. George 
took readily to mathematics, and he got his first 
taste of surveying when he accompanied Mr. 
Williams to survey some meadows on Bridges 
Creek. 

Mary Ball missed her eldest son, and he re- 
turned to Ferry Farm and resumed his studies at 
a school in Fredericksburg. He developed a de- 
sire to become a midshipman in the British Navy, 
but the idea was suppressed immediately by his 
mother. Full of ambition, he took up the study 
of engineering, and as soon as he had mastered 


the rudiments of the subject, he set up a shop for 
himself in an outbuilding on the place. This 
quaint little structure is the only one on the place 
which has survived from his boyhood. Freder- 
icksburg was his playground ; his diaries and day- 
books are full of references to the city. 

When George was about fifteen, he was spend- 
ing much time at Mount Vernon with his half 
brother Lawrence, who had married Anne, daugh- 
ter of William Fairfax, cousin of Thomas, Lord 
Fairfax. There was much gaiety and entertain- 
ing at Mount Vernon. During these visits, George 
was much at Belvoir, the seat of William Fairfax. 
Thomas, Lord Fairfax, was anxious to have a 
survey made of a portion of his vast land holdings 
in the Northern Neck, and the work was under- 
taken by George William Fairfax and George 
Washington. Young Fairfax was the son of Wil- 
liam Fairfax, the master of Belvoir, and seven 
years Washington’s senior. 

Near Millwood, Va., there is still standing an 
old stone “land office” built of hand-cut stone and 
with stout double doors to protect against the In- 
dians. Here young Washington kept his survey- 
ing instruments. When he was in his sixteenth 
year he was deep in the work of surveying, and, 
when not quite eighteen, after the usual oaths of 
His Majesty’s person and government, he took the 



IN THE FOREGROUND IS THE SITE OF WAKEFIELD, BIRTHPLACE OF GEORGE WASHINGTON. 



^OQfederat^ Ueteraij. 


134 

oath of surveyor. Many titles in the Northern 
Neck of Virginia are today based on these sur- 
veys. 

Within another year, Governor Robert Din- 
widdie appointed him a Major in the Virginia 
Militia, and later, in 1753, when Dinwiddie de- 
sired to send a word of warning to the French, 
who were encroaching, Washington was chosen. 
He was then twenty-one, and the story of the 
hardships of this expedition is well known. 

The Wakefield Memorial Association, organized 
to restore the birthplace of George Washington, 
has built a house typical of Tidewater, Virginia, 
pleasing in character and setting, which is a 
Colonial adaptation of Tudor style. Magnificent 
outside chimneys stand in pairs at each end of the 
house. Little peaked dormers are on each side of 
the sloping roof — one set facing the Potomac 
and the other set nearly parallel with the road 
built by old “King Carter.” Colonial methods of 
construction were followed from the beginning 
to the application of the last bit of gray green 
paint, which was so popular in the homes of early 
Americans. 

On the doors are latches of wrought iron, 
and the hinges are the H and L favored of colonial 
builders. The windows are deeply recessed. 
Stairways were built for use and not for ornament 
in the days of the original Wakefield, and the same 
idea has been carried out in the present house. 
The bedrooms are small and severe. 

There are no authentic sketches by which the 
original could be reproduced, and the effort has 
been to create a picture showing the spot upon 
which Washington was born. The house sits well 
back from the water, and to the right is a mag- 
nificent park of Juniper trees. 

Between the house and 
the Juniper grove, at the 
end of a box-bordered path, 
there is in the making an 
old-fashioned garden, with 
a picket fence of the type 
used in the early days of 
Virginia, and here will 
bloom plants and shrubs 
of the kind planted during 
the short time Mary Ball 
resided at Wakefield. 

One of the many charms 
of Wakefield is the little 
burying ground, around 
which is a low brick wall, 
where lie the remains of 


many Washingtons, gathered from the almost 
moldered vault and from adjoining graves and 
replaced in a modern crypt. On each side- of the 
crypt are broad flat stones, placed in memory of 
John Washington, the emigrant who settled 
Wakefield, his wife, and their descendents. 


THE STORY OF A CONFEDERATE FLAG. 

BY JENNIE SUE DAUGHTRY, MACON, GA. 

The incidents connected with most old battle 
flags will never be known, but in the rotunda of 
the State Capitol in Atlanta hangs a tattered Con- 
federate flag whose story I have heard oft re- 
peated by the old veteran who was the color 
bearer of his regiment. 

The story tells how the flag was captured in 
the battle of Gettysburg and how, fifty years 
later, it was returned through the kindness of the 
Northern soldier who had taken it, and of the be- 
ginning of a friendship between two old vets, one 
from the North and the other from the South. 

The flag is that of the 48th Georgia Regiment, 
and the color bearer was the late Dr. Elias Jones 
Denson, of Allentown, Ga., who, at the age of 
eighteen, carried it through the bloodiest battles 
of the war. 

Though Dr. Denson died in 1927, he is still re- 
membered by hundreds of patients in and around 
Allentown, where, for more than forty years, he 
served as physician. This story he told to me 
as we sat by a blazing fire one winter’s evening 
a few months before his death. 

“You see this hand, how stiff it is,” he began, 
holding up his right hand for me td examine. 
“Well, that’s where a Yankee shot me in the 
battle of Spottsylvania.” 



MOUNT VERNON — LAST HOME OF GEORGE WASHINGTON. 



135 


Qopfederat^ Ueterai). 


Finding me an interested listener, he started 
at the beginning of his military career. “I was 
only seventeen when I joined the army. At that 
time I was in a boarding school at Jeffersonville, 
taught by James Crossland, one of the famous 
Georgia teachers of the day. When the war be- 
gan, I left school and, with my three brothers, 
went to fight for the South. When I joined the 
army in 1861, I was assigned to Company C, 4th 
Georgia Regiment, commanded by Col. George 
Doles, of Milledgeville. At the end of a year, I 
was transferred to the 48th Georgia Regiment, 
and was made standard bearer of the regiment. 

I loved that old flag and bore it through the thick 
of the fight in many bloody battles. I carried it 
through the Seven Days battles around Richmond, 
the battle of Chancellorsville, Spottsylvania, and, 
finally, Gettysburg. 

“It was painful when that Yank shot me in the 
arm at Spottsylvania, but I never gave up the flag. 
I kept the colors floating until the end of the 
battle. I’ve never had good use of that hand since. 
I bore the flag through all the other fights until 
we became engaged in the battle of Gettysburg. 
You young people know nothing of fighting. 
There was not a battle in the World War that 
could compare with Gettysburg. It was one of 
the bloodiest that the world has ever known. 
Right through the thick of the fight I bore the 
regimental colors. The bullets were whizzing all 
about me. The heavy artillery of the enemy 
roared and the men were falling thick and fast 
on the battle field. I could hear the groans of the 
wounded around me, but still I kept the flag float- 
ing to inspire the men to victory. 

“A bullet grazed the sleeve of my coat. One 
came so near my head that it barely missed me. 
Another whizzed through the air. I was not so 
fortunate this time, for it hit me in the thigh and 
I fell to the ground severely wounded. 

“My first thought was of the flag. ‘Magahee,’ 
I said to the young soldier next to me, ‘take the 
flag and keep it flying.’ 

“ ‘But what must I do with my gun?’ he said. 

“ ‘Throw it down,’ I shouted. 

“ ‘But won’t I have to pay for it?’ he asked. 

“ ‘Throw down your gun,’ I commanded, ‘and 
protect the flag at any cost.’ 

“Magahee took the flag, and I was taken to the 
hospital to have my wounds dressed. When the 
battle was over, I inquired concerning the flag and 
learned that Magahee had been mortally wounded 
and that the flag had been taken by the enemy. 


“After my recovery, I was promoted to sergeant 
major and served in this capacity until the end of 
the war. 

“Fifty years passed, and during this time I had 
often thought of the flag that I had borne so 
proudly, and wished that I might get it back 
again. In 1913, I advertised in Northern papers, 
and one day received a letter from Dan O’Mara, 
of New York, stating that he was the soldier of 
the 59th New York Volunteers who had taken the 
flag. He also stated that it was in his possession 
and that he would gladly return it. 

“I wrote to him inviting him to come to Georgia 
and bring the flag, and he accepted the invitation. 

I met him in Atlanta and he presented the flag to 
me in front of the State Capitol. ‘Let’s shake 
hands under the old flag,’ he said, as he unfurled 
it. A photographer was there to take our pictures 
as we stood with clasped hands and the old flag 
floated above us. 

“This was in 1913. The State was collecting 
old battle flags to put on display in the Capitol. 
I donated my flag, and it stands there now in a 
glass case along with other Georgia flags of the 
Confederacy.’’ 

“How did you like the Northern veteran?’’ I 
asked. 

“He was a goo^ fellow, and I liked him even if 
he was a Yankee. He wrote to me when he went 
back to New York, and we have corresponded at 
intervals during these fourteen years. I haven’t 
heard from him now in several months.’’ The old 
doctor had carefully preserved a number of letters 
and cards that he had received from his Northern 
friend. 

Dr. Denson enjoyed relating his war-time ex- 
periences. Sometimes he told them as he sat in 
front of the village post-office or store, with a 
group of eager youngsters listening breathlessly to 
his stirring tales of battle. Sometimes it was at 
the bedside of a convalescing patient, but always 
the war was the subject uppermost in his mind. 

In his life and in his work he had displayed 
the same indomitable courage that he had shown 
at Spottsylvania and at Gettysburg. Although 
eighty-four years of age, blind in one eye and in 
rather feeble health, he kept up his practice, drove 
his own car, and often went out alone at night 
over rough country roads to minister to a sick 
patient. When the bugle sounded taps for him in 
August of 1927, he had proven himself a good 
soldier to the very end. 

It had been a year since he had heard from 


136 


QoQfederat^ l/eterar). 


O’Mara. No other letter has ever come from him. 
Perhaps he, too, has crossed over the river where 
there is no North or South and where wars are 
not known. 

But the tattered flag in the State Capitol will 
still serve as a memorial to a brave soldier who 
would have given his all for the cause that he 
loved. 


OLD GARDENS OF NATCHEZ. 

BY EDITH WYATT MOORE. 

The average school history only casually men- 
tions Natchez, Miss., because for many years it 
was a foreign possession, and had little to do with 
the thirteen colonies in the East. It was an 
ancient Indian village prior to the erection of Fort 
Rosalie by the French in 1716, and while this date 
is usually given as the official birthday of Natchez, 
old records prove that the Fort was erected to 
afford protection to French citizens who were al- 
ready living in the Natchez country. 

Following the noted massacre in 1729, at which 
time more than seven hundred whites were 
slaughtered by the Indians, Natchez was shunned 
as an ill-fated spot, but was considered important 
enough to be ceded to the English in the treaty 
of Paris, following the settlement of the French 
and Indian War in 1763. Little is known of the 
English Regime, but the British garrison in 
Natchez was unable to cope with the Spanish 
Governor of Louisiana, Don Bernardo de Galvez, 
who took advantage of favorable progress of the 
Revolution to seize Natchez in 1779. It flourished, 
however, under the Spanish rule, which historians 
claim was both liberal and benevolent, and re- 
mained a Spanish province until 1798 when, ac- 
cording to an agreement making the thirty-first 
parallel the boundary between the United States 
and the Spanish West Florida parishes, Natchez 
became a far outpost of the United States. 

Thus we see by this brief resume of Natchez’ 
checkered career that newcomers sense an atmos- 
phere of subtle charm brought about by the fusing 
of different nationalities, and note an intangible 
influence reflected in the architecture, narrow 
streets, and old gardens of Natchez that speaks 
of the suave Frenchman and dark-eyed Don. 

Situated on a series of steep alluvial bluffs over- 
looking the great Father of Waters, it somewhat 
resembles an old baronial city, due to a series of 
dry motelike bayous or deep ravines that encircle 
it. In time, Natchez developed into a rich cos- 
mopolitan little city and drew large revenues from 


the fertile flood plains of nearby Louisiana. 
Natchez also became a deep seaport and shipped 
cotton to almost all the great ports of the world. 
It boasted more millionaires in proportion to its 
population than any other city in America, and 
reached a pinnacle of elegance and culture that 
has never been surpassed even in better-known 
sections of the Old South. 

Long prior to the War between the States, 
wealthy planters built their mansion houses in or 
near Natchez, while operating vast plantations in 
the lowlands. Sons and daughters were educated 
in Europe, materials were brought in sailboats 
for the erection of palatial homes, furniture from 
France and England, and noted architects not only 
designed these manor houses, but came here to 
superintend their erection, which covered long 
periods of time. European landscape artists were 
also imported to lay out grounds of great beauty. 

These homes usually stand in the midst of huge 
wooded parks, and sweeping through these park- 
ways are winding drives over-arched by the moss- 
hung boughs of ancient forest trees. Immediately 
surrounding most of these dwellings ^re old 
gardens, many of which are being restored in late 
years, after “running to seed” since the fall of 
the Confederacy. 

Descriptions of some of the noted Natchez 
gardens of pre-war days have been left us by 
such writers as Ingraham, author of The Pillar 
of Fire and other well-known books. It is evident 
that the semi-tropical setting of Natchez made 
strong appeal to this impressionable young writer 
from bleak New England, who visited here exactly 
one hundred years ago. He said of the Natchez 
of that day: 

“The luxuriance of the shrubs and plants has 
no parallel. It is emphatically a land of flowers 
and trees of every description, odor, shape, and 
hue. There is a lavish opulence both in forest and 
savannas.” 

Again he said of his host’s garden : 

“I saw the splendidly arrayed amaryllis, the 
purple magnolia, the Arabian and night-blooming 
jessamine, the verbenum, or lemon scented gera- 
nium, with the majestic aloe and countless other 
shrubs that breathed forth the sweetest fragrance 
and gratified the senses.” 

The history of these ante-bellum mansions of 
Natchez is fraught with great romance. In those 
colorful days, Natchez was a mecca for many 
young men of mettle who later became famous. 
Being a gateway which opened into the vast un- 


137 


QoQfederat^ l/eterai). 


known but beckoning West, many characters of 
renown passed through her portals, while others 
lingered to fall a victim to the lure of this glam- 
orous city of the frontier, and in time became 
wealthy themselves. 

The lush green beauty of Natchez became far 
famed, and in time the story of her palatial homes, 
gardens, and shaded streets was known through- 
out the length and breadth of the Mississippi 
valley. Steamboats tied up at the Natchez land- 
ing, and tourists of the early thirties were given 
“shore lief,” much as the railroads of today per- 
mit interesting detours, side-trips, and stop-offs. 

Perhaps the most noted gardens of that era, 
because the most accessible, were those of Rosalie 
and Magnolia Vale, or Brown’s Garden, as it was 
then known. The Rosalie mansion stands on a 
portion of the site of the Old Fort where the mas- 
sacre took place. It’s grounds once included 
eleven acres, and while situated on top of the 
bluffs, the garden was terraced and extended all 
the way to the river’s edge. Pink and white 
oleanders, camelia japonicas in varigated colors, 
cape jessamine, sweet olive, the syringa, and 
night-blooming creepers rioted in a mass of color. 
A vine-embowered summerhouse jutted far out 
over the cliffs, and here one could see for miles up 
and down the Mississippi. A portion of this gar- 
den still remains, but no longer extends over the 
precipice. 

Brown’s Garden, or Magnolia Vale, is under 
the north bluff and surrounds an oddly con- 
structed century-old home on the fertile batture 
lands. Though a portion of this garden caved into 
the river long ago, at least an acre still remains, 
where walks are bordered with crimson roses and 
japonicas bloom all winter. 

The grounds at The Briars, the home where 
Jefferson Davis was married to lovely Varina 
Howell on February 26, 1845, have been complete- 
ly restored and now present a gorgeous pageant 
of color. The house, which is a typical old- 
fashioned Southern home, with long galleries and 
artistic dormer windows, is reached by a wide 
drive that curves into a cresent before the en- 
trance. Small crimson roses border the drive, and 
from a bluff that forms a portion of the garden 
the shimmering waters of the Mississippi may 
be seen winding serpentine fashion until lost in 
an infinity of sky and mist. It is said that Varina 
came here to watch for the boat that was to bring 
Jeff Davis when he first came “a-wooing.” 

The oleander and japonica in brilliant hues and 


many other shrubs of voluptuous foliage and blos- 
som complete the garden. 

Longwood, another famous old home, once had 
a rose garden which alone covered ten acres. The 
great orator, Sargeant Prentiss, lived awhile at 
Longwood, but in a former dwelling on the same 
site. It is said that the mistress of Longwood 
saved time by driving to her rose garden in a car- 
riage, because the grounds were so extensive. 

Arlington, one of the handsomest and oldest 
mansions in the State, is approached by a winding 
driveway bordered by white iris. The park is one 
of indescribable majesty, where giant oaks are 
hung with festoons of somber Spanish moss, and 
the stately magnolia grandi flora bears its fragrant 
white blossoms. Masses of blossoming dogwood 
also grows here in a native environment. 

Near the buildings are quanities of the delicate 
pink azaleas for which this garden is famous, and 
an old box dates back to the days when little girls 
wore ringlets and worked samplers. There is also 
a quaint little “gazebo” built for lovers of the 
twenties, which conjures up sweet visions of a 
far past when gallants in high stocks felt it a 
privilege to kiss the finger tips of a fair lady. 

At Monteigne, the former home of Maj. Gen. 
William T. Martin, of the Southern army, the 
grounds have been fully restored in recent years. 
Prior to the War between the States, the gardens 
at Monteigne were kept by a Scotch gardener and 
there were a hothouse and a greenhouse where 
the General indulged a flair for horticulture. 

Today the grounds of Monteigne are almost as 
lovely as if the glory of ancient Pompeii had been 
reincarnated. A superb rose garden is literally 
filled with fragrant masses of color, and limpid 
pools hold water plants, such as the Louisiana 
hyacinth and the languidly beautiful lotus flower. 
Smooth green terraces, a sunken garden, flagged 
walks, and a background of moss-hung trees make 
this garden like a bit of paradise. 

The Elms, a very, very old home dating to the 
Spanish era, centers a garden which once covered 
sixteen acres. The city has encroached on the 
garden, but it is still quite large. Many shrubs 
and old boxwood date to the yester-years, so also 
does the quaint old latticed Eagle house. Wis- 
teria, pure white japonicas, a small rock garden on 
a slope, and American beauty roses, spirea, and 
many other plants are flowering here now. A 
hedge of yucca adds t(^the Spanish atmosphere 
of this old home of a former dark-eyed son of His- 
pano. 


138 


^opfederat^ Ueterai). 


Ravenna, so called due to the ravine or bayou 
that intersects the grounds, is noted for its mar- 
velous tulips, amygdalus, or flowering peach, 
roses, azaleas, and a wisteria that surpasses any- 
thing Japan has to offer. A story is linked with 
the ravine that has to do with the war in the 
sixties, when supplies were slipped through this 
bayou to the Confederates, as the Yankees thought 
they had Natchez completely bottled up. The 
average bayou is a deep gully filled with under- 
growth, but the bayou at Ravenna resembles a 
sunken garden, with its masses of white and 
purple iris. 

Hope Villa, another old Spanish residence, is 
principally known for the beauty of the bulbs 
found in its garden. Also for an alternating 
hedge of flesh and cerise japonicas, its apple trees, 
and mimosa. 

Edgewood, in the suburbs, is famous for its 
gorgeous roses and a lily pool. 

There are many other gardens in old Natchez, 
such as the garden at the Burn, home of Mr. John 
P. Walworth, close personal friend of Gen. Wil- 
liam T. Martin. Though too advanced in years to 
fight for the Confederacy himself, Mr. Walworth 
gave two sons to the cause, Douglas and Ernest 
Walworth, the former of whom was a Major. The 
Burn, a comfortable white building, stands on a 
rounded hillock with the grounds gently sloping in 
all directions. . The house is almost a century old, 
and might be described as “rambling,” with a 
brick basement surrounded by a small dry mote 
and a wide classic portico upheld by fluted 
columns. 

During the great conflict between the North 
and South, the family at the Burn was forced to 
vacate the premises in order that Maj. John P. 
Coleman, Commander of the 6th U. S. C. Artillery, 
might use it as his headquarters. One of the Wal- 
worth descendants still has in her possession the 
military order for the occupancy of her grand- 
father’s home, signed by “A Schuyler Montgom- 
ery, Captain and A. D. C., A. A. A., General, 
July, 1865.” Prior to that time, the building was 
surrounded by a beautiful grove and in the rear 
was a terraced garden kept by a Scotch gardener. 
The beauty of this garden was famed, and many 
poems have been written extolling its quietude 
and splendid array of gay Southern blossoms. 

The magnificent grove was ruthlessly destroyed 
and breastworks thrown up in the front grounds 
in such a manner that the Burn was placed inside 
the Federal fortifications. The garden, however, 
was not demolished, and it is intact today. It is 


made on a series of terraces and somewhat re- 
sembles a sunken garden. On the first terrace 
stands an ancient sundial, the magnolia fuscgati, 
the weigela, cherokee rose, and borders of the 
amaryllis, that exotic scarlet lily to which Christ 
is thought to have referred when he said, “Sol- 
omon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of 
these.” On this same terrace is an ancient run- 
ning rose of wondrous beauty. Its gnarled body, 
as large as a grapevine, extends across the entire 
east end of the building, and at the time of this 
writing is literally massed with fragrant white 
blossoms. 

The second terrace has daisies, violets, eglantine, 
and borders of golden daffodils. The lower ter- 
race has many varities of rose, and such shrubs 
as the japonica. There are masses of verbena 
and stately rows of ruffled hollyhocks and 
chrysanthemum for autumn time. Between each 
terrace are level green lawns, where many gay 
parties and formal teas were formerly held — 
parties to which many distinguished Mississip- 
pians considered it a privilege to be bidden, where 
fair dames and misses in crinolines and tucking 
combs arrived with gentlemen in silk hats and 
long coats. Carriages and victorias driven by 
liveried negro coachmen lined the street for 
blocks, and there was much courtliness and 
curtseying, music and laughter, wit and repartee. 

This garden was the subject of a bit of verse 
written years ago, a part of which bears out the 
story — 

“Where flowers of every hue you’ll find 
To suit each taste and please each mind. 

In this old garden quaint and sweet 
Where loving friends delight to meet.” 


NO FURLOUGH FOR THE RANGERS. 

BY RICHARD D. STEUART, BALTIMORE, MD. 

A page from the glorious history of Texas is 
in the possession of a Baltimore (Md.) collector. 
It is a remarkable tribute to the gallantry of one 
of the most famous Texas regiments in the Con- 
federate service, the 8th Texas Cavalry, more 
familiary known as Terry’s Texas Rangers. 

Leaving Houston in 1861 with nearly 1,600 
officers and men, Terry’s Rangers fought until the 
end, following such famous leaders as Forrest 
and Wheeler. According to Col. William Preston 
Johnston, in his biography of his distinguished 
father, Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, it surrend- 
ered two hundred and twenty-four men. 


r^opfederat^ l/eterai). 


139 


The document referred to is a double sheet of 
faded blue paper, frayed and worn, but the writ- 
ing is as legible as if the ink was placed on the 
paper yesterday. It is a petition of the officers 
and men for permission to visit their homes in 
Texas. At the time the petition was written — 
January 22, 1865 — the 8th Texas was serving 
under Wheeler, who was hanging on the flanks of 
Sherman’s army in South Carolina and Georgia. 
Evidently, the men never got their furlough, be- 
cause a month after their petition was approved 
by the Secretary of War, the 8th Texas made the 
last charge at Bentonville, the last battle of the 
Army of the Tennessee. Incidentally, in this 
charge the sixteen-year-old son of Lieutenant Gen- 
eral Hardee, who had run away from school to 
join the Rangers, was killed. 

The petition is as follows : 

“To the Hon. Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.: 

“The undersigned commissioned officers of the 
8th Regiment of Texas Cavalry respectfully re- 
quest that furloughs for ninety days be granted 
the officers and men of their regiment for the 
purpose of visiting Texas. 

“An absence from home of nearly four years 
has created with the officers and men of this regi- 
ment an ardent desire to visit their families and 
friends. Every officer under whom we have 
served has testified to our merit as soldiers, and 
we believe that our claims upon the consideration 
and regard of the Department are second to those 
of no regiment in the Army of Tennessee; and 
while we desire to be always at the post of duty 
and aid to our utmost in the achievement of our 
independence, we think that a desire so natural, 
so ardently indulged, and so long delayed can with 
propriety be accorded soldiers who have borne 
cheerfully the hardships of war and sustained 
with fortitude so protracted an absence from home 
and kindred. 

“We have never, since the period of our or- 
ganization in September, 1861, received even a 
percentage of furloughs to visit Texas. A very 
small proportion of the men who had relatives 
near the army have been furloughed for short 
periods, while a great majority have never been 
absent from the command and have performed 
duty uninterruptedly for nearly four years. 

“The difficult and uncertain communication with 
our homes renders it very important to every 
member of this regiment that his business affairs 
should now receive his personal attention. Every 


man in the command abandoned home without 
having made arrangements for an absence of 
such duration, and many of us, while serving the 
Government, are doing so with the knowledge 
that our interests and those of our families are 
suffering for the want of attention. Neither are 
we able to receive, to any extent, money or cloth- 
ing from Texas, and while we believe that the 
Government has acted with all possible liberality 
and justice toward us, we have constantly suf- 
fered for the want of sufficient clothing, and de- 
sire to place ourselves in a position which will 
render us less liable to this evil in the future. 

“The regiment is now reduced to 230 men for 
duty. Our loss amounts to 115 killed on the field, 
264 wounded, 79 prisoners, 135 died, and 264 dis- 
charged on account of injuries contracted in the 
service. We are confident that our numbers can 
be very largely increased, particularly if authority 
be granted to receive recruits by transfer from 
regiments in the Trans-Mississippi Department, 
and that our efficiency will be greatly enlarged 
by these accessions to our ranks, and by the effect 
which a visit to ‘home’ will have upon the spirits 
and morale of the command. It is difficult for 
the men to reconcile themselves to the distinction 
which is made between troops recruited in this 
department and those from the Trans-Mississippi 
Department. The former are permitted to go 
home frequently, while the latter, after years of 
service and unusual privations, are withheld the 
enjoyment of a temporary relief from labor and 
are continued in the separation from home and 
interests. 

“There have been very few desertions from 
this regiment (occasioned in every instance by 
an uncontrolable desire to see their families), 
and we have no doubt that these men will be glad 
to return to duty with us. 

“We respectfully call attention to the fact that 
the Legislature of Texas passed resolutions last 
spring requesting that the troops from that State 
be furloughed and permitted to return home for 
a short time, and we pledge ourselves, our honor 
and that of the command to return promptly at 
the expiration of such time as may be granted us, 
and we hope that this application may receive 
the earnest consideration of the Department. 

“We have the honor to be, 

“Very respectfully, your obedient servants, 
John Sinston, Captain Company H; W. M. 
Decherd, 1st Lieut., Company D; R. D. Burns, 
Ordinance Sergeant.’’ 


140 


^oi^federat^ l/cterap. 


The petition bears the signatures of Brig. Gens. 
Thomas Harrison and W. Y. C. Humes, Maj. Gen. 
Joseph Wheeler, Liet. Gen. W. J. Hardee, and 
John C. Breckinridge, Secretary of War, and 
their indorsements of the 8th Texas’ plea form a 
remarkable tribute to the fine qualities of the regi- 
ment. 

General Harrison, commanding the brigade to 
which the 8th Texas was attached, writes : 

“Respectfully forwarded and most earnestly 
recommended. The 8th Texas Cavalry has served 
under my command for nearly four years, and 
the fidelity with which it has discharged its duties, 
and the valuable and distinguished services it has 
rendered entitle it to the most favorable con- 
sideration. I regard it manifestly the policy of 
the Government and to the interest of the service 
to grant the furloughs akked, and I confidently 
believe that the Regiment will return promptly 
at the expiration of its leave and largely increased 
in numbers.” 

Next is the indorsement of Brig. Gen. W. Y. C. 
Humes, who writes : 

“Respectfully forwarded approved. The grant- 
ing of this application would be most wise; the 
men would return free from the strong dissatis- 
faction now existing because of four years’ ab- 
sence from home; the thinned and fast depleting 
ranks would be filled, and a most valuable regi- 
ment saved to the service.” 

To this Gen. Joseph Wheeler adds his comment: 

“Respectfully forwarded and recommended. 
This is an excellent fighting regiment, and it 
would be to the interest of the service for it to 
be increased. If all the regiment cannot be al- 
lowed to go at once, I would respectfully recom- 
mend that the Department commander be author- 
ized to furlough one-third of the command at a 
time.” 

And finally there is the notation of Lieut. Gen. 
William J. Hardee : 

“Respectfully forwarded with the earnest rec- 
ommendation that one half the regiment be fur- 
loughed for four months, and the other half to 
be furloughed when the first half returns. This 
regiment has done gallant service.” 

The Secretary of War, General Breckinridge, 
has made this notation on the back of the peti- 
tion: 

“No law or order forbids the General Com- 
manding an army from exercising his discretion 
in granting furloughs to his command when he 
can spare the men.” 

In the parlance of our day, that concluding 


clause formed the “catch” in the indorsement. 
With Sherman’s hordes overrunning the country, 
Gen. Joseph E. Johnston could not “spare” such 
a fine fighting unit as the 8th Texas. But in a few 
more weeks the fighting was over, and the gallant 
survivors of Terry’s Texas Rangers were enabled 
to return home like conquering heroes. 


SOUTHERN NEWSPAPERS OF THE WAR 
PERIOD. 

BY MRS. WILLIAM CABELL FLOURNEY. 

[Winning essay in contest for Anna Robinson 
Andrews Medal, 1931.] 

Among the noncombatants of the war period of 
the sixties, none made a more gallant stand than 
the Southern editors. Much of the time without 
food, often without news, frequently without 
either paper or ink, and many times without an 
office, they bravely carried on, and met these pri- 
vations with a jest. 

Union generals did not hesitate, when it was in 
their power, to suppress any newspaper in the 
South when they thought best to do so. In New 
Orleans, the Bee, the Delta, and the Crescent 
were suppressed at various times. When the 
Daily Argus, of Memphis, met this fate, it was 
put into the hands of correspondents of the New 
York Tribune and the New York Herald. It 
often happened that the writer of a specially 
strong editorial would be compelled to resign, 
under threat from the Federals, or total suspen- 
sion of the paper. 

General Grant, incensed at an editorial entitled 
“Mischief-Makers” in the Avalanche, of Memphis, 
ordered that either the paper suspend or the 
writer resign. Curtailed newspapers in the 
South, however, had, on the whole, but little room 
for editorials. Probably none attracted greater 
attention both in the North and the South than 
the one which early appeared in the Courier, of 
Charleston, S. C., from which the following is 
taken: “The sword must cut asunder the last tie 
that bound us to a people whom, in spite of wrongs 
and injustice wantonly inflicted through a long 
series of years, we had not yet utterly hated and 
despised. Some of the most splendid pages in our 
glorious history must be blurred. A blow must 
be struck that would make the ears of every Re- 
publican fanatic tingle, and whose dreadful ef- 
fects will be felt by generations yet to come.” 
This must be judged by the standards of the day 
and the bitter feelings engendered by the section- 
al strife. 


141 


^opfederat^ l/eterai). 


After South Carolina seceded, her papers pub- 
lished all items from the North under the head 
of “Foreign Intelligence,” and other States fol- 
lowed her lead. Throughout the war the most 
important news, save the announcement of a vic- 
tory or a defeat, was the long list of the dead or 
wounded, which newspapers printed in small type. 
Headlines were seldom wider than one column. 
The scarcity of paper and ink crippled the South- 
ern papers more than has been realized. Prac- 
tically every paper at. strategic points in the 
South was forced to reduce its size. The Charles- 
ton Courier, for example, made several reductions 
until, in 1865, it appeared as a small sheet ten by 
fifteen inches, with but four columns to the page. 
In many instances. Southern papers simply issued 
small news-sheets about the size of handbills, in 
which the news was printed in the smallest type 
possible. The scarcity of paper induced some 
of the leading newspapers to begin a systematic 
gathering of “cotton or linen rags, white or col- 
ored,” for which the highest market price was 
paid, either in money or in subscriptions to the 
newspapers themselves. Many were forced to 
suspend entirely; others limited the period for 
which they would receive subscriptions. The 
Memphis Daily Appeal did not take subscriptions 
for a longer period than two months, and the 
Macon Daily Confederate refused all orders for 
more than three months. 

Before ceasing publication, many papers ap- 
peared on common wrapping paper, paper bags, 
or the blank side of wall-paper. Among some of 
the wall-paper editors were the Pictorial Demo- 
crat, of Alexandria, La. ; the Daily Citizen, of 
Vicksburg, Miss.; the Courier, of Opelousas, La.; 
the Stars and Stripes, of Thibodaux, La.; and 
many others. 

It is said that a North Carolina editor, for the 
lack of paper, wrote his editorials on a shingle, 
scraping it off after the article was set up; then 
the shingle was ready for another editorial. It 
is significant that no paper in the South during 
that period was ever suspended by the Confeder- 
ate government, whereas in the North scores of 
papers were suspended and many were mobbed. 

The lack of paper increased the subscription 
rates. During 1864, the Macon Telegraph, often 
a small, one-page sheet, was forty-eight dollars a 
year, raised to sixty dollars, then seventy, and 
ninety-six dollars, reaching the limit in 1865 of 
one hundred and twenty dollars a year. The 
Memphis Appeal, sold at half price to Confeder- 
ate soldiers, advanced its regular subscription to 


five dollars per month in coin, not in paper money. 

Some of the papers avoided total suspension by 
leading a peripatetic career. Box cars were 
transformed into printing offices, and taken from 
place to place with each advance of the enemy. 
For three years the Memphis Appeal was printed 
away from its home city. This paper, which 
spoke for the Confederate army in general, and 
for the Army of Tennessee in particular, was 
forced, again and again, to move type, presses, 
etc., from place to place in order to keep ahead 
of the invading army. During the “Sea” fight in 
front of Memphis, the Appeal retreated in a box 
car to Grenada, Miss. The following Monday it 
appeared as an afternoon paper, and was pub- 
lished under difficulties, as most of its mail and 
exchange were still being delivered in Memphis. 
When the Federals approached Grenada, the Ap- 
peal went to Jackson, Miss., where it made its 
bow as follows: “Though driven from home, w’e 
are not among strangers.” For six weeks it ap- 
peared in nonpareil type, on paper of varying 
size, shape, and color. Shelled out of Jackson, 
the Appeal, taking its presses and its types, re- 
treated to Meridian, only to find a more permanent 
place at Atlanta. From Atlanta the press and 
type were shipped to Montgomery, but part of the 
staff continued to issue extra news-slips from a 
proof-press. But they had to move on to Macon, 
and did not return to Memphis until after the sur- 
render, where the first issue of the paper was 
brought out in November, 1865. 

The Chattanooga Rebel, often spoken of as the 
organ of the Army of Tennessee, appeared in 1862, 
published by F. M. Paul and John C. Burch. An 
early editor of this paper was Henry Watterson, 
who later came to fame as editor of the Louisville 
Courier -Journal. After first Manassas, Watterson 
came to Nashville, and on the fall of that city he 
joined the Confederate army as a voluntary aid. 
In this capacity he met the publisher of the Rebel, 
who persuaded him that he could serve the South 
better with his pen than in any other way. Wat- 
terson did not approve of General Bragg, and 
attacked him in one of his typical editorials. Gen- 
eral Bragg issued an order forbidding the circu- 
lation of the Rebel within Confederate lines. The 
Rebel was permitted to appear later, and did ex- 
cellent service, keeping always just a little in 
advance of the Federal lines. 

Confederate forces were not without their 
newspapers. The Missouri Army organ was a 
four-page sheet published in the interest of the 
Confederate soldiers of that State, and paid for 


142 Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 


by the State. The Rebel and Copperhead Ventila- 
tor at Edina, Mo., was also an army sheet. Oc- 
casionally papers temporarily suspended for the 
same reason as that given by the Daily Confeder- 
ate, of Macon, Ga. : “There was no paper issued 
from the Confederate office on Sunday morning. 
Every man in the establishment was in the field 
on Saturday. We hope our subscribers will con- 
sider this a sufficient excuse.” 

Ink was also at a premium. Homemade inks, 
often so poorly mixed they did not spread well 
over the rollers, were better than some of the 
“near inks,” or substitutes. The Memphis Appeal 
and some other papers were compelled to print 
with shoe-blacking. Many Southern States pro- 
vided for the exemption of newspaper men from 
military duty. In South Carolina, provision was 
made that the number thus excused should not 
exceed seven for a daily in Charleston, five for 
a daily in Columbia, and two for a country paper. 
In Virginia, the law exempted “one editor of each 
newspaper and such employees as th§ editor or 
proprietor may certify on honor to be indispen- 
sable for conducting the publication, provided 
the same is published at least once a week.” 

Advertising in the papers of the South reflected 
the spirit of the great conflict, and often took the 
form of making known the various needs for 
army supplies. We find the following in the 
Charleston Mercury early in 1861 : “Wanted — a 
first-class strongly built clipper. She must be 
fast, light draft, and capable of being fitted out 
as a privateer. Address Sumter, through the 
post office.” 

Advertisements also indicated the tremendous 
fluctuation in the value of Confederate money. 
A clothing store announced that, owing to the vic- 
tory of the Union army, and the fall in gold, it 
was offering its stock at greatly reduced prices. 
Whatever product was offered for sale, the adver- 
tisement had a distinctly war-time flavor. On the 
whole, it was considered, in the South, more 
patriotic to fight than to write. 

The Richmond, Va., papers, the Enquirer, the 
Examiner, the Sentinel, and the Whig, kept up 
their activities. E. A. Pollard, Editor of the 
Examiner, was one of the bitterest opponents of 
Jefferson Davis, and repeatedly attacked him as 
dictatorial, while belittling the work of Congress. 

The Frankfort Argus was a power in Kentucky 
Democratic politics as long as Amos Kendall was 
at the helm. George D. Prentice, of the Louisville 
Courier -Journal, who was for thirty years the 
foremost journalist of the entire South, has been 


credited with having prevented Kentucky from 
seceding. An old-time Whig, he could not be- 
come either a Republican or a Democrat, but at 
the beginning of the war he espoused the cause of 
the Union, in spite of the fact that his two sons 
were in the Confederate army. 

Only occasionally were the Southern papers re- 
quested not to publish any information about 
military movements, lest the news might reach 
and inform the enemy ; and such requests were in 
all instances complied with. The only paper to 
make its appearance in Richmond after evacua- 
tion day was the Evening Whig, which gave 
notice that it would hereafter be issued as a Union 
paper, the only conditions under which any pub- 
lication could then be permitted by those in au- 
thority. 


AN ACT OF MERCY. 

Comrade John Wesley Dixon, whose death last 
December is recorded in this number of the 
Veteran, wrote for his family something of his 
experiences as a Confederate soldier, in which 
he narrated a little incident connected with the 
fighting at Jackson, La. “We had routed the 
enemy,” he says, “and coming back over the 
battle field, I found a large Yankee soldier lying on 
the ground, groaning. I stopped and looked down 
at him, when he said, ‘My friend, will you give 
me a drink of water?’ ‘Certainly,’ I replied, and 
stooped down and raised his head to my canteen. 
As I laid him back, he asked me to stay with him 
till he died. I told him I would, but hoped he was 
not mortally wounded, then sat down and took 
his head in my lap. He asked me to get a package 
from his coat pocket, which I found to be a 
daguerreotype of a lady and two small children, 
which he said were his wife and babies. He 
tremblingly pressed the picture to his lips, and 
asked me to get it to his Colonel, to be sent to his 
wife with the message that he died doing his duty. 
I promised that I would, but had no idea how I 
could do so. He had ten or twelve dollars in his 
purse, which he wanted me to keep, but I told 
him I would send that also to his wife. 

“This promise worried me for two days, when 
I rode out of camp and through the woods till I 
reached the Yankee post at Port Hudson, some 
fourteen miles away. After the usual tests, I was 
taken to the Lieutenant in charge of the Reserve 
Post, who sent me on to the Colonel’s head- 
quarters. The latter treated me very kindly, and 
said he would send the purse and money to the 


143 


Qopfederat^ l/eteraij. 


soldier’s wife, with his message. He then put his 
hand on my shoulder and said, ‘My lad, are you 
a soldier?’ and, ‘To what company do you be- 
long?’ I told him ‘Company C, 4th Louisiana 
Cavalry, Col. Frank Power’s Regiment, Gen. John 
Scott’s Brigade — Company C known as McKowen’s 
Scouts.’ He said, ‘Oh, yes, I know you boys, and 
have met you many times on the battle field, and 
know you as daredevils.’ In bidding me goodbye, 
he said : ‘My lad, if you are ever captured in this 
part of the army, send for me; I’ll take care of 
you,’ to which I replied, ‘You are never going to 
get me.’ ” 

Comrade Dixon had a roll of the John C. Mc- 
Kowen Scouts, Company C, 4th Louisiana Caval- 
ry, which he had recalled from memory, and this 
included ninety-six of the one hundred and thirty 
men enrolled, and he could remember something 
about a great many of them, such as their promo- 
tions, wounds, deaths, etc., a very remarkable feat 
of memory. If there are any survivors of this 
company now, they might be interested in this 
company roll, which can be furnished by his 
daughter, Mrs. H. C. Reiner, Clayton, Mo. 


YOUNGEST CONFEDERATE COURIER. 

BY HENRY H. VADEN, RICHMOND, VA. 

What I am about to relate occurred during the 
winter of 1864, when I was living with my par- 
ents, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Vaden, at Buck Hill, 
our home in Chesterfield County, now in the city 
limits. 

I claim the distinction of having been the young- 
est Courier, acting for the Confederate Army, 
that ever conveyed an important message from one 
part of the country to the other. This interesting 
episode in my life occurred when I was a small 
boy of seven, during the War between the States. 

My mother told me one day that a wagon would 
come to Buck Hill, and she wanted me to convey 
a note to her brother. General Heth, familiarly 
known as “Harry,” who at that time was in his 
winter quarters about five miles from Petersburg, 
on the Boydton Plank Road. Mother put the note 
in the lining of my coat and admonished me very 
positively not to let any one know about it. A 
large covered wagon, drawn by four mules and 
filled with barrels and boxes, several men accom- 
panying it, arrived, picked me up and we started 
on our journey. . Upon leaving, the driver asked 
me if there was not a nearer way than the one 
they had come. I said, “Sure,” and out rear of 
the farm we went, through a large body of woods. 


One of the men remarked, “We will get lost in 
these woods.” The driver, by whom I was sitting, 
replied, “Never you mind. This little laddie 
knows every foot of the ground.” Sure enough, 
we came to the opening (draw-bars) near Peters- 
burg Pike. The roads were very bad all the way. 
I distinctly remember going down a hill before 
reaching Petersburg, also the direction we took 
out of Petersburg. We reached our destination 
about seven P.M., and I went in the house by a 
side entrance and into a large room. This room, 
as well as the whole house, was very bare, only 
tables and chairs constituting the furnishing. Be- 
ing very cold, I approached a large open fire. In 
the corner, near the fire, were some ladies, one I 
remember was my aunt, wife of General Heth; 
the others were wives of the other officers. They 
had their eyes on some fancy work and did not 
see me, but some gentleman in a farther corner, 
playing backgammon, did see me, and I can hear 
that voice today which said, “Isn’t that Henry 
Vaden?” Then they all realized how cold I was 
and began putting my feet and hands in cold 
water. I thought they were going to murder me, 
but I was soon made comfortable. 

General Heth was expecting some message, and 
when I told them I was the bearer of a note, it was 
soon taken from the lining of my coat. I do not 
know its details, but my recollection is it con- 
tained important secret military information. I 
have often regretted I did not ascertain it from 
my mother while she was living. I was there 
several days, and remember perfectly the location 
of the enemy as pointed out to me. 

Strange to say, my return home is a perfect 
blank in my mind. 


IN MARCH. 

The sun falls warm; the Southern wind awakes; 
The air seethes upward with a steamy shiver ; 

Each dip of the road is now a crystal lake. 

And every rut a little dancing river. 

Through great clouds that sunder overhead 
The deep sky breaks as pearly blue as summer ; 

Out of a cleft beside the river’s bed 

Flaps the black crow, the first demure new- 
comer. 

The last scared drifts are eating fast away 
With glassy tinkle into glittering laces; 

Dogs lie asleep, and little children play 

With tops and marbles in the sunbare places; 

And I that stroll with many a thoughtful pause 
Almost forget that winter ever was. 

— Archibal Lampmati. 


144 


^opfederat^ Ueteran 



Sketches In this department are eiven a half column of space without 
charge extra space will be charged at 20 cents a line. Engravings, 
$3.00 each. 


And SO, my friends, our heroes sleep. 

Nor grief may stir them where they lie; 

The heritage they left we keep. 

And from it learn to live — and die. 
Underneath the greening sod. 

Our living dead heroes in gray — 

Each a patriot tried and true — reach out. 

To draw us nearer still to God, 

— Mrs. Totvnes Randolph Leigh, 


Augustus L. Herpin. 

Augustus L. Herpin, said to be the last survivor 
of the battle of Mobile Bay, died in Mobile, Ala., 
on March 1, after a long illness. He was 
born in Mobile, and a life-long resident of the city. 

He engaged in the mercantile business follow- 
ing the War between the States until some six- 
teen years ago, and was very active up to his last 
illness. He was in his eighty-ninth year. 

Nineteen-year-old Augustus Herpin joined the 
Confederate army in 1863 as a member of Com- 
pany E, 21st Alabama Infantry, known as Wood- 
ruff’s Rifles. 

With the exception of five months spent at a 
federal prison at Ship Island, Private Herpin 
fought through the remainder of the war. Al- 
though he never suffered a wound, he lost two 
brothers, Emile Herpin, who was shot down in 
the battle of Shiloh, and John Theodore Herpin, 
who was killed at the battle of Malvern Hill. 

Augustus Herpin fought through the battle of 
Mobile Bay, watching the forces of Admiral Far- 
ragut vanquish Fort Morgan, Fort Gaines, and 
the gallant but inadequate Confederate fleet. 

After his release from Ship Island prison, he 
fought in the battle of Spanish Fort. 

Augustus Herpin was the oldest living alumnus 
of Spring Hill College, and was a lifelong member 
of the Catholic Church and of several societies of 
his church, also of civic and fraternal orders of 
the city, and a member of Semmes Camp U. C. V. 

He is survived by nieces and nephews, and other 
relatives. 


John Wesley Dixon. 

John Wesley Dixon, who died at the home of 
his daughter, Mrs. A. F. Hunt, at Cisco, Tex., on 
December 12, 1931, was born at Jackson, La., 
July 11, 1847, son of Rev. Thomas F. and Sarah 
Sims Dixon. Burial was in Grove Hill Cemetery, 
with the Odd Fellows in charge of the services. 
Members of Camp Sterling Price, U. C. V., of 
Dallas, attended in a body. Comrade Dixon had 
been a resident of Dallas County for fifty-six 
years, and a former resident of the city of Dallas. 

Following the war he attended Centenary Col- 
lege at Clinton, La., and taught school in Clinton 
before moving to Texas in 1875. He was married 
to Miss Wynona Ann Ambrose in November, 
1868, and is survived by his wife, three daughters, 
and two sons, also eight grandchildren and four 
great-grandchildren . 

Of his service for the Confederacy, Comrade 
Dixon wrote that when his father and ^Ider 
brother volunteered in 1861, he begged to go also, 
but was told that he must stay at home to take 
care of his mother and the younger children. 
However, in the early May, 1862, he slipped away 
and joined Company G, of the 4th Louisiana In- 
fantry, Gibson’s Brigade, but in 1863 he was 
transferred to Company G, of the 4th Louisiana 
Cavalry, Col. Frank Powers. He took part in 
many engagements both with the infantry and 
cavalry. In the fighting near Clinton, Miss., in 
July, 1864, he was wounded three times but never 
left the line of battle. His brother was killed two 
days before, July 28, 1864, in the fighting at Stone 
Mountain, Ga. Comrade Dixon also gave two 
years’ service in the World War, 1918-1919. 

Ben Harvin. 

St. Louis Camp, No. 731, U. C. V., sadly reports 
the death of Comrade Ben Harvin on February 
5, 1932. 

Devoted to the principles of Southern rights. 
Comrade Harvin enlisted in Hannibal, Mo., in 
1861, as a member of Colonel Porter’s regiment. 
He participated in severe fighting in the Trans- 
Mississippi Department, and was one of the 
thousands of Missourians who for so long hurled 
back the huge armies of the three hostile Yankee 
States that bordered old Missouri. In 1863, 1864, 
and 1865, Comrade Harvin rode with that gallant 
and dashing chieftian, Quantrell, and he also 
served the true cause with George Todd, Dave 
Poole, “Bloody” Bill Anderson, and Jesse James. 
He was a devoted Democrat, and a Mason. 

[William E. Wootten, Adjutant Colonel.] 




145 


^opfederat^ l/eterai^. 


Edward Clifford Brush. 

At his home in Brookline, Mass., on October 
26, 1931, Edward Clifford Brush, veteran of the 
Confederacy and Honorary Member of the Boston 
Chapter, U. D. C., passed away after a lingering 
illness. More fortunate than many of his com- 
rades, he was able to maintain to the end a well 
ordered household, whose atmosphere reflected 
the reflned gentleman that he was. 

The mother of Edward Brush was Francisco 
Marin, a connection of Ponce de Leon, founder of 
St. Augustine in 1565. In that old city he was 
born, and while a student there he enlisted, 
August 5, 1861, at the age of sixteen, with the 
Independent Blues, a military company existing 
from the date of the State’s admission to the 
Union. However, he continued at the Academy 
until St. Augustine was occupied by the Federals. 
The company was ordered away on March 10, 
1862, and was assigned to the 3rd Florida Regi- 
ment ^s Company B, commanded by Capt. John 
Lott Philips, who had been head master at the 
school. The Regiment was sent to Mobile, and 
joined Bragg’s army in its campaign through 
Tennessee into Kentucky and took part in the 
battle of Perryville and other engagements and 
retreat from that State. At Perryville, young 
Brush served as ordnance sergeant. 

Their term of enlistment expiring in December, 
1862, Edward Brush and several other boys were 
discharged and sent home. St. Augustine being 
still in the hands of the Federals, he went to 
Sanderson and worked at the depot quartermas- 
ter’s office until his re-enlistment in August, 1863, 
in Company H, 2nd Florida Battalion, but con- 
tinued in service with the depot quartermaster. 
In May, 1864, the 2nd Florida Battalion was 
ordered to Virginia and served with the Army 
of Northern Virginia. He was in the fighting at 
Petersburg, and was captured with other pickets 
in the Federal charge at the Crater, following the 
explosion of their mine, and sent to Point Look- 
out, from which prison he was discharged after 
the war closed. 

Of special interest is this extract from his will : 
“I give and bequeth to the Confederate Memorial 
Literary Society, or by whatever name that society 
may be known at Richmond, Va., my histories of 
the War between the States, 1861-1865. I direct 
that a reasonable charge for the cost of packing 
and shipping the books to Richmond, Va., be paid 
out of my estate.” 

[Mrs. 0. F. Wiley, Historian Boston Chapter, 
U. D. C.] 


T. W. Fitzpatrick. 

Thomas White Fitzpatrick, was born Septem- 
ber, 1842, died on January 25, 1932, at the home 
of his niece, Mrs. Mary Graves Baker, Knoxville, 
Tenn., after a few days’ illness. After funeral 
services at the home of his daughter, Mrs. Pearl 
Curtis, his body was taken to Asheville, N. C., 
and buried by the side of his wife. He is survived 
by three daughters, one son, and one brother. 
He would have been ninety years old next Sep- 
tember. 

T. W. Fitzpatrick enlisted in Company F, 29th 
Tennessee Regiment, in June, 1861, at the age of 
nineteen years. He was"" elected 2nd Lieutenant 
of his company, and served throughout the War 
between the States. He was wounded at Mur- 
freesboro and Mount Kinnassas. He was in the 
battles of Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, and 
other noted engagements. 

In 1865, he was captured at Rheatown, Tenn., 
and taken to Point Lookout, where he remained 
till the close of war. 

In June, 1870, he married Miss Anna Laura 
Graves, of Morristown, Tenn., and spent the rest 
of his life in Morristown, Asheville, N. C., and 
Knoxville, Tenn. 

[J. P. Graves.] 

J. C. Alcorn. 

Stonewall Jackson Camp, No. 118, U. C. V., of 
Brownwood, Tex., mourns the loss of another 
member in the death of John Caldwell Alcorn, 
eighty-five years of age, who died on the 26th of 
January, 1932, at Bangs, Tex. He was born in 
Floyd County, Ga., October 21, 1847, and in 1864, 
at the age of seventeen, he enlisted in the Confed- 
erate army in the command of Gen. Joe Wheeler. 
He was a charter member of Stonewall Jackson 
Camp. 

In December, 1869, Mr. Alcorn was married to 
Miss Mary Barrett, who survives him with seven 
of the eight children born to them, six sons and 
two daughters. He took his family to Texas from 
Tennessee in 1874. He was a member of the 
Presbyterian Church, of which denomination his 
great-grandfather, Josiah Alcorn, was an elder 
in Ireland. 

Just before his passing, after having been un- 
conscious for some time, Mr. Alcorn sang in a 
loud clear voice every word of the song, “I Need 
Thee Every Hour.” 

[Mary E. White, Adjutant Stonewall Jackson 
Camp, U. C. V.] 


146 


Qo^federat^ l/eterai). 


Jerry Baker. 

On February 9, 1932, at his home in Fresno, 
Calif., my father, Jeremiah Baker, answered the 
Last Roll Call. On a bright morning, he passed 
gently over the border. In bed but a few days, 
without pain, with his family and friends talking 
with him, all was just as he had wished. 

“Glad did he live, and gladly die. 

And he laid him down with a will.” 

He was ready and waited joyfully for the call, 
with a trusting faith that all would be well with 
him. 

Although three months past eighty-eight years 
of age, his mind was clear to the end ; his eyesight 
had failed within the past year so that he could 
not read the daily papers, but the radio served to 
keep him in touch with the doings of the outside 
world. 

Three sons and seven daughters are left to 
mourn the loss of a father who has lived before 
them an example of piety, high principle, and a 
love that embraced all of mankind whose path- 
way brought them in touch with him.. Always 
patient and forbearing with his large family, he 
sought always to lead, never drive, them into 
useful honored manhood and womanhood, each 
one a leader in the community that knows him 
best. 

A long life full of hardships and privations — 
beginning with the loss of his mother in his in- 
fancy — failed to shadow or to sour his disposi- 
tion; uncomplaining and cheerful, he went his 
way with ever a cheery whistle or the words of 
a gospel hymn. Never rich in the world’s goods, 
yet ever ready to share with those less fortunate. 

And when the end of the journey drew near he 
was “sustained and soothed by an unfaltering 
trust” ; approaching his bier “like one who wraps 
the drapery of his couch about him, and lay 
“down to pleasant dreams.” 

From notes prepared by my father, the follow- 
ing is taken: “Born on the 28th of October, 
1843, I was twelve years old when my father 
moved to Missouri in 1855. He was a blacksmith, 
and I worked in his shop until July 25, 1862, when 
I joined the Confederate army. I was taken 
prisoner that fall and sent to St. Louis, then to 
Alton, 111.; in March, 1863, was sent back to St. 
Louis, and on April 2, after seven months in pris- 
on, was sent t<5 City Point, Va., and exchanged, 
then went on to Petersburg. From there a num- 


ber of us were sent to Parsons’ Brigade, 2nd 
Missouri Troops, in Arkansas. At Little Rock, I 
was put in Pindall’s Battalion, 9th Confederate 
Sharpshooters, and so served to the close of war. 
I was made Corporal when the company was re- 
organized, and afterwards promoted to Sergeant ; 
was color guard in every battle I was in. We 
were paroled on the 9th of June, 1865, at Shreve- 
port, La., and started home on the old boat. Old 
Kentucky, on Red River, but the boat struck a 
snag and sank near Shreveport. Many comrades 
were drowned, and many negroes who were going 
North. I swam ashore and landed in a canebrake. 
Those who survived were taken back to Shreve- 
port in a boat, and we again started on our way 
home.” 

Perhaps there are still some of his old com- 
rades who read the Veteran, and may be inter- 
ested in the passing of Jerry Baker. 

[Mrs. Robert Lee Davis, Reedly, Calif.] 

John T. McBride, Sr. 

With the passing of John T. McBride, Sr., on 
May 16, 1931, Jackson Parish, La., lost her oldest 
of the few remaining veterans of the War be- 
tween the States. “Uncle John,” as he was best 
known, was born in Holmes County, Miss., Sep- 
tember 26, 1841. In his early childhood, his 
parents moved to Jackson Parish, La., where he 
grew up and married Miss Elizabeth Brown. 
Only a few weeks after their marriage, war was 
declared, and, on February 27, 1862, Uncle John 
enlisted as a private in Company H, 12th Louisi- 
ana Infantry, C. S. A., at Monroe, La. Trans- 
ferred to Company M in November, he soon saw 
active service, and was captured May 16, 1863, 
at Champion Hill, being sent to the Federal prison 
at Fort Delaware, whence he was transported to 
the prison camp at Elmira, N. Y. In February, 
1865, he was among several Confederate prisoners 
sent to the James River for exchange, and on 
February 25, re-entered the Confederate lines. 

On May 26, 1865, he surrendered at New Or- 
leans, and, being paroled at Monroe in June, he 
returned to Jackson Parish, La., to take up his 
old occupation as farmer and merchant. 

By his first marriage there were six children. 
After the death of his wife in 1882, he married 
Miss Nancy Shows, to whom were born three 
children. She died in 1908, and he married Mrs. 
Jennie Hattaway, who died in 1917. 

I personally knew “Uncle John” McBride for 
the past twenty-five years, and his sterling quali- 
ties were ever a source of inspiration. He was 


147 


^oi)federat^ l/eterar>. 


a devout Christian and a citizen of his community 
of whom all were proud ; a true gentleman of the 
old South! 

[Fred Calloway, Jonesboro, La.] 

Henry M. Kibbee. 

The New York Southern Society reports the 
death, on March 1, 1932, at the Andrew Freeman 
Home, New York City, of Henry M. Kibbee, aged 
ninety years. He was born on the 24th of Novem- 
ber, 1841, in Macon, Ga. At the outbreak of the 
War between the States he enlisted and became a 
sergeant in Company G, 10th Georgia Regiment, 
C. S. A., of which regiment Col. Alfred Cummings 
was in command and Gen. Bankhead Magruder 
was his Brigade Commander. He served in the 
Army of Northern Virginia, and took part in the 
battles of Southern Pines, Savage Station, Mal- 
vern Hill, Williamsburg, the second Bull Run, 
Chancellorsville, Fredericksburg, and South 
Mountain. In the last engagement, he was so 
seriously wounded as to incapacitate him from 
further military service. He was taken prisoner 
and was subsequently exchanged. 

After the War, Mr. Kibbee was engaged in 
business on the New York Cotton Exchange for 
many years, and had the respect and esteem of 
all those who knew him. He is survived by his 
wife. Burial was in the Confederate Burial Plot 
of Mount Hope Cemetery, near New York City. 

[New York Southern Society: George Gordon 
Battle, President; Garland P. Peed, Secretary.] 

In sending the above, J. A. Webb, of New York 
City, writes: 

“Only one comrade now survives of the Con- 
federate Veteran Camp of New York, organized 
by Confederate soldiers who went to New York 
after the close of the war, made that city their 
home and became a widely recognized influence 
in the business, professional, and social life of the 
metropolis.” 

John Phillips. 

On November 4, 1931, at Brantley, Ala., John 
Phillips passed to his reward, aged eighty-nine 
years. He was a brave soldier of the Confederacy, 
serving with the 10th Georgia Regiment, and per- 
forming his duty always regardless of conse- 
quences. While facing the enemy at Chancellors- 
ville, Va., in May,, 1863, he received a wound 
which necessitated the amputation of his arm at 
the shoulder, but in the confusion and turmoil of 


the time, it was not done until mortification had 
set in. However, he survived the trying ordeal, 
and returned home to Alabama, where he married 
and reared a family. He is survived by his wife, 
.four sons, and four daughters. 

Thus has passed one of the few Confederate 
veterans left in Crenshaw County, Ala. Peace 
to his soul ! 

[I. G. Bradwell, Commander Camp Grade, No. 
472, U. C. V.] 

Alonzo Lindsey. 

Alonzo Lindsey, who died at his home in Nash- 
ville, Tenn., on February 13, in his ninety-first 
year, was born at Lawrenceburg, Tenn., June 12, 
1841, the son of Edward Newton and Selinah 
Bailey Lindsey, and a descendant of distinguished 
colonial forbears. Isaac Lindsey, his grand- 
father, fought under Andrew Jackson in the Creek 
Indian War, and John Lindsey, another ancestor, 
served in the Continental Army as a colonel dur- 
ing the Revolutionary War. 

Alonzo Lindsey was educated in private schools 
of Lawrenceburg, at Jackson Academy, Burritt 
College at Spencer, and Franklin College at Nash- 
ville. Just prior to the outbreak of the War be- 
tween the States, he became associated in business 
with a Nashville firm. When the war began he 
returned to Lawrenceburg and helped in the or- 
ganization of a regiment which was taken into the 
Confederate Army as the 3rd Tennessee Regiment. 

With this regiment he served throughout the 
war, first as lieutenant, and later in command of 
his company as captain. He was taken prisoner at 
Fort Donelson, and was confined for eight months 
at Camp Chase and Johnson’s Island, at San- 
dusky, Ohio. He was paroled at Greensboro, 
N. C., May 1, 1865. 

Mr. Lindsey then entered the cotton business in 
Nashville, and a little later the wholesale grocery 
brokerage business, with which he was identified 
throughout the remainder of his life. 

He was married to Miss Etha Jane Hagan in 
1870. Six children were born to them ; two daugh- 
ters died several years ago. His wife died in 1924. 
Surviving are four sons. 


Go to thy rest well earned, thou noble soul ! 

We keep thy memory green and praise thy name. 
Won is the goal, and Paradise thy gain. 

Leaving a legacy of love and fame ! 


148 


Confederate Ueterai). 

lUniteb Daughters of the Confederacy 

^J^/mammry <5Vtrv-M4r/" 

Mrs. William E. R. Byrne, President General 

Charleston. W. Va. 


Mrs. Amos H. Norris First Vice President General 

City Hall, Tampa, Fla. 

Mrs. Chas. B. Faris Second Vice President General 

4469 Westminster Place, St. Louis, Mo. 

Mrs. R. B. Broyles Third Vice President General 

6721 Fifth Court, South, Birmin^rham, Ala. 

Mrs. W. E. Massby Recording Secretary General 

738 Quapaw Avenue, Hot Springrs, Ark. 

Mrs. L. U. Babin Corresponding Secretary General 

903 North Boulevard, Baton Rouge, La. 

All communications for this Department should be sent direct to M 

FROM THE PRESIDENT GENERAL. 

To the United Daughters of the Confederacy : 
It is with great pleasure that I have received let- 
ters from the different officers and chairmen of 
Committees telling me of satisfactory progress 
made in the work of the organization. 

Mrs. Albert Sidney Porter has forwarded to me 
a copy of a letter which she has sent to the Divi- 
sion Registrars and Division Presidents in regard 
to the card file system. She says: “This is one 
of the most forward steps exhibited in the inter- 
est of perfect registration, and shows a great 
improvement in this work, and places registra- 
tion on a high level of efficiency.” 

Mrs. T. W. Reed, Chairman of Education, has 
issued the Education circulars. There are many 
valuable scholarships available this year, notably 
the Washington and Lee Memorial Scholarship 
and the Woodrow Wilson Memorial Scholarship 
in the School of Law at the University of Virginia. 
Mrs. Reed has also made an appeal to the Divi- 
sions to complete the Mrs. L. H. Raines Memorial 
Scholarship. Five thousand dollars is the amount 
needed to complete this fund. The scholarship 
was established in memory of Mrs. L. H. Raines, 
of Georgia, who was one of the greatest and most 
beloved leaders in the United Daughters of the 
Confederacy in earlier years. 

I am glad to announce that the Chapters in 
Massachusetts have organized a Division and to 
welcome this youngest Division into the organi- 
zation. The Division was formed at the Copley 
Plaza Hotel of Boston, February 11, 1932, dele- 
gates and members from the Boston, Woodrow 
Wilson, and Robert E. Lee Chapters attending. 
The following officers were elected: President — 
Mrs. F. L. Hoffman, Boston Chapter; First Vice- 
President — Mrs. C. B. Taylor; Second Vice-Presi- 
dent — Mrs. George E. Judd, R. E. Lee Chapter; 
Third Vice-President — Mrs. R. L. Rand, Woodrow 


Mrs. George Dismukes Treasurer General 

1409 Chickasha Avenue, Chickasha, Okla. 

Mrs. John H. Anderson Historian General 

707 West Morgan Street, Raleigh, N. C. 

Mrs. a. S. Porter, Hotel Monroe, Portsmouth, W a. . Registrar General 

Mrs. J. W. Goodwin, Allendale, N. J Custodian of Crosses 

Mrs. j. L. Medun Custodian of Flags and Pennant 

1641 Riverside Avenue, Jacksonville, Fla. 

rs. R. H. Chesley, Official Editor, 11 Everett Street, Cambridge, Mass. 

Wilson Chapter; Recording Secretary — Mrs. E. 
E. Pratt; Corresponding Secretary — Mrs. Albert 
Rider, Boston Chapter; Registrar — Mrs. P. W. 
Page, Boston Chapter ; Historian — Mrs. 0. F. 
Wiley, Boston Chapter. 

I have received a letter inviting the United 
Daughters of the Confederacy to participate in the 
National Flag Day Pageant Parade to be held in 
Washington, D. C., on the evening of June 14, 
1932. As at Asheville a resolution was introduced 
to co-operate with the Commission for the celebra- 
tion of the 200th Anniversary of Washington’s 
birth (Asheville Minutes, page 118), after con- 
sulting by correspondence with the members of 
the Executive Committee, I took the liberty to ac- 
cept the invitation. As it will be impossible for 
me to be in Washington at that date, I have ap- 
pointed Miss Jessica Randolph Smith, of that city, 
to represent the United Daughters of the Con- 
federacy officially on that occasion. Many Chap- 
ters have written me of the fact of their having 
co-operated with other organizations in the cele- 
brations of the Bicentennial. Mrs. L. U. Babin, 
Corresponding Secretary General, has sent me a 
program of the Bicentennial celebration at Baton 
Rouge, sponsored by the Louisiana State Univer- 
sity and the Patriotic and Civic Organizations of 
the city. 

There has come to my desk a book, “Lee, the 
Soul of Honor,” that is to my mind a great addi- 
tion to Southern literature. It was written by 
John E. Hobeika. Mr. Hobeika is a young Syrian 
who came to America in his early youth. Mr. 
Lyon G. Tyler in his foreword to the book said: 
“Mr. Hobeika’s book is really a poem in blank 
verse.” 

In Memoriam. 

On December 29, 1931, at the home of her son, 
Charles D. Lanier, in Greenwich, Conn., Mrs. 
Sidney Lanier, wife of the poet, Sidney Lanier, 


149 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai>. 


passed to her reward. Our hearts go out in 
sympathy to her family and friends. 

On Saturday morning, February 13, 1932, at 
her home in Atlanta, Ga., God called the gentle 
spirit of Miss Alice Baxter to her heavenly home. 
In her death the United Daughters of the Con- 
federacy has met with a great loss. It was my 
pleasure to serve on the Executive Committee 
with her when Mrs. Roy W. McKinney was Presi- 
dent General. Her sweetness of spirit and her 
brightness of intellect endeared her to the whole 
Committee. To me her death is a great personal 
sorrow. We unite with her family, her friends, 
her Division, and her Chapter in mourning her 
loss. 

Faithfully yours, Amanda Austin Byrne. 


U. D. C. NOTES. 

Arkanas. — Mrs. Brown Rogers, President of 
the Arkansas Division, held an Executive Board 
meeting in Little Rock during February, during 
which she outlined the work of the Division for 
the coming year. All Committee Chairmen were 
appointed, also their assistants. 

On February 3, Mrs. Rogers attended the an- 
niversary celebration of the Gen. T. J. Churchill 
Chapter at the historic old home of General 
Churchill, w’hose two daughters, Mrs. M. M. 
Hankins and Mrs. J. F. Calef, were hostesses. 
Mrs. Hankins has been reappointed Regent of the 
Arkansas Room of the Confederate Museum, 
Richmond, Va. 

Trees are being planted at Arkansas Post com- 
memorative of the battle fought there during the 
War between the States. A portion of the ground 
will be converted into a U. D. C. park. 

Mrs. W. E. Massey, Recording Secretary Gen- 
eral, of Hot Springs, was an honor guest at the 
Lee-Jackson-Maury memorial exercises held in 
Little Rock. 

[Josie Frazee Cappleman, Publicity Director.] 

* * * 

California . — The nine hostess Chapters of Los 
Angeles and Santa Monica ask that, if possible, 
the Daughters who are planning to visit Cali- 
fornia during the Olympic Games, come to Los 
Angeles during the California Division Conven- 
tion, May 10, 11, and 12. 

The Ambassador Hotel, headquarters for the 
Convention, is giving reduced rates to Daughters, 
and is also planning a golf tournament for the 
guests’ families, as well as throwing open their 
plunge, and will stage an exhibition of some of 


the entrants in the aquatic events during the 
Olympiad. 

Mrs. Mary Elder, General Convention Chair- 
man, 116 South Dillon Avenue, Los Angeles, will 
be glad to answer inquiries. 

On January 19, commemorating the anniver- 
sary of Gen. Robert E. Lee’s birth, the six Chap- 
ters from both sides of San Francisco Bay gave a 
luncheon at the Women’s City Club in Berkeley, 
at which Mrs. Clio Lee Aydelot, of Hanford, a 
relative of General Lee, was a guest of honor. 
Mrs. Virginia Monroe led one hundred guests in 
singing Southern songs. 

The Le Conte Chapter presented Col. Lewis 
Farrell, U. S. A., with a World War Cross of 
Military Service in honor of the services rendered 
the South by his father, Norman Farrell, during 
the War between the States. 

Col. George E. Raum, of Berkeley, a veteran of 
the Army of Northern Virginia, was introduced, 
and another distinguished guest w’as Mrs. C. C. 
Clay, Honorary President U. D. C. 

In Los Angeles the Helena B. Thorpe Chapter, 
C. of C., opened its regular monthly meeting with 
“Dixie.” Virginia Runstan told in detail of the 
impressive ceremony at Richmond, Va., on Jan- 
uary 19, in dedicating the bronze statue of Gen- 
eral Lee on the spot where he accepted the com- 
mand of the armed forces of Virginia. Barbara 
Stoughton, now in Richmond, sent a description 
of the Matthew Fontaine Maury monument dedi- 
cated in 1929, on Monument Avenue in Richmond, 
along with the immortals, Lee, Jackson, Stuart, 
and Davis. Anna Riche gave a paper on Matthew 
Fontaine Maury, “Pathfinder of the Seas,” follow- 
ing which Mrs. IMason, Director, told of the 
achievements of Commodore Maury that have 
proved of inestimable value to navigation. 

The birth month of Maury, Jackson, and Lee 
was chosen by the Sterling Price Chapter, of 
Stockton, to honor Benjamin E. Longist, 107-y ear- 
old Confederate veteran, a private in Company H, 
2nd Florida Cavalry, and who also served eight 
years in the Indian Wars. He was presented with 
the Cross of Honor at the home of his daughter, 
and he presented each guest with a flower. 

Two Chapters in San Diego celebrated the Bi- 
centennial of George Washington’s birth at their 
regular meetings as well as at a luncheon given at 
the San Diego Athletic Club by the Stonewall 
Jackson Chapter. ]\Iiss Mary Vivian Conway, 
President of the Chapter and Division Historian, 
a native Virginian, presided. 

[May Blanks Killough, Director Publicity.] 


150 


Qopfcderat^ l/eterap. 


Kentucky . — The Albert Sidney Johnston Chap- 
ter holds its meetings the second Monday in each 
month, at the Seelbach Hotel. Last October it 
entertained the State Convention, and a member, 
Mrs. Josephine M. Turner, was elected President 
of the Kentucky Division, while another, Mrs. Nat 
Dortch, was elected Corresponding Secretary, 
honors of which the Chapter is very proud. 

On the day after Thanksgiving, several of the 
members went to the Confederate Home at Pewee 
Valley, taking the Chapter donation to the veter- 
ans — fifty cents each and served ice cream and 
cake. Members from the Chapter went again on 
the 26th of December and assisted the Confed- 
erate Home Chapter in distributing the gifts sent 
by the Chapters throughout the State. Mr. Mc- 
Farland, Commandant, had a gaily decorated 
Christmas tree in the sun parlor, and Mrs. Minish 
and her two children gave a delightful program of 
music and dancing, the Confederate Home Chap- 
ter serving refreshments. 

On Kentucky Day, December 13, the Chapter 
arranged for speakers to give outstanding events 
in Kentucky history in seventy-five city schools, 
a custom of several years. 

On January 18, a Confederate fiag was pre- 
sented to the Greathouse School. The presenta- 
tion was made by the President of the Chapter, 
and Mrs. Turner, President of the Division, gave 
a talk on General Lee’s interest in education. 

Captain Bennett was presented with a Cross 
of Honor on January 19. The reception, planned 
for that day, was canceled due to the passing 
away of Mrs. T. D. Osborne — the mother of Mrs. 
John L. Woodbury, one of the oldest members of 
the Chapter. 

[Mrs. W. T. Fowler, Director.] 

* * * 

Louisiana . — Louisiana is very proud of the fact 
'that our Mrs. L. U. Babin was unanimously 
elected to the office of Corresponding Secretary 
General at the convention in Jacksonville. Mrs. 
Babin has long been active in U. D. C. work, and 
has held many offices in the Louisiana Division, 
one of them being that of State President. To 
honor Mrs. Babin, the local Chapters in New 
Orleans and Joanna Waddill Chapter, of Baton 
Rouge, of which Mrs. Babin is a member, enter- 
tained at attractive luncheons. 

We are gratified, also, at the work our Children 
of the Confederacy are doing. The Julia Jackson 
Chapter, of New Orleans, won the Doriska Gau- 
treaux prize, a set of books valued at fifty dollars. 


offered by Mrs. Charles Granger to the chapter 
sending the best report, and in addition securing 
the largest number of subscriptions to the Con- 
federate Veteran. Nine of these subscriptions 
were given by Owen Eckhardt, the little son of 
our State President, to different schools in the 
city. 

The Division extends its thanks to the Ladies’ 
Confederate Memorial Association of New Or- 
leans for a contribution of twenty-five dollars 
toward the fund for the Jefferson Davis bust at 
Transylvania. 

It is with pleasure that we report an increased 
number of subscriptions to the Veteran given by 
our Chapters to the schools of different cities, and 
an increasing use of the magazine in Chapter 
programs. 

[Mary Graham, Director.] 

* * * 

Ohio . — The thirtieth annual convention of the 
Ohio Division met in Dayton, October 14, as guest 
of the Gen. Joe Wheeler Chapter. Mrs. Crocker, 
Division President, responding to the address of 
welcome given by the Mayor of Dayton. 

Mrs. W. E. R. Byrne, candidate for President 
General, was the guest of honor. A beautiful 
banquet was held in the evening at the Hotel 
Miami. 

Mrs. Croker stressed the importance of Con- 
federate Veteran Relief and a report was given 
concerning the Memorial to Dan Emmet, author 
of “Dixie,” which was placed at his birthplace in 
Mount Vernon, Ohio, last June, by the Ohio Divi- 
sion. 

The Henry W. Grady Chapter in Dayton is 
proud to claim among the honorary members two 
Confederate veterans, Mr. J. E. Delay, formerly 
of Virginia, and Dr. W. T. Simrall, formerly of 
Kentucky. 

[Sarah Simrall Lane.] 

jp * 

Virginia . — Notwithstanding “the depression,” 
the State of Virginia is coming up with all pledges 
to U. D. C. work in the State. Chapters are re- 
ported as being in a flourishing condition, and 
new members are being added to many of them. 

The first meeting of the Executive Board of 
the Virginia Division was held in Petersburg, 
January 21, 1932. Those present at the meeting 
were the newly elected officers. Miss Annie 
Mann read a letter from the Fredericksburg 
Chapter issuing invitation for the next State Con- 
vention to be held in October, 1932. 


151 


Qoi)federat^ l/eterap. 


Reports were given by chairmen of committees. 
Mrs. Charles E. Bolling, as Chairman of Relief 
Work, stated that no further obligations could be 
taken care of this year. The Treasurer reporting 
six accounts closed: Matthew Fontaine Maury 
Bust Fund, Matthew Maury Scholarship Fund, 
Winnie Davis Memorial Fund, and the Jefferson 
Davis Bust Fund. 

Mrs. William Cabell Flournoy’s book. Twin 
Patriots: Washington and Lee, was indorsed as 
parallel reading in the Virginia schools. 

Mrs. Charles Bolling reported that $5,890.90 
has been raised, of the $8,461.65 Virginia Division 
quota for payment on Stratford, and also told of 
the paying off of the mortgage on January 8 by 
a loan of $115,000 from a friend who required no 
interest. 

(Continued on page 152) 


l^iBtiinral Srpartment. II. S. <K. 


Motto : “Loyalty to the Truth of Confederate History.” 
Keyword: “Preparedness.” Flower: The Rose. 
Historian General: Mrs. John Huske Anderson. 

Aims for 1932: To know your work — a fuller knowl- 
edge of the facts of our Confederate history. 


HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS OF THE CONFED- 
ERATE PERIOD. 

With Sotithern Songs 

May, 1932. 

Memorials Erected to Confederate Valor — Arlington, 
Richmond, Lexington, Shiloh, Gettysburg, and the Battle 
Abbey. 

Sculptors: Sir Moses Ezekiel, Edward Valentine, and 
others. 

Poem: “Cover Them Over with Beautiful Flowers.” 
Songs:' “Just Before the Battle, Mother,” and “Tenting 
Tonight on the Old Camp Ground.” 


May, 1932. 

Southern Memorial Bay — How Begun? 

How the North Adopted Memorial Day from the South. 
Confederate Soldiers Who Were Poets. 

Selection of Confederate Poetry. 

“The Conquered Banner.” Father Ryan. 


PRIZES FOR CHILDREN OF THE CONFEDERACY. 

Robert H. Ricks. Banner. — To the C. of C. Chapter 
sending in the best all-around report. 

Grace Clare Taylor Loving Cup. — To the C. of C. 
Chapter registering the largest number of new members 
during the year. 


Anna Flagg Harvey Loving Cup. — To the Division 
Director who registers the largest number of new members 
during the year. 

Florence Goalder Faris Medal. — To the Division Di- 
rector who registers the second largest number of new 
members during the year. 

Mollie Day Daffan Loving Cup. — Offered by Miss 
Katie Daffan, in memory of her mother, to the member of 
the C. of C. who performs the most unselfish, individual 
service to a Confederate veteran or widow of a Confederate 
soldier. 

Mrs. W. S. Coleman Loving Cup. — To the Chapter Di- 
rector who places in school libraries the largest number of 
books on Confederate history, to be used as supplemental 
reading. 

Five Dollars in Gold. — Offered by Mrs. R. B. Broyles 
to the Division Director sending in the first list of All 
Chapters Chartered. 

The J. D. Moore C. of C. Chapter of Gastonia, North 
Carolina, in recognition of the twenty years’ service as its 
Leader, offers a medal, to be known as the “Mrs. Thomas 
Lee Craig Medal,” and to be given annually to the Chapter 
Leader transferring to membership in U. D. C. the great- 
est number of C. of C. members who have reached the age 
limit. 


C. OF C. ESSAYS. 

(The same rules apply to the C. of C. essays as the U. 
D. C., except that the former must be sent to the Third 
Vice-President General, Mrs. R. B. Broyles, 5721 Fifth 
Court, South, Birmingham, Ala.) 

Churchill Loving Cup. — For the best essay on “The 
Right of Secession.” 

Medal. — Offered by Mrs. H. W. Eckhardt, in memory of 
her mother, for the best essay on “Stonewall Jackson.” 

Medal. — Offered by Miss Jessica Smith, in memory of 
her father, Orren Randolph Smith. 

Subject: “The Story of Stratford,” with special refer- 
ence to the men and women who made it their home. 

Annual U. D. C. Medal. — Memorial to Judge Edward 
Curd McLean, of Sherman, Texas, offered for competition 
to the General Organization, Children of the Confederacy, 
by his niece, Mrs. Franklin L. Morgan. 

Subject: “Great Men of the South, Prior to the War 
between the States.” 

The Oren Randolph Smith Medal. — For the best es- 
say on “The Story of Stratford Hall,” with special reference 
to the men and women who lived there and called it home. 

$5.00. — For the best essay on “Daring Cavalry Raids on 
the Confederacy,” given by Mrs. J. T. Burney, of Mis- 
sissippi. 


Cups for U. D. C. and C. of C. are held for one year by 
the winners, whose names are engraved thereon, with date 
of award, and when filled, they are to be placed in the 
Confederate Museum at Richmond. The Babin, Eckhardt, 
and the Frederick Cups, when won two years in succes- 
sion, will belong to the winner. Names engraved on cups 
must not have letters over one-quarter of an inch in size. 

Medals and money are the property of the winners. 

Program for C. of C. is sent out to Division Directors by 
the Director General, U. D. C. 


152 


Qopfcderat^ l/eterap. 


U. D. C. NOTES. 

(Continued from page 151) 

A luncheon was tendered the committee by the 
Petersburg Chapter. 

At least ten members from each chapter in the 
State of Virginia should subscribe to the Con- 
federate Veteran, which is a superb collection 
of vital information concerning our Southland, 
and it is a privilege to secure it for the small sum 
asked. Ten to a Chapter is Virginia’s slogan. 
Remember it. 

The one hundred and twenty-fifth anniversary 
of Robert E. Lee’s birth was celebrated by Chap- 
ters over the entire State. The Old Dominion 
Chapter of Lynchburg, held programs in all the 
city schools. At a meeting of the Chapter at the 
Elk’s Club, Mrs. John H. Davis paid a beautiful 
tribute to General Lee. Crosses of honor were 
awarded to Dr. Don Preston Peters, Robert Ed- 
ward McClure, and William C. Younger, World 
War veterans of Confederate descent. Southern 
songs were sung. 

At exercises commemorating the Lee anniver- 
sary, the Wythe Grey Chapter, of Wytheville, pre- 
sented Crosses of Service to Rev. W. H. Bowman, 
present Commander of the American Legion Post 
No. 9, Wytheville, Va. ; Bishop M. Thomas, Ben- 
nett G. Moore, William Gammon, of Rural Re- 
treat, and Col. R. Kent Spiller. The latter, son 
of one of the V. M. I. Cadets, also received the 
Spanish-American and Philippine Insurrection 
decorations, a most unusual honor. 

Mrs. Fitzhugh Lee Palmer, of Emporia, the 
new Historian, has begun her work of the year in 
outlining programs for chapters, securing prizes 
for schools, and inspiring the work in collecting 
Southern libraries. The work on marking graves 
of Confederate dead is also urged by our State 
officers. 

[Claudia M. Hagy.] 

* * 

West Virginia. — Huntington Chapter, No. 150, 
celebrated the birthdays of Generals Lee and 
Jackson by entertaining with a covered dish lunch- 
eon at the home of Mrs. Anna Kincaid, on January 

19. 

A program was presented consisting of an ad- 
dress and readings, with the lives of the two 
heroes as the subject. Vocal and instrumental 
music was rendered, and a memorial service held 
for the members who departed this life the past 
year. 

Stonewall Jackson Chapter, of Clarksburg, held 
a joint celebration of the birthdays of Generals 


Lee and Jackson, Matthew Fontaine Maury, Jef- 
ferson Davis, Albert Gallatin Jenkins, and Ad- 
miral Semmes on January 19, in the Dixie Room 
of the Stonewall Jackson Hotel. 

An address was made which touched on the 
heroic deeds of the six valorous men whose 
memories were honored, and a sketch given of 
Belle Boyd, the Southern Spy. Southern readings 
in negro dialect and instrumental and vocal music 
were on the program. 

The Chapter President, Mrs. R. M. Thomason, 
told of the great educational work being done by 
the Daughters of the Confederacy. 


PLANTING THE U. D. C. BANNER IN 
MASSACHUSETTS. 

On February 11, 1932, a Division of the United 
Daughters of the Confederacy was organized in 
Massachusetts. 

One vitally interested in the history of the or- 
ganization has asked for the story of the estab- 
lishing of our Banner in Massachusetts, “for, of 
all the States, that one would be the last to show 
a sympathetic atmosphere of our cause,” she said. 

The story begins back in October, 1912, down in 
Athens, Ga., where the daughter of a Confederate 
soldier, who had married a Boston man, knew 
that she would soon be leaving to make her fu- 
ture home in Massachusetts. 

Right here a pause is made to pay a loving trib- 
ute of gratitude to the late “Miss Milly” Ruther- 
ford for her inspiring encouragement from the 
time the idea was proposed throughout all the try- 
ing experiences that followed she never failed 
to give out helpful advice and aid in many ways ; 
to Mrs. Roy W. McKinney, for, as Recording 
Secretary General, she aided in a vital way with 
all the technical part of the work, and with her 
encouraging letters; to Mrs. Walter D. Lamar, 
at that time the Georgia State President, who 
gave the messenger Georgia application blanks for 
membership (at that time we did not use a uni- 
versal blank) and her deep interest in the idea; 
to the late Mrs. Fannie R. Williams — who issued 
the Charter — whose unfailing support helped to 
make the first trying year a success. 

In January, 1913, the standard bearer arrived 
in Boston armed with one hundred Georgia mem- 
bership blanks, wearing her U. D. C. badge, forti- 
fied with years of schooling under “Miss Milly,” 
and blessed with an inherited resourcefulness 
from her Confederate forbears! 


Qoijfederat^ l/etcrai). 


The name of one Southern woman in Boston 
had been given to her by Miss Milly — it was Dr. 
Mary Scott Jones. 

Without delay this Alabama-born Boston 
woman was called upon to help the standard 
bearer find at least five more women eligible to the 
U. D. C., as we had to have seven. The good 
Doctor was not a member, so papers were given 
her to fill out at once. She furnished several 
names of Southerners who might be eligible. Her 
material aid and interest were invaluable in the 
beginning, and she is still a loyal supporter. May 
she be spared to us for a long time in Massachu- 
setts. 

Several months went by, and in that time 
eighteen Southern women had been called upon 
in greater Boston, and asked to join in organiz- 
ing a Chapter of the U. D. C. Only three of that 
number were secured. Some were not really 
eligible. But the experiences encountered when 
interviewing all these ladies would make a most 
interesting book. Time and space do not per- 
mit the details about the different ones that helped 
to make the final steps successful, but the writer 
knows who they are, and will always be grateful 
to them and those who have joined in later years 
and are carrying on so loyally. But it must be 
told that the standard bearer ran into bitter op- 
position many times. Some of the Southerners 
were married to Northern men, professional and 
business ones, who were afraid that the wives as 
members of such an organization would hurt 
them ! 

September, 1913, had arrived and only five as- 
sured members — and, wondering just where to 
look next for U. D. C. material in Boston, the 
standard bearer happened to glance at a rather 
distinguished-looking lady standing near her at 
a department store counter. The glance turned 
into a stare, for she found that she was gazing 
right at a U. D. C. badge on that strange lady’s 
dress ! That was introduction enough. The lady 
proved to be a loyal U. D. C. from South Carolina, 
spending a year here with her daughter. She sent 
immediately to her home for demits for herself 
and daughter, and so we had the lucky seven! 
However, through these two we succeeded in find- 
ing four more, so that the Boston Chapter was 
chartered with eleven members, and the U. D. C.’s 
have been very busy in Massachusetts, and now 
have grown into a Division ! 

One of the members graciously offered her 


153 

home for the meetings, and the first were held 
there ; but when the charter arrived in February, 
1914, a special meeting commemorating the great 
event was held at the Cambridge home of the 
standard bearer. 

We have made many lasting friends among 
our Massachusetts neighbors, won over newspaper 
editors, and have accomplished many seemingly 
impossible things — these U. D. C.’s in Massachu- 
setts! 

[The Standard Bearer.] 


THE CONFEDERATE BATTLE FLAG. 

Mrs. Charles E. Bolling, Chairman Committee 
to Arrange for Manufacture and Distribution of 
the Correctly Designed Battle Flag of the Confed- 
eracy, reports that a contract has been made for 
the manufacture of these flags, and that they will 
be on sale in the near future. Orders may be 
sent to Mrs. Bolling at 902 West Grace Street, 
Richmond, Va. 

These flags are made of soft cotton bunting, 
12-yi, inches square, and the prices are as follows: 
$12.00 per gross plus postage or express; $1.50 
per dozen, or fifteen cents each, postpaid. 

The announcement sent out to the U. D. C. 
membership by the Committee as to these flags 
states : 

“For many years an effort has been made to 
have the correct (square) design of Confederate 
Battle Flag, with white border on all four sides, 
used by the various Confederate organizations 
rather than the rectangular design, which has 
been the only one available in the small size cheap- 
er flags. 

“Now the object so long desired will be obtained 
by the making of the new design. Under the con- 
tract the United Daughters of the Confederacy 
are to secure orders amounting 150 gross during 
the year 1932. It is, therefore, our most earnest 
request that you may send an order for as many 
flags as you can afford to purchase, so that our 
guarantee may be quickly met and that this cor- 
rectly designed flag shall in the future be exclu- 
sively used by our Confederate organizations. 

“Orders sent now will be filed and flags will be 
delivered about April 15.’’ 

Committee: Mrs. Charles E. Bolling, Chairman, 
Richmond, Va. ; Mrs. A. McD. Wilson, Atlanta, 
Ga. ; Mrs. J. Sumter Rhame, Charleston, S. C.; 
Miss Mary Stribling, Martinsburg, W. Va. ; Mrs. 
Alfred Cochran, New York. 


154 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai^e 


Confcberateb Southern /Iftemorial Hssociation 


Mrs. a. McD. Wilson President General 

209 Fourteenth Street, N. E., Atlanta, Ga. 


Mrs. C. B. Bryan First Vice President General 

1640 Peabody Avenue, Memphis, Tenn. 


Miss Sue H. Walker Second Vice President General 

Fayetteville, Ark. 

Mrs. J. T. Hi|{ht Treasurer General 

Fayetteville, Ark. 

Miss Daisy M. L. Hodgson.... Secretary General 
7909 Sycamore Street, New Orleans, La. 

Mrs. Bryan Wells Collier Historian General 

College Park, Ga. 

Miss Willie Fort Williams Corresponding Secretary General 
Atlanta, Ga. 

Mrs. Virginia Frazer Boyle Poet Laureate General 

653 South McLean Boulevard, Memphis, Tenn. 

Mrs. Belle Allen Ross Auditor General 

Montgomery, Ala. 

Rev. Giles B. Cooke Chaplain General 

Mathews, Va, 

Mrs. L. T. D. Quinby National Orginizer 

Atlanta, Ga. 



STATE PRESIDENTS 


Alabama— Montgomery Mrs. R. P. Dexter 

Arkansas— L ittle Rock Mrs. Sara WasseU 

District of Columbia — Washington Mrs. N. P. Webster 

Florida Gainesville. Mrs. Townes R. Leigh 

Georgia — Atlanta. Mrs. William A. Wright 

Kentucky — 


Louisiana — New Orleans Mrs. James Dinkins 

Maryland Mrs. D. H. Fred 

Mississippi— Biloxi Mrs. Byrd Enochs 

Missouri— St. Louis Mrs. G. K. Warner 

North Carolina— Asheville Mrs. J. J. Yates 

Oklahoma — Oklahoma City Mrs. James R. Armstrong 

South Carolina— Charleston Mrs. S. Cary Beckwith 

Tennessee— Memphis Mrs. Mary H. Miller 

Texas — Dallas Mrs. T. A. Buford 

Virginia— Richmond Mrs. B. A. Blenner 

West Virginia — Huntington Mrs. D. D. Geiger 


All communications for this Department should be sent direct to Mrs. Ada Ramp WaldBN, Editor, Box 692, Augusta, Ga. 


MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT 
GENERAL. 

My dear Co-ivorkers: If my message to you is 
short and lacking in the inspirational value that 
I hoped to give it, please overlook shortcomings, 
as I have not been in physical condition to carry 
on as usual. 

That the Reunion and our Convention of the 
Confederate Southern Memorial Association is to 
be held in Richmond, Va., June 21-24, and the 
Jefferson Hotel is to be headquarters, is sufficient 
inducement to attract the largest gathering in 
years, for Richmond is very dear to the heart of 
the South — so intimately linked with the rise and 
fall of the Confederacy, so beautiful in its setting 
on the James River, and so rich in history and 
tradition. 

I cannot enumerate the many charms that lure 
one, but can only say “come and see,” and pledge 
you a convention never surpassed in our history. 

Write Mrs. B. A. Blenner, our splendid State 
President on the Board of Control, for arrange- 
ments. Every plan for your comfort and pleas- 
ure will be a consideration. 

* * * 

Mrs. J. J. Yates, State President of North Caro- 
lina, reports that the Asheville Association, with 
Mrs. Robert A. Conyers, President, is doing splen- 
did work, and that she recently attended a meet- 
ing of the Association when fifteen Confederate 
veterans were present ; also prospects of two new 
associations in the near future. 

* * * 

From Mrs. Irene Molter, of Huntington, W. 
Va., comes a most splendid report of the Junior 
Memorial. They now have eighty-six members. 


Had two delegates and two alternates at the Mont- 
gomery convention, and hope to have a large dele- 
gation at Richmond, as the distance to be traveled 
is much less, and “all roads lead to Richmond.” 

* * * 

The Atlanta Ladies’ Memorial Association, with 
Mrs. William A. Wright, Life President, held a 
recent meeting, when most elaborate plans were 
made for the Memorial Day celebration, April 
26. If one should be a “doubting Thomas” re- 
garding the future of the Memorial Day observ- 
ance, a visit to Atlanta and a view of the parade 
could not fail to be convincing proof that the 
movement is much alive and that the South is still 
loyal to the spirit of ’61 to ’65. 

Faithfully yours, 

Margaret A. Wilson, 
President General. 


C. S. M. A. NOTES. 

The Ladies’ Memorial Association of Waynes- 
boro, Ga., Mrs. Hugh Buchanan McMaster, Presi- 
dent, observed the birthday of an illustrious 
Southerner, George Washington, most interesting- 
ly. In the heart of the attractive little town 
stands the house in which George Washington 
spent the night on his way to Augusta, twenty- 
six miles beyond, in May, 1791. In a speech at 
Princeton, on one of Washington’s birthdays, 
Woodrow Wilson mentioned that one of the 
memories of his boyhood was that of accompany- 
ing his father to Waynesboro, where the two 
spent the morning in this home, then known as 
the Mandel House, the Wilsons being residents 
then of Augusta. 

On the veranda of this home the exercises took 


155 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 


place, the street in front having been roped off 
and traffic halted during the hour of observance. 
Mrs. McMaster presided, and presented the 
speaker, Mrs. Ada Ramp Walden ; and, at the con- 
clusion of the exercises, the procession formed and 
repaired to the yard of the courthouse, where an 
elm tree was planted by the children. A uni- 
formed military unit, with Colonel Blount in 
command, headed the procession; and with the 
Ladies’ Memorial Association marched Mrs. Callie 
Wimberly, the only survivor of the organizers 
who came into being in 1866, and who saw laid 
the corner stone of the beautiful Confederate 
monument in the town in 1877. 

It is particularly noteworthy that the children 
taking important part in the tree-planting have 
a most historic background : 

Linwood Herrington, who recited Joyce Kil- 
mer’s “Trees,” is a great-grandson of the first 
President of the Association, Mrs. M. A. McKen- 
zie; Bobert Carswell Neely, Jr., who planted the 
ivy from the house in which Washington spent 
the night, is a great-nephew of the fourth Presi- 
dent, Mrs. W. E. Jones, and grandson of the 
second President, Mrs. W. A. Wilkins. Mrs. 
Dade Durden, who presented the tree to the city 
and county, is the great-niece of the third Presi- 
dent, Mrs. Floyd Lawson; and little Rosa Moore 
McAuley, who assisted in the planting, is the 
granddaughter of the present President, Mrs. 
Hugh McMaster. Verily is history carrying on! 


The Mary Lois Sibley Eve Junior Memorial 
Association of Augusta, Ga., under the joint 
leadership of Mrs. R. J. Wilkinson and Mrs. J. D. 
Carswell, is reaching forth in a campaign for 
members; and little Miss Juliana Wright, daugh- 
ter of Dr. and Mrs. Peter Wright, is to date the 
youngest member enrolled. Juliana is four 
months old, “goin’ on five,” and her enthusiastic 
entrance has been the inspiration for many more 
to follow. The Juniors will carry on the work 
when those now living are no more; and a mighty 
good slogan for every organization would be “A 
Junior Organization in Every Association.” 


“NOR SHALL YOUR STORY BE FORGOT.” 
The following letter has been sent out by the 
Mary Taliaferro Thompson Memorial Associa- 
tion, C. S. M. A., of Washington, D. C., under date 
of January 29, 1932 : 

“In 1921, descendants of Confederate veterans 
inaugurated a movement to acquire the Manassas 


Battlefield, and in 1931 the purchase of 130 acres 
of battlefield land was consummated, and title was 
taken under the name of ‘Manassas Battlefield 
Confederate Park Association, Incoporated.’ 
Monuments are now being erected by various 
organizations on this field. 

“The Mary Taliaferro Thompson Memorial As- 
sociation, C. S. M. A., of Washington, D. C., has 
long realized that a fireproof museum should be 
erected on this historic battlefield. The accumu- 
lation of valuable relics now displayed in an old 
frame building — ^the ‘Henry House’ — and others 
stored in various attics and cellars in private 
homes, makes the erection of a permanent, fire- 
proof building imperative. 

“Under date of October 7, 1931, a letter over 
the signatures of the President, Mr. John W. Rust, 
and the Secretary-Treasurer, Mr. Rufus W. Pear- 
son, of the Manassas Battlefield Confederate Park 
Association, was received, requesting the Mary 
Taliaferro Thompson Memorial Association, 
C. S. M. A., to solicit funds and build this Mu- 
seum. 

“We, the members of this Association, have ac- 
cepted this responsibility and ask you to aid us 
in this splendid work, because 

(1) Manassas Battlefield is in Dixie, twenty- 
five miles from Washington, D. C., on the 
Lee Highway. 

(2) Here lie in unknown graves boys from 
every Southern State. 

(3) Here, under Beauregard and Johnson, and 
then a year later under the matchless Lee, 
men from every Southern State won two 
outstanding victories. Here Bee fell, 
Hampton spilled his blood, and the im- 
mortal Jackson became ‘Stonewall.’ 

“A Memorial Book containing the names of all 
contributors will be placed in the Museum. 

“The cost of erecting and furnishing this pro- 
posed Museum will be $5,000.00. We hope to lay 
the corner stone on July 21, 1932, the 71st anni- 
versary of the first Battle of Manassas. We ear- 
nestly plead that your response to this request will 
take the form of a generous contribution. Send 
your donation at as early a date as possible to the 
Bonded Treasurer, Mrs. Wallace Sreater, 1657 
Thirty-first Street, Washington, D. C. 

(Mrs. H. G.) Lucy Steele Clay, President 
Mary Taliaferro Thompson Memorial As- 
sociation, C. S. M. A.; 

5433 33d Street, Chevy Chase, D. C. 

(Mrs. a. F.) Odom G. Ferguson, Secretary. 


156 


^oi>fcderat^ l/eterai). 


Sons of Confebecate IDeterans 

Dr. George R. Tabor, Commander in Chief, Oklahoma City, Okla. 


GENERAL OFFICERS. 

Walter L. Hopkins, Richmond, Va Adjutant in Chief 

J. Edward Jones, Oklahoma City, Okla. ../Tiapector in Chief 
Maj. Marion Rushton, Montgomery, Ala. Judge Advocate in 
Chief 

C. E. Gilbert. Houston, Tex Historian in Chief 

Dr. W. H. Scudder, Mayersville, Miss. . . . Surgeon in Chief 
Edward Hill Courtney, Richmond, \ a. . Quartermaster in 
Chief 

Arthur C. Smith, Washington, D. C. . Commissary in Chief 
Maj. Edmond R. Wiles, Little Rock, Ark.. Publicity Director 
in Chief 

Rev. Nathan A. Seagle, New York .. ..Chaplain in Chief 


EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 


Dr. George R. Tabor, Chairman Oklahoma City, Okla. 

John Ashley Jones, Secretary Atlanta, Ga. 

Dr. William R. Dancy Savannah, Ga. 

Robert S. Hudgins Richmond, Va. 

Judge Edgar Scurry Wichita Falls, Tex. 

John M. Kinard Newberry, S. C. 

Walter H. Saunders St. Louis, Mo. 


COMMITTEE CHAIRMEN. 


Arthur H. Jennings, Historical Lynchburg, Va. 

A. W. Taber, Relief Austin, Tex. 

H. K. Ramsey, Monument Atlanta, Ga. 

Lucius L. Moss, Finance Lake Charles. La. 

Dr. Mathew Page Andrews, Textbooks Baltimore, Md. 


Rupus W. Pearson, Manassas Battle Field. .Washington U, C. 



VICE COMMANDERS IN CHIEF. 

Dr. William R. Dancy, Savannah, Ga. . . Army of Tennessee 
Robert S. Hudgins, Richmond, Va. 

Army of Northern Virginia 
Walter H. Saunders, St. Louis, Mo. 

Army of Trans-Mississippi 


DIVISION COMMANDERS. 

Maj. Jere C. Dennis, Dadeville .Alabama 

J. S. Utley, Little Rock Arkansas 

Eujah Funkhouser, 7522 East Lake Terrace, Chicago, 

Illinois 

Fred P. Myers, Woodward Building, Washington, D. C., Dis- 
trict of Columbia and Maryland 
H. B. Grubbs, 320 Broadway, Eastern Division, New York 

John Z. Reardon, Tallahassee Florida 

Dr. Wiluam R. Dancy, Savannah Georgia 

James B. Anderson, Glengary Farm, Lexington . . Kentucky 

Joseph Roy Price, Shreveport Louisiana 

W. F. Riley, Sr., Tupelo Mississippi 

James H. White, Kansas City Missouri 

J. M. Lentz, Winston-Salem North Carolina 

J. O. Parr, Oklahoma City Oklahoma 

Dr. John Parks Gilmer, Pacific Division, San Diego, 

California 

William J. Cherry, Rock Hill South Carolina 

Claire B. Newman, Jackson Tennessee 

C. E. Gilbert, Houston Texas 

R. M. Colvin, Harrisonburg Virginia 

George W. Sidebottom, Huntington West Virginia 


All communications for this department should be sent direct to Edmond R. Wiles, Editor, 1505 W. 22nd St-, Little Rock, Ark. 


S. C. V. INTERESTS. 

On to Richmond 

JOHN MARSHALL HOTEL, OFFICIAL HEADQUARTERS 
S. C. V. 

Make reservations at once for the Reunion in 
June ! 

There has been issued by our efficient Adjutant 
in Chief and Chief of Staff, Walter L. Hopkins, 
of Richmond, an official notice advising the vari- 
ous Division Brigade and Camp Commanders that 
the Thirty-Seventh Annual Convention of the 
Sons of Confederate Veterans will be held in the 
city of Richmond, where it was organized in 1896, 
in conjunction with the United Confederate Vet- 
erans in the forty-second reunion, and the Con- 
federated Memorial Association, on June 21-24, 
1932. 

The Adjutant makes it very clear in this official 
communication that our organization is facing, 
due to the depression and other causes over which 
we have no control, the most serious situation pos- 
sible of its entire existence. If there was ever a 
time when it behooves those who really appreciate 
the honor conferred upon them in permitting 
them to become a member of this very distinctive 
organization — ^the Sons of Confederate Veterans 
—it is now. There is only one thing that will save 
us from making a showing at Richmond that 
would be anything but creditable on this Thirty- 
Sixth Anniversary of our organization, and that 
is that every comrade throughout the United 


States pay his dues at once to his local Camp 
Adjutant, and, in addition to this, see to it that 
his Camp is in an active condition and that the 
per capita assessments have been sent to the Ad- 
jutant in Chief at Richmond. By all means. Com- 
rades, attend to this at once, and while doing this 
secure the membership of at least two other com- 
rades for your Camp. We can save the situation 
by a little personal work, and this of all years is 
the time when you will be expected to do your 
part. Don’t fail us. 

Notes from Divisions. 

Tennessee. — Hon. Claire B. Newman, Com- 
mander Tennessee Division, announces the ap- 
pointment of his official staff, the Brigade com- 
manders for six brigades of the Division and 
other matters of interest to his Division. The fol- 
lowing are members of Commander Newman’s 
official staff: R. R. Sneed, Jackson, Adjutant and 
Chief of Staff ; Prof. J. L. Highsaw, Memphis His- 
torian ; J. L. Buard, Chattanooga, Inspector ; T. L. 
Campbell, Memphis, Judge Advocate; Robert Lee 
Bynum, Nashville, Quartermaster; T. L. Lowery, 
Cleveland, Commissary; James Ethridge, Mc- 
Minnville, Color Sergeant ; Dr. A. B. Dancy, Jack- 
son, Surgeon; Rev. Fred H. Peeples, Jackson, 
Chaplain. 

The following Brigade Commanders were ap- 
pointed by Commander Newman: P. L. Hender- 
son, Morristown, Commander First Brigade; W. 
Shep Shelton, Chattanooga, Second Brigade; Dr. 


157 


^oi)federat^ l/etcrai). 


Joe B. Wright, Lynnville, Third Brigade; C. R. 
Cawthon, Murfreesboro, Fourth Brigade; Harold 
Bond, Jackson, Fifth Brigade ; L. S. Akers, Mem- 
phis, Sixth Brigade. 

Oklahoma . — Advice received from the Com- 
mander in Chief, Dr. George R. Tabor, Oklahoma 
City, indicate that the Oklahoma Division will be 
strongly represented at Richmond in June. A 
special train will be operated by the Veterans, 
Sons, and Daughters, a special Pullman being re- 
served for the Commander in Chief and his official 
party. The trip will be made over the Rock Is- 
land Railroad. 

As an indication of the interest being mani- 
fested, even at this early date, in the coming re- 
union, Commander in Chief Tabor has completed 
his official staff of ladies, which will be announced 
at an early date. While it is true that Oklahoma 
was not a State at the time the South was called 
upon to defend their homes and principles which 
they held sacred — more so than life itself — there 
is not a State in the entire South today in which 
the fires of true Southern patriotism, love of the 
Confederate Cause and principles for which it 
stood are stronger. 

Arkansas . — The cause of Sons of Confederate 
Veterans in Arkansas under the able direction of 
the Division Commander, Hon. J. S. Utley, Little 
Rock, former Attorney General of the State, is 
on the upgrade. Great interest is already being 
manifested in the Forty-Second Confederate Re- 
union to be held in the city of Richmond next 
June. Two noted bands of Arkansas, one from 
Clarksville, designated as one of the official bands 
of the Reunion, and the magnificent Little Rock 
High School Boys’ Band, are making extensive 
preparation for that trip to the capital of the Con- 
federacy. A special train will be run from this 
State, and many will drive through in order to 
have their cars available in Richmond and to visit 
the historical places adjacent to that city. 

The Robert C. Newton Camp, No. 197, of 
Little Rock, C. P. Newton, Commander, H. B. 
Chrisp, Adjutant, held its regular monthly meet- 
ing on March 15. This was a get-together meet- 
ing with the ladies invited, also the members of 
the U. D. C. and U. C. V. Matters of very great 
importance now confronting these Southern 
patriotic societies were discussed, the most im- 
portant feature being the launching of a campaign 
under the supervision and direction of the Com- 
mander and Miss Emma Archer, who has rendered 
the Camp such valuable service in the past. 


attention, sons and DAUGHTERS! 

This is a call to arms ! There is a battle to be 
fought and won before it is too late. Ask your- 
selves, How is the true memory of the Southern 
Confederacy to be preserved? What conceptions 
of the causes of the War between the States and 
of the Confederate soldier will be carried in the 
minds of our future generations? We know that 
the histories now being used as textbooks in the 
public schools of most of our Southern States, 
officially adopted by the Boards of Education, are 
written by misinformed and prejudiced persons 
in the North, ready to condemn the South and 
the Southern Cause. You might as well expect a 
German to write truly of the French side in the 
World War, or a Jap of the Chinese side. The 
Confederate soldier who fought and laid down 
his life for a cause which he believed justified his 
sacrifice was not an outlaw or a traitor or rene- 
gade. Why should he be pictured as such to the 
young minds of today? Are we going to let fanat- 
ics paint the pictures of these brave men, or are 
we going to see that they are represented fairly 
and truthfully as honest and conscientious men — 
as they were? 

We recognize that this is a new South — the 
South that has recovered from the ruthless devas- 
tation of Sherman and of Sheridan and from the 
sting and shamelessness of the carpet-bagger. 
We recognize that we are now a part of one 
nation. But there flows in the veins of every true 
Son and Daughter of the South the same blood 
which was shed by their forefathers and which 
cries out for truth and justice. 

Then let us all join hands and go into this fight 
to win. Let us adopt the purity of our history 
as an ideal. Not many of us soldiers are left to 
carry on. You .Sons and Daughters must take 
our places in the firing line and see to it that the 
school authorities of every Southern State are 
enlightened, and that every teacher is reminded 
that it is the first duty of an educator to teach 
the truth. 

The Commander-in-Chief is behind us. Every- 
one will support us when we get into action. Get 
together, Sons and Daughters. Have a plan 
formulated to act upon when the Sons meet in 
Richmond in June and the Daughters in Memphis 
in November. 

“Keep the record straight.” 

[J. S. Downs, Company F, 45th North Carolina 
Infantry, Daniels’ Brigade — Rodes’ Division, 
Ewells’ Corps, A. N. V., 219 North Sixth Street, 
Chickasha, Okla.] 


158 


Qo^federat^ l/eterap. 


STATE SONG. 

Alabama. 

Alabama, Alabama, 

We will aye be true to thee. 

From thy southern shores where groweth. 

By the sea thy orange tree. 

To thy northern vale where floweth. 

Deep and blue thy Tennessee, 

Alabama, Alabama, we will aye be true to thee. 

Brave and pure thy men and women. 

Better this than corn and wine. 

Make us worthy, God in Heaven, 

Of this goodly land of thine. 

Hearts as open as thy doorways. 

Liberal hands and spirits free, 

Alabama, Alabama, ive will aye be true to thee. 

Little, little can I give to thee, 

Alabama, mother mine. 

But that little — hand, brain, spirit. 

All I have and am are thine. 

Take, 0 take, the gift and giver. 

Take and serve thyself with me. 

Alabama, Alabama, we will aye be true to thee. 


STOLEN PORTRAIT RESTORED. 

A newspaper dispatch from Concord, New 
Hampshire, reports that an oil painting of Mil- 
dred Childe Lee, daughter of Gen. Robert E. Lee, 
cut from its frame in the Lee mansion at Arling- 
ton, Va., during a Union raid, has been restored 
to the government. 

The portrait of the girl will be returned to its 
Southern home, Arlington Mansion, now the 
property of the Federal government. 

James A. Learned, of the Massachusetts Artil- 
lery, one of the Federal soldiers in the raid, 
climbed upon a spinet in the Lee home and cut 
the picture from its frame. He rolled it up and 
hid it beneath his army overcoat. 

For many years it has hung in the home of Mrs. 
Walter E. Skilton, of Concord, daughter of 
Learned. Learning that Congress had appro- 
priated funds to restore the Lee mansion, she com- 
municated with the government and through 
Lieut. Col. Frank Edwin Davis, of Quartermaster 
Corps, Boston, the painting was returned for the 
War Department. 

Proper restoration of this portrait would have 
been to the Lee family, and by them restored to 
Arlington. What about other valuables taken 
from Arlington in war days ? 


“LEE, THE SOUL OF HONOR.” 
REVIEWED BY MRS. JOHN H. ANDERSON, HISTORIAN 
GENERAL, U. D. C. 

This latest appreciation of Gen. Robert E. Lee 
is by an orientalist, John E. Hobeika, and is drawn 
from many sources on this Knight of the Con- 
federacy. In the foreword. Dr. Lyon Gardiner 
Tyler says : “Mr. Hobeika’s book is really a poem 
in blank verse. He does not set out to write a 
history, but to mass together in one great song 
the verses of praise from numerous others who 
have written of Lee, and in this he is unique, pow- 
erful, moving, and compelling.” Aside from testi- 
monials of Lee’s greatness, this young Syrian 
(not yet thirty years of age) has given a “noble 
vindication of the cause of the South as the cause 
of self-government — a principle advanced in the 
Declaration of Independence.” Mr. Hobeika also 
gives the most complete refutation to be found in 
any book of the charge made after the war that 
Lee “recanted,” and said that he was wrong in 
going with Virginia. 

This refutation is contained in a letter from 
Gen. Lee to Lord Acton December 15, 1866, while 
Lee was President of Washington College. As 
Mr. Hobeika states : “Lee was extremely cautious 
and reticent among his own people on the subject 
which in this letter he freely discussed with his 
English friend. Sir John Dalberg Acton.” 

The author shows a depth of insight and sym- 
pathy in this book. As one reviewer says, “The 
reader is given the inspiration of a personal con- 
tact with Gen. Lee.” It has also been stated that 
this book gives perhaps a fuller knowledge of the 
motives which influenced General Lee’s decision 
to follow his State than is given in most biogra- 
phies of Lee. 

After reading this book, with an interest which 
never lags, you are given an “appendix” of val- 
uable letters, and an index which alone makes this 
biography valuable. 

The United Confederate Veterans and the Sons 
of Confederate Veterans indorsed at their an- 
nual Reunion in June, 1931, the manuscript of 
this volume, an unusual compliment to a writer. 

As Historian General U. D. C., I have placed 
Lee, Soul of Honor, among the first in my refer- 
ence list of books for study of Confederate history, 
and feel sure that each reader of this delightful 
book will feel (as I do) a genuine sense of appre- 
ciation to this young Syrian author. Copies may 
be ordered from the Christopher Publishing 
House, of Boston, Mass. Price, $3.00 


Qopfederac^ l/eterap 


159 


TO THE GOVERNORS OF THE 
STATES. 

The free cultivation of letters, the 
unbounded extension of commerce, the 
progressive refinement of manners, 
the growing liberality of sentiment, 
and above all, the pure and benign 
light of Revelation, have had a me- 
liorating influence on mankind and 
increased the blessings of society 

I now make my earnest prayer, 
that God would have you and the 
States over which you preside, in his 
holy protection ; that he would in- 
cline the hearts of the citizens to cul- 
tivate the spirit of subordination and 
obedience to government; to enter- 
tain a brotherly affection and love 
for one another, for their fellow citi- 
zens of the United States at large, 
and particularly for their brethren 
who have served in the field; and 
finally, that he would most gracious- 
ly be pleased to dispose us all to do 
justice, to love mercy, and to demean 
ourselves with that charity, humility, 
and pacific temper of mind which 
were the characteristics of the Di- 
vine Author of our blessed religion, 
and without a humble imitation of 
whose example in these things we 
can never hope to be a happy nation. 
— G. Washington. 


MY LEGACY. 

The little tree I planted out. 

And often muse upon. 

May be alive to grow and thrive. 
And out into the sunlight strive. 
When I am dead and gone. 

So it shall be my legacy 
To toilers in the sun; 

So sweet its shade, each man and 
maid 

May be induced to take a spade 
And plant another one. 

— Ethel Wetherald. 


SAYINGS OF NOTED BRITONS. 

The earth is a generous mother. — 
Winston Churchill. 

* ♦ * 

To confuse the innocent with the 
guilty is to destroy the basis of inter- 
national morality. — Sir Austen Cham- 
berlain. 

* * 

Good speech should be regarded as 
a gift of high grade, but capable of 
being acquired. — Professor T. H. 
Pear. 


We should encourage people to use 
memory at the place where it really 
works. — Head Master of Eton. 

H/i Hf. 

The heavenly fool is a fool in 
things earthly, and the earthly fool 
is a fool in things heavenly. — 
Laurence Housman. 

:|c * * 

Progress continues in spite of every 
human fear and folly. — H. G. Wells. 

* ♦ * 

The troubles of the world come 
largely from the fact that there is 
in this age no one accepted moral 
authority. — Sir Herbert Samuel. 

Hfi -if 

I have never doubted the curious, 
the wonderful loyalty of many wom- 
en to their husbands, particularly 
when those husbands are in trouble. 
— Mr. Justice McCardie. 

— Canadian American. 


AT PEEP O’ DAY. 

Such a time as there is in our garden 
Every morning at peep o’ day. 

Such a waking of feathered creatures 
With twittery things to say. 

The first drowsy voice is red robin’s. 
Broadcasting his “Daylight has 
come!” — 

When the whole wild-bird orchestra 
quickly 

Tunes up and commences to hum. 

Right boldly a woodpecker drummer 
Taps-taps for his sleepy-head mate, 
Then takes up his flute with a flour- 
ish. 

And plays at a rollicking rate. 

Little wren and the gray-coated cat- 
bird 

Warble their carols of praise. 
While from the tiptop of a pine tree 
Brown thrush fills the dawn with 
his lays. 

’Tis the call for one wild jubilation, 

A spirit of song thrills the earth; 
Up, up to the peaks of the morning. 
Creation gives thanks for its birth. 

—Girls’ Weekly. 


Father: “Yes, my boy. I’m a self- 
made man.” 

Son: “Gee, Pop, that’s what I ad- 
mire about you. You always take 
the blame for everything.” 


J. A. Joel & Co. 

SILK AND BUNTING 
FLAGS AND BANNERS 
D. S.. CONFEDERATE. 
AND STATE FLAGS 
SPECIAL FLAGS AND 
BANNERS MADE TO 
ORDER AT SHORT 
NOTICE 


147 Fulton street, New York, N. Y. 


FARM PRICES DROP TO LOWEST 
LEVEL SINCE 1910. 

Farm prices, paid to farmers, as of 
September 15, last year, dropped to 
the lowest level since 1910 in the price 
index issued by the Bureau of Agri- 
culture Economics. 

Average wheat prices received by 
growers was 35.7 cents a bushel, or 
nearly 50 per cent below the price a 
year ago. 

Average farm price for corn was 
43.2 cents a bushel, or less than one- 
half a year ago. 

Average farm price for cotton was 
5.9 cents a pound, compared with 9.9 
cents a year ago. 

Hogs sold for an average of $5.44 
per 100 pounds at the farm, compared 
with $9.44 a year ago. 

Fruits, vegetables, cotton, and cot- 
tonseed showed major declines for the 
month. 


“I wish the Veteran continued suc- 
cess,” writes J. C. Grantham, of Chi- 
cago, in renewing, “for we all hold it 
in very high esteem.” 


Mrs. M. L. Fooshe, of Idabel, Okla., 
renews and says: “The Veteran is 
always welcome, and every article en- 
joyed.” 


As a general thing, when a young 
man is in love he thinks nothing is 
good enough for her except himself. 
— Dallas News. 


Mistress: “And did you have a 
good honeymoon, Mandy?” 

Mandy: “We-e-11, Rastus done 

helped me wid de washin’ de first 
two weeks.” 


The ninety-nine different names of 
God are carved on the interior walls 
of the world’s finest mausoleum, the 
Taj Mahal. 





'*^?4 








I 




I 








BOOKS FOR SALE 


From its accumulated stock of books, the Veteran offers the following at attractive 

prices. Give second and third choice. 

* * * 

A Rebel Cavalryman with Lee, Stuart, and Jackson. By John N. Opie. Dedicated 
“with everlasting affection to the Clarke Cavalry, a troop of Virginia horsemen, 
who served from Harper’s Ferry to Appomattox.” Illustrated, and in good con- 
dition $ 2 50 

Pickett and His Men. By Mrs. Pickett. Dedicated to her “Soldier” and the men 
of his division. Splendid condition; illustrated 3 00 

The Heart of a Soldier: As revealed in the intimate letters of General Pickett to 
his wife, by whom the volume was compiled and edited. Nice copy 2 .50 

Gen. Robert E. Lee After Appomattox. By Dr. F. L. Riley, of Washington and 

Lee University, and dedicated to the “Lee Alumni.” In good condition 3 00 

Life of Alexander H. Stephens. By Richard Malcolm Johnston and William H. 
Browne. Edition of 1883, in splendid order. Gives many extracts from his 
journals. Illustrated 3 50 

Life of Gen. R. E. Lee. By John Esten Cooke. An interesting and valuable 
volume; cloth 4 50 

Memorial Volume of Jefferson Davis. By Dr. J. William Jones 4 00 

Destruction and Reconstruction. By Gen. Richard Taylor 3 50 

Two Wars: An Autobiography. By Gen. S. G. French. A handsome volume 2 50 

History of the First Kentucky Brigade. By Col. Ed Porter Thompson. A hand- 
some volume in full leather. Gives sketches of officers, history of companies, and 
lists of members, with brief sketches of each. A valuable reference work on 

♦ Kentucky troops 5 00 

John Ashton: A story of the War between the States. By Capers Dickson 60 

Pour Years in Rebel Capitals. By T. C. DeLeon, noted war correspondent of 
the sixties. A biographical sketch of the author is given in this book, which is 
in fine condition 3 25 

Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government. By Jefferson Davis. Two volumes; 

fine condition 10 00 

Stonewall Jackson: A Military Biography. By John Esten Cooke, with addenda. 

Back loose, but otherwise in good condition. Special 3 00 

My Day: Reminiscences of a Long Life. By Mrs. Roger Pryor. In this book are 
recorded the scenes and incidents of an interesting life and her association with 
interesting people of her day. In fine condition 3 50 


Send Orders Promptly to 


THE CONFEDERATE VETERAN 

Nashville, Tennessee 




k 











NO. 


MAY, 1932 


LEE MONUMENT. RICHMOND. VA. 


wm 


VOL 


XL 



162 


^09fc<i®rat^ \ZeteraQ. 


LEADING ARTICLES IN THIS NUMBER. 

Memorial Day. By Mrs. John H. Anderson 
A Benediction. (Poem.) By Frances Goggin Maltby 
Calhoun’s Foresight. By Capt. S. A. Ashe 
The Veteran Arouses Memories. By C. E. Gilbert 
A Letter and What Came of It. By Mrs. C. E. Bolling 

Humor in Soldier Life. By Capt. James Dinkins 

Flag of the Catawba Rangers. By Miss L. Maud Edwin 
In the Junior Reserves. By W’. F. Elkins 
Surgeons of the Confederacy. By James A. Harrod 
Jeb Stuart— Fighting Man. By Thelmar Wyche Cox 
Defense of the South Anna Bridge. By Judge W. A. Devine. 

The Protest of New Jersey 

The Lint Brigade. By Miss Elizabeth Hanna 
Mrs. Greenhow, Confederate Spy. By Carroll Dulaney 
The Lonely Guns. (Poem.) By A. R. Wiggin 

Departments: Last Roll 

U. D. C 

C. S. M. A 

S. C. V 


164 

164 

165 

166 

167 

168 

170 

171 

172 
174 
178 
182 
184 

187 
197 

188 
190 
194 
196 


THE SUCCESS FAMILY. 

The father of Success is Work. 
The mother of Success is Ambition. 
The oldest son is Common Sense. 
Some of the other boys are Perse- 
verance, Honesty, Thoroughness, 
Foresight, Enthusiasm, and Co-opera- 
tion. The oldest daughter is Charac- 
ter. Some of her sisters are Cheerful- 
ness, Loyalty, Courtesy, Care, Econ- 
omy, Sincerity, and Harmony. The 
baby is Opportunity. Get well ac- 
quainted with the “old man,” and you 
will be able to get along pretty well 
with the rest of the family. 


Mrs. ’Iggins — ^“That Mrs. Briggs 
was boastin’ as ’ow she comes from a 
fine family. ‘An’ you’ve come a good 
way,’ I says, pleasant-like.” 


MESSAGES WITH A MISSION. 

From the venerable Chaplain General for Life 
of the U. C. V., Maj. Giles B. Cooke, comes the 
following message from his home at Matthews, 
Va.: 

“On the ninety-fourth anniversary of my birth- 
day — May 13, 1838 — I have two messages to de- 
liver to my comrades, the loyal followers of Gen, 
R. E. Lee — viz. : 

“First message from General Lee: ‘Do all you 
can to correct error and misrepresentation and to 
disseminate the truth,’ which injuction the Con- 
federate Veteran has faithfully complied with, 
and will comply with as long as it is in circulation. 

“Second message from the Rev. Maj. Giles B. 
Cooke, the only surviving member of General 
Lee’s staff, who respectfully and urgently re- 
quests every Confederate veteran not now a sub- 
scriber to become a subscriber. 

“This is written on the 9th of April, anniver- 
sary of the fateful day when General Lee sur- 
rendered the Army of Northern Virginia at Ap- 
pomattox, and who said there, ‘I had rather die 
a thousand deaths than to go to see General 
Grant.’ The physicians who attended General 
Lee in his last illness said he died of a broken 
heart.” 

Unfair to the South. — Mrs. Whit Boyd, 
President of the Texas Division, U. D. C., refers 
to the Library of American History, by Dr. E. S. 
Ellis, A.M., which is being sold largely in Texas, 
in the following: 

“I have read twice, volumes 3, 4, and 5, which 
deal with the history of the Confederacy, and in 


my opinion this is one of the most unfair, untrue, 
and unjust books I have ever read; and I would 
not recommend it to any one who wants a true 
Southern history.” 

Van Dorn at Holly Springs. — Referring to the 
article on “Courtesy in War,” contributed by 
Judge McCulloch, of Washington, D. C., John W. 
Craddock, of New Orleans, writes: “This reveals 
a very fine side of the character of General Grant, 
which was later on, at Appomattox, again in evi- 
dence, to his eternal credit. But the article is in 
error in stating that General Forrest made the 
raid on Holly Springs ; this was done by Gen. Earl 
Van Dorn (Holly Springs was his old home). In 
this I am further advised by Judge J. P. Young, 
of Memphis, Tenn., an able historian, who gives 
Grant’s testimony from his ‘Memoirs,’ as follows : 
‘General VanDorn appeared at Holly Springs on 
December 20th, my second base of supplies, and 
captured the garrison of 1,500 men, commanded 
by Colonel Murphy, of the 8th Wisconsin Regi- 
ment,’ etc. This was in 1862, and it is quite evi- 
dent that Van Dorn and not Forrest made the 
raid on Holly Springs, Miss.” 


Wanted. — Any information, direct or indirect, 
concerning the war record of William Lewis 
Easterling, who lived on the Alabama-Mississippi 
line, and was either 1st Lieutenant 17th Battalion 
Mississippi Cavalry or in the 21st Alabama Regi- 
ment, probably both. He was elected Chaplain of 
an Alabama regiment. He was my mother’s fath- 
er, and his record as a Confederate soldier is de- 
sired. — Dr. Gordon Hurlbutt, Point Clear, Ala. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY IN THE INTEREST 

“ 1 ■■ r - ► . 

• 

OF CONFEDERATE ASSOCIATIONS AND KINDRED TOPICS. 

— - 

Entered as second-class matter at the post office at Nashville, Tenn., 
under act of March 3, 1879. 

Acceptance of maiing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec- 
tion 1 103, act of October 3, 1917, and authorized on July 5, 1918. 

Published by the Trustees of the Confederate Veteran, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

w 

OFFICIALLY REPRESENTS: 

United Confederate Veterans, 

United Daughters of the Confederacy, 

Confederated Southern Memorial AssociatioNi 
Sons of Confederate Veterans. 

: i — ' 

Though men deserve, they may not win, success; 

The brave will honor the brave, vanquished none the less. 

I,NGLi*Co?Yrf6 CEN?^. i VOL. XL. NASHVILLE. TENN., MAY, 

1932 No. 5 


UNITED CONFEDERATE VETERANS 

GENERAL OFFICERS. 

Gen. C. a. Db Satjssurb, Memphis, Tenn Comander in Chief 

Gen. H. R. Lee, Nashville, Tenn.. Adjutant General and Chief of Staff 
Mrs. W. B. Kernan, 1723 Audubon Street, New Orleans, La. 

Assistant to the Adjutant General 
Rev. Thomas K. Gorman, Skiatook, Okla Chaplain General 

DEPARTMENT COMMANDERS. 

Gen. Homer Atkinson, Petersburg, Va Army of Northern Virginia 

Gen. Sims Latta, Columbia, Tenn Army of Tennessee 

Gen. R. D. Chapman, Houston, Tex Trans-Mississippi 

DIVISION COMMANDERS. 

ALABAMA — Tuscaloosa Gen. John R. Kennedy 

Arkansas — R ussellville Gen. J. P. McCarther 

Florida — Gen. W. E. McGhagin 

Georgia — S avannah Gen. William Harden 

Kentucky — R ichmond Gen. N. B. Deatherage 

Louisiana — L aFayette Gen. Gustave Mouton 

Maryland — 

Mississippi— L iberty Gen. W. R. Jacobs 

Missouri — S t. Louis Gen. W. A. Wall 

North Carolina — A nsonville Gen. W. A. Smith 

Oklahoma — O kmulgee Gen. A. C. De Vinna 

South Carolina — S umter Gen. N. G. Osteen 

Tennessee — U nion City Gen. Rice A. Pierce 

Texas — F ort Worth Gen. M. J. Bonner 

Virginia— R ichmond Gen. William McK. Evans 

West Virginia — L ewisburg Gen. Thomas H. Dennis 

California — L os Angeles Gen. S. S. Simmons 

HONORARY APPOINTMENTS. 

Gen. W. B. Freeman, Richmond, Va Honorary Commander for Life 

Gen. M. D. Vance, Little Rock, Ark Honorary Commander for Life 

Gen. R. a. Sneed, Oklahoma City, Okla,. .Honorary Commander for Life 
Gen. L. W. Stephens, Coushatta, La.. Honorary Commander for Life 
Rev. Giles B. Cooke, Matthews, Va. Honorary Chaplain General for Life 


RICHMOND AND VIRGINIA. 

The first page illustration of this number shows 
the magnificent equestrian statue of General Lee 
as it stands in Lee Circle at the beginning of Monu- 
ment Avenue in Richmond. It is one of the most 
impressive of statues, and doubtless many of the 


Reunion visitors will have the good fortune to meet 
the creator of that splendid sculpture, Mr. Wil- 
liam E. Sievers, who is a resident of Richmond. 
He also made the monument to Matthew Fontaine 
Maury, which is further down on Monument Ave- 
nue, that Highway of Memories. 

The Washington monument on Capitol Square 
is one of the attractions of the city, and the full 
page illustration of it is from the Richmond Maga- 
zine, by whose courtesy it is reproduced in this 
number. To that Magazine also should be credited 
the Smith statue at Jamestown, the Houdon sta- 
tue of Washington in the March number, and 
others, for which courtesies the Veteran is most 
appreciative. 

While Virginia is most widely famed for her 
historic past, the Old Dominion is one of the most 
progressive sections of the country, and that pro- 
gress has been achieved without burdening her 
people with debt that defeats its own ends. No 
appropriation is made from the State treasury if 
the money isn’t there, yet Virginia is a leader in 
an advancing South. 

Visitors to Richmond during the Confederate 
Reunion will find much outside of the capital city 
to admire and enjoy in the beautiful scenery, the 
splendid highways, the quaint old towns, and the 
unsurpassed waterways of this old State; and 
within the city there is so much to be seen in the 
old and new that it will be difficult to compa.ss it 
all within a short visit. But the Reunion Commit- 
tee and the Chamber of Commerce are co-operat- 
ing for the visitors to get the greatest amount of 
sight-seeing in the least time, and a good time is 
planned for all. 

Richmond and Virginia — one and inseparable! 


164 


Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 


^OQfederat^ l/eterai). 

Office: Methodist Publishing House Building. Nashville, Tenn. 
E. D. POPE. Editor. 


MEMORIAL DAY. 

BY MRS. JOHN H. ANDERSON, HISTORIAN GENERAL, 

U. D. C. 

“Without sword or flag, and with soundless tread. 
We muster once more our deathless dead.” 

As the historical and memorial work of our be- 
loved organization go hand in hand, I cannot re- 
frain from sending to the Daughters a brief 
thought of Memorial Day. Though the story is 
a familiar one, yet I have had requests for the 
origin of this anniversary. 

As so many of the Southern States began this 
beautiful custom of decorating their heroes’ 
graves soon after the War between the States, 
it matters not which was really the first. But 
we are sure of the fact that the idea of a Nation- 
al Memorial Day was taken from the observance 
by the women of Virginia as they bedecked their 
soldiers’ graves with flowers. After viewing this 
beautiful tribute to the Southern dead, the wife 
of Gen. John A. Logan, Commander of the Grand 
Army of the Republic, suggested this custom to 
her husband, who, on May 5, 1868, issued orders 
that May 30 be annually set aside as a Nation- 
al Memorial or Decoration Day. 

General Logan no doubt saw the benefits to 
posterity by establishing a day when not only 
should the graves of fallen heroes be decorated, 
but that their deeds should be commemorated in 
memorials, and each generation should thus pay 
reverence to those who had given their lives for 
their country. 

The women who had served in Soldiers’ Aid So- 
cieties during the war now began to form Me- 
morial Associations, and a date was selected by 
each Southern State for its Memorial Day. The 
farther South, where flowers blossomed early, this 
day was in April (it is said that Alabama’s and 
Georgia’s first public Memorial Day was April 
26, 1866). North and South Carolina chose May 
10, anniversary of the death of Stonewall Jack- 
son, each Southern day being chosen in memory 
of some beloved chieftain. 

We women of today must recall the obstacles 
that were in the way of our mothers and grand- 
mothers of the sixties, as they began their work 
of keeping green the graves of the men, many 
of whose bodies had been gathered by them from 


battle field and roadside. The orders issued by 
General Butler prohibited the women of New Or- 
leans from decorating these graves, and often our 
women arose in the early dawn to perform this 
service so that the vigilant eyes of the Federal 
military authorities should not observe them. 
Undaunted were they, although the Federal of- 
ficer in command in Georgia, in his endeavor to 
stop the women, called it “maudlin sentimental- 
ity.” 

As the United. Daughters of the Confederacy 
and Children of the Confederate Chapters are re- 
calling these days in the May program of South- 
ern monuments and memorial poems, let us in 
memory lay garlands for those noble women who 
denied themselves that these memorials should be 
erected to the men who followed Lee. So as each 
Chapter is observing Memorial Day, may we re- 
member the lofty courage of those men in gray, 
for no country ever produced such fearless sol- 
diers as did the Southern Confederacy. 

As we decorate their graves with those of their 
descendants who fell in the World War, we com- 
memorate the fact that “the brave give birth to 
the brave.” 

The beautiful story of our Southern women in 
commemorating the valor of their heroes can be 
told on Memorial Day by us, their descendants, 
in radio programs that the children may hear, 
and sing the songs of the Sunny South as you 
give the story. I shall endeavor to give such a 
program on May 10, North Carolina’s Me- 
morial Day, from its capital city, Raleigh. 


A BENEDICTION. 

Almighty Sovereign, God of Might, 

Who counts the sparrows in their flight, 
Look down with love and comfort give 
Those comrades of the gray who live 
And gather here to honor pay 
Beloved ones who wore the gray. 

0 Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, 

Strengthen the fragment of that host 
Who fought for what they deemed was right, 
Leaving a record fair and bright, 

Unsullied by dark deeds of sin; 

And though they lost, ’twas theirs to win 
A crown that will a glory be 
To all their loved posterity. 

Triune of love and life and might, 

Teach us, O Lord, to do the right. 

And let thy tender love today 

Rest on these men who wore the gray. 

— Frances Goggin Maltby. 


^oi)fe<ierat^ l/eterai>. 165 


CALHOUN’S FORESIGHT. 

(Contributed by Capt. S. A. Ashe, Raleigh, 
N. C.) 

The Boston Transcript of March 18 contains 
an editorial from which I clip the following: 

“Calhoun’s Sesquicentennial. 

“In some form today. South Carolina will ob- 
serve the sesquicentennial of her greatest native, 
John Caldwell Calhoun, who was born in the 
Abbeville district in that State in 1782. A great 
man in every intellectual and moral sense, the 
one-hundred and fiftieth anniversary of Calhoun’s 
birth is entitled to national respect. 

“In his ‘Address to the People of the South,’ 
in 1849, Calhoun drew this picture of what would 
happen after emancipation: 

“ ‘Another step would be taken, to raise them 
[the blacks] to a political and social equality with 
their former masters by giving them the right of 
voting and holding public office under the Federal 
Government. But when once raised to an equality 


they would become the fast political associates of 
the North, acting and voting with them on all 
questions, and by this political union holding the 
South in complete subjection. The blacks and the 
profligate whites that might unite with them 
would become the principal recipients of Federal 
offices and patronage, and would in consequence 
be ranged with the whites in the political and so- 
cial scale. We would, in a word, change conditions 
with them — a degradation greater than has ever 
yet fallen to the lot of a free and enlightened peo- 
ple, and one from which we could not escape but 
by fleeing from the homes of ourselves and an- 
cestors, and by abandoning our country to our 
former slaves, to become the permanent abode of 
disorder, anarchy, poverty, misery and wretched- 
ness.’ 

“What he depended on to forestall such an 
event was not indirection; it was his theory of 
the Compact of the States — the principle, that is, 
that the States, having by their voluntary and in- 
dividual action entered into the compact of the 
Constitution, had a right to withdraw from 
their ratification of it, leaving the union 
merely one between the States ratifying 
the same. Nullification of Federal legisla- 
tion he held to be an inherent right of the 
States, and, as he said, the only guarantee 
against actual domination by the elector- 
ates of other States 

“John C. Calhoun’s effigy now stands in 
honor in Staturay Hall in the Capitol of the 
United States, and no one begrudges its 
position there. He was an upright man, 
stainless of life, and possessed of great in- 
tellectual and moral powers. He deserves 
to be reckoned among the great of 
America.’’ 

So much from the Boston Transcript. 

It is to be borne in mind that, in 1781, 
the States entered into a compact. After 
three years it was proposed to change that 
in some particulars. The Constitution of 
1788 was drawn up. New York, Virginia, 
Rhode Island, in ratifying it, proclaimed 
the right of every State to withdraw. Cabot 
Lodge, in his “Life of Daniel Webster,’’ 
virtually says that such was the under- 
standing of all men at the time. 

By 1860, the South had become “the milk 
cow’’ of the Northern States and Northern 
human nature asserted itself. 




166 


Qoi>federat^ l/eterai). 


THE VETERAN AROUSES MEMORIES. 

BY C. E. GILBERT, HOUSTON, TEX. 

Several articles in the March Veteran were of 
much interest to me. In fact, that was just the 
usual monthly pleasure in perusing the excellent 
representative of Southern history and all that 
is to the people of Dixie. 

The article on “Courtesy in War,” by Judge 
McCullough, recalls recollections of Wilson’s raid, 
as it was generally called in West Alabama along 
the route of that “raid.” General Wilson’s army 
burned my father’s newspaper office, and started 
to burn the vacant dwelling, but his soldiers were 
persuaded by a Methodist minister across the 
street to be satisfied with the pillage which had 
already been done. My father at the time had 
been eighteen months on Johnson’s Island, in 
Ohio. That happened at Jasper, and when they 
arrived at Carrollton, they burned the Court- 
house and some other semi-public buildings, and 
started to set fire to a big hotel building, but, as 
the soldiers with blazing torches approached the 
house, the eldest daughter. Miss Irene Cohen, 
with a large six-shooter in her hand, greeted them 
from the edge of the gallery, four feet above the 
ground, saying: “The first one of you who comes 
nearer, I will kill ; I may be able to kill three or 
four, but I know I will kill the foremost.” That 
was a bit of feminine “courtesy” which was well 
rewarded, for the soldiers stopped, turned 
around, and departed. 

Below Carrollton, about twelve miles, Forrest’s 
cavalry caught up with the raiders, and as For- 
rest’s troopers thundered through the covered 
bridge over Sipsey, it sounded like the whole of 
Lee’s army was on their rear; so Wilson’s caval- 
ry did not stop to engage in battle. Forrest would 
have squads gallop up alongside and fire into 
the Yankees before they could get their rifles 
ready to respond, and then gallop back. On the 
other side, the same manner of attack was fol- 
lowed, and this sort of warfare was repeated 
every few hours all the way to Selma; but at 
Selma Forrest was at last caught in “a fix.” 

The Alabama River was on a big rise, and all 
the lowland was overflowed for a mile or two 
from the main channel. Wilson had him sur- 
rounded, with fine prospect of immediate cap- 
ture. But Forrest was resourceful; he took in 
the situation, and passed the word up and down 
the line of his command that he could not com- 
mand the men to follow him in so hazardous an 
effort at escape, “but,” he added “I am going to 


get out and all who will follow me.” So, mount- 
ing his horse with such accoutrement as he could 
tie on, he led the way out into the overflowed 
land to near the main channel, and then turned 
south, feeling his way, and his faithful command 
nearly to a man following. It being night and 
late, they were not observed. After going south 
along the river for a mile or two, occasionally 
plunging unawares into a tributary to the river, 
and having to swim a bit, he turned west as quiet- 
ly as possible and went around the Union outpost 
— making good his escape. 

Just about that time the news came of Lee’s 
surrender, and in short order the men who had 
so gallantly worn the gray four trying years were 
homeward bound — ^to meet four or five more try- 
ing years of Reconstruction, harassed by carpet- 
baggers, scalawags, and negroes, voting them- 
selves into office under protection of Federal sol- 
diers, while they, the disfranchised Confederates, 
could only stand and look on — but for a while. 
Superior Southern intellect, aided by the K. K. K. 
organization, at last redeemed the Southland from 
the second assault more terrible than the first. 

Grant’s siege of Vicksburg and some interest- 
ing incidents thereto are recalled by Mrs. John 
Vernon’s description of the National Park there. 
Northern tourists particularly are proud of the 
elegant tributes by Federal and State govern- 
ments to the men who died in the effort to take 
Vicksburg; and some years ago, a party of a hun- 
dred or so from Illinois stopped over en route to 
New Orleans to see the beauties of the Park 
Cemetery. As they leisurely passed through the 
Park admiring the natural and artistic grandeur, 
an old ex-Confederate followed at a safe distance 
enjoying their comments on the siege and the 
monuments, when one of the tourists turned and 
courteously asked, “My friend, what State are 
you from?” “Oh, I’m from Mississippi,” he re- 
sponded. “Well, why is it there is no monument 
from your state here?” “We don’t need any, 
was the prompt reply, and, extending his arm to 
take in all the elegant monuments placed by the 
States of the North, he said, “All these are monu- 
ments to what we did here.” 

I met an ex-Confederate in the Maxwell Hotel 
at Nashville a few years ago, who told me that 
after the war he went to New York to sell some 
improvement bonds, and, of course, called at the 
office of Grant and Ward, bond brokers. He first 
inet Ward, and later General Grant came in and 
was introduced to him. “This is not the first 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 


time we have met,” said the Confederate. “Where 
and when have we met before?” asked the Gen- 
eral. “At Vicksburg, July 4, 1863,” replied the 
Confederate. “Well, well,” responded the Gen- 
eral, “I have always wondered how it was we 
took Vicksburg.” “But, General,” was the Con- 
federate’s reply, “you didn’t take Vicksburg.” 
“How’s that? I thought we did.” “No, we just 
got out of food and ammunition and gave it to 
you,” diplomatically replied the Confederate. 
“Well, that’s just about correct,” replied the Gen- 
eral, with one of his most unusual smiles. “If you 
had had food and ammunition, I guess we never 
would have gotten in.” And it has been reported 
from another source that General Grant practi- 
cally admitted that to be true. 

Two interesting historical articles by Dr. Alex- 
ander and Mrs. Selph, “The First Overt Acts,” 
are correct in the main ; and yet it might be truly 
claimed that the first overt acts were by Mr. Lin- 
coln, in instructions to the commanders of Fort 
Sumter and Fort Pickens to “hold the forts.” 
Other overt acts still were Major Anderson’s seiz- 
ing Fort Sumter in the night, when both sides had 
signed an armistice to have matters remain in 
status quo pending peaceful adjustment. The 
first guns were those on the “Star of the West” 
and the fleets of war vessels equipped by Lincoln’s 
orders and started to Charleston and Pensacola; 
but the first shot was the one fired at Fort Sumter 
and heard around the world — in defense of State’s 
Rights. No, back of that, the “first guns” were 
those furnished John Brown by Lincoln, Henry 
Ward Beecher, and New England societies, for his 
raid into Virginia. 


A LETTER AND WHAT CAME OF IT. 

Idaho, Ohio, January 12, 1931. 

The Department of Pensions, 

Richmond, Va. 

Most Honorable Gentlemen of a Sister Common- 
ivealth: We have residing in our school district a 
venerable gentleman of the highest magnitude. 
On the twenty-third of this month he will be 
eighty-nine years of age. His name is Abel 0. 
Tavenner. He is able to walk to the mail box, a 
quarter of a mile away, on nice days. He is near- 
ly blind and is partially deaf, but his mind is 
awfully well balanced for a man of his experi- 
ence and age. 

Mr. Tavenner was a soldier in the great Civil 
War. He was in the 8th Division Virginia troops 


167 

with Gen. Robert E. Lee. He was in thirteep ma- 
jor and minor engagements. He was taken 
prisoner on the third day at Gettysburg, and was 
held in a Northern prison camp twenty-one 
months. 

Notwithstanding the rumored ruling of the 
Virginia Legislature to pension only those of her 
soldiers who are residing in that State, I’m ask- 
ing you in the name of the God of Stonewall Jack- 
son, George Washington, Jefferson, Lee, and the 
scores of famous men that first saw the light in 
the glorious South, to make an exception in this 
one instance, and send some pecuniary relief to 
this old veteran ere he pass unrewarded to the 
last great muster. 

On next Friday week he will celebrate his 
eighty-ninth milestone. Shall he have lived that 
long and be unnoticed by his Mother State? How 
nobly he fought! How loyal to a cause that he 
deemed a just one! Shall he die in oblivion and 
in penury? A worthy servant of a worthy mas- 
ter. He fought a good fight. He kept the faith. 
Shall we, Americans all, leave him to think he is 
forgotten? Many are the memories of the cele- 
brations that have lauded our Northern troops to 
the skies. But the drums did not beat for Mr. 
Tavenner. The orators said nothing of the sac- 
rifices made by those weary soldiers of the South. 

I know that you have but a few soldiers left. 
I know it’s not a rule to pension nonresidents, 
but hasn’t he earned some recompense? Didn’t 
he serve his State as my grandfather served 
Ohio? 

My grandfather drew thousands of dollars from 
the Federal government, and fought less than pri- 
vate A. 0. Tavenner, of the Confederate States 
of America. 

It’s nothing to me. I’m not a relative. I’m 
just a poor teacher in our district school. I also 
earn a few pennies acting as assistant postmast- 
er. I am now justice of the peace and have an 
application to our new Democratic Governor 
White for a Notary’s commission. Thus I eek 
out a living for my family. But Mr. Tavenner 
has nothing whereby he may earn a dollar. The 
Government took his cow last month and killed 
her because she w^as tubercular. He only laughs 
about it, but the tears mingle with the brave notes 
of laughter. 

He has been honored in his home township. He 
was a member of the township school board thir- 
ty-five years. He was the one who got a school- 
house for the district. 


168 


^opfederat^ l/etera^. 


Mr. Tavenner will probably not be a county 
charge, as he is too old and broken to last long, 
but he gets only a dollar a week from the blind 
pension commission. It is a mere nothing. His 
wife still helps him, as she promised “To love, 
cherish and comfort, till death do us part.” It 
will not be long. How comforting would a Vir- 
ginia check be to him on his birthday ! 

Please see the Governor and put the facts be- 
fore him. If he is as loyal as I think he is, he will 
lend a sympathetic ear. “Greater love hath no 
man than this, that he lay down his life for an- 
other.” 

We have only three Union soldiers in this coun- 
ty, to my knowledge. We have raised all their 
pay to one hundred dollars. Of course, the South- 
ern States concurred in this. I only wish they 
would pension what few Confederates there are 
left. If you can’t get him some compensation, 
please send him some emblem of distinction show- 
ing that his service is not forgotten. As I said 
before, it’s nothing to me, but I should enjoy hear- 
ing what you are planning to do for him. 

Mail anything you care to send him to Mr. Abel 
0. Tavenner, Idaho, Ohio, Star Route, and should 
you care to acknowledge this unworthy plea, re- 
member me as 

Yours very respectfully, Lloyd Leedom. 
Idaho, Ohio, Box 12. 

P. S. — Mr. Tavenner has no idea that I wrote 
this, so if he hears nothing from you, he will 
have no added pain. Would that you might see 
him and hear him tell of the charge under Pickett 
at Gettysburg. He was slightly wounded twice. 
Ten or fifteen dollars per month would serve to 
keep him from want. He is a beautifully clean 
little gray-bearded gentleman, a mere boy in stat- 
ure. 

When this appeal was received by the Board of 
Pensions of Virginia, as the State could do noth- 
ing for his relief, the Chief Clerk turned the let- 
ter over to Mrs. Charles E. Bolling, President of 
the Virginia Division, U. D. C. Then there was 
action. She reports: “The first step was to ap- 
propriate fifty dollars from the Division’s Relief 
Fund and send it as a gift for the veteran’s eighty- 
ninth birthday — with the promise to present the 
case to the Ohio Division, U. D. C., for securing 
his record and to arrange for the presentation of 
the Confederate Cross of Honor. A letter was 
written to Mrs. M. W. Crocker, President of the 
Ohio Division, who promptly made a visit to the 
veteran, though he lived many miles away, on a 
little farm in the hills. When his Confederate 


record was secured and the certificate from the 
Virginia Archives department, Mrs. Crocker ap- 
plied for the Cross of Honor and presented it to 
him on June 3, 1931. Then the Ohio Division took 
him as its special charge, deeming it a privilege 
to contribute toward his support and to relieve 
his fears of being sent to the county almshouse. 
A loan fund also was secured to carry on the edu- 
cation of his granddaughter — and thus was car- 
ried out two of the great objects of the U. D. C. 
— benevolence and education. 

“This stands as one of the finest deeds in be- 
half of a Confederate veteran, for this old man 
was far from his native land, living among those 
who knew little of the Southern Confederacy and 
the part he bore in its defense, old and poor, with 
none of the honors, none of the support which has 
been the reward bestowed upon his comrades who 
remained in the South. Now he is assured of ma- 
terial aid, tender care, and the knowledge that he 
has gained his place in the great heart of the 
United Daughters of the Confederacy. 

“The letter from the school-teacher is so fine 
that I asked the Veteran to publish it.” 


HUMOR IN SOLDIER LIFE. 

BY CAPT. JAMES DINKINS, NEW ORLEANS, LA. 

Much has been written about the bravery and 
daring of the Confederate soldier, and yet history 
will never do full justice to his genius. He will 
stand confessed as the greatest soldier of the past, 
but even this will not do him the credit he deserves. 
There were other features in the character of the 
Confederate soldier fully as remarkable as his 
courage. In every company there were one or 
more men or boys who everlastingly had some 
surprise for you. They were the comedians who 
furnished life and fun for the rest of the crowd. 
These fellows invariably made good soldiers, and 
by their pranks and jokes made the other men 
forget their troubles and the danger too. They 
were meat and bread when we were hungry, and 
they gave us new life on the march when we 
were worn out. Proper notice has never been ac- 
corded these fellows, but every old soldier will 
recall when he reads this the name of the men 
of his company who furnished the fun and who 
always had some poor fellow on the rack. - There 
was a member of the Hamer Rifles from Yazoo 
City, which company belonged to the 18th Mis- 
sissippi Infantry, who could crow just as well as 
a rooster, and bark like a dog. I have known 
him to quicken the step of the whole brigade and 


169 


^09fc^«rat^ l/eterai). 


put them all to laughing and talking. Just before 
day, on occasions when we had been marching 
all night, he would crow like a young game cock, 
and then you would hear him imitate a big old 
Shanghai. This would wake up the dog and he 
would begin. 

The battle of Baker’s Creek, when Grant was 
investing Vicksburg, at which time our cause 
seemed very gloomy, numbers of our gallant of- 
ficers and men having been killed in the day’s 
fight, was an occasion which distinguished the 
Confederate soldier because all the highest ele- 
ments of manhood were necessary to hold him in 
line. The enemy was pressing our rear guard 
very strongly with a large force, the shells and 
bullets were flying thick, tearing up the ground, 
topping trees, and doing mad work generally. 
Adams’s Cavalry Brigade was resisting the ad- 
vance as well as they could. Men and horses were 
being killed, and it required nerve and every- 
thing else to make a man stay at his post. There 
was a deathly silence on the part of the men. No 
one knew what the next moment would do for 
him. To increase the intensity, a fellow riding a 
good horse went dashing to the rear. He had lost 
his nerve. As he flew by, he holloed out : “I can’t 
hold my horse.” Munford Bacon, of Madison 
County, Miss., a friend of mine, who was a mem- 
ber of Adams’s Brigade, saw the man and heard 
his explanation for leaving the line. Munford 
raised up in his stirrups and yelled out: “Boys, I 
will give one thousand dollars for one of them 
horses you can’t hold.” This created a laugh and 
a yell, which made the enemy halt long enough to 
allow our troops to get into better position, and 
what might have been a disaster was prevented 
by Munford’s wit. 

After the Army of Northern Virginia had fall- 
en back from the Peninsula to Richmond in the 
spring of 1862, and had camped on the south side 
of the Chickahominy, a few men from each com- 
pany were allowed to go into the city for a day 
only. I was at that time a member of Company 
C of the 18th Mississippi Regiment. One of the 
comedians in the company was Ben F. Muse, of 
Canton, Miss. Ben always had a joke on some- 
body, and was not happy unless he had the laugh 
on one of us. But we had the laugh on Ben once, 
as I will tell you. When his time came to go into 
town, he said to the boys: “You know I am a 
hornsnolger, and if you want anything from 
Richmond, come up with your canteens and your 
money.” Several of the boys who had not tasted 
the ardent for many moons gave Ben their can- 


teens and the needful, and off he went. I remem- 
ber how he looked as he bade us goodbye. He 
was a fine specimen of manhood, handsome as 
could be, with magnificent development. He had 
never been accustomed to hardships, and until he 
went into the army never wanted for anything, 
but on this occasion his clothes consisted of a 
pair of old ragged pants, a greasy old flannel shirt 
and one “gallus.” But Ben’s heart was as cheery 
as a mocking bird on a spring morning, as he 
capered off with seven or eight canteens around 
his neck. He had no thought of trouble, but spent 
the time thinking about the fun he would have 
when he reached town. 

Several of our men who had been wounded, and 
some who had been sick, but were well enough to 
sit around, had congregated at the Mississippi 
supply depot, where clothes and blankets were 
sent from home to be distributed among the Mis- 
sissippi troops. Dr. W. W. Devine was in charge. 
Well, Ben Muse reached the Mississippi depot and 
found a number of friends, among them Uriah 
Eulah, David Rowland, Ed Hargon, and others. 
Ben had but a short time to tarry, and at once 
proceeded to tell the boys he wanted to fill the 
canteens the first thing he did. Eulah was a 
warm friend of Ben Muse, so were the others, but 
Eulah thought the opportunity was favorable to 
have some fun, and, consulting with others, said 
to Ben: “We can show you where you can get 
these filled.” It will be remembered by the old 
soldiers that General Winder was the Command- 
ant of Richmond Post, and his office was a marble 
front building; and they will also remember that 
General Winder was a very stern and uncompro- 
mising man. Eulah said : “Now, Ben, you come 
with us and we will show you the place.” Dave 
Rowland had lost a leg, so the four went down 
the street very slowly until they reached a point 
opposite General Winder’s headquarters. “Now,” 
said Eulah, “you go in that marble store, and you 
will see two or three soldiers sitting around in 
the front room. Tell them you want to see the 
General on private business, and they will let you 
pass into the next room, where you will find sev- 
eral men in citizens’ clothes, writing. Tell them 
also that you want to see the General on an im- 
portant matter, and they will pass you into a 
third room, where you will see an old man with 
bald head, wearing glasses, and he also has on 
citizens’ clothes. Walk up to the old man, tap 
him on the shoulder, and point to your canteens. 
Tell him you want them filled, and don’t forget to 
(Continued on page 198) 


170 


Qoi>fcderat^ l/eterai>. 


FLAG OF THE CATAWBA RANGERS. 

[The following was written in 1920 by the 
donor of the flag, Miss L. Maud Edwin, a press 
correspondent, of San Diego, Calif., and was sent 
to the Veteran recently by Mrs. Blanks Killough, 
Director Publicity for California, U. D. C.] 

Sixty years seems a long, long time to some of 
us, and it is, while to others it is but — yesterday. 

To those of you, reading this little story, who 
were among the “Boys in Gray,” or descendants 
of those boys, it will doubtless prove intensely in- 
teresting, and to the “Boys who wore the Blue” it 
will bring scenes of similar nature, wherein color 
of uniform or flag played weak parts in the sad 
little drama of the moment, when brother fought 
brother, and for what? For principle — for what 
he believed in his own heart was right. 

Nestling 'mongst the hills of South Carolina 
was a little village of rare beauty and charm. 
In this village lived the boys and the girls who 
had grown to young manhood and young woman- 
hood together. They lived simply, sweetly, quiet- 
ly, and very happily, each dreaming of a “wonder- 
ful future,” of the “joy in store for them,” just 
as the boys and girls of today are doing, little 
dreaming of tragedy, which was, even then, enter- 
ing the portals of their sacred domain. 

But when the call to arms was sounded, none 
were more anxious to enter the front ranks than 
this same bunch of boy chums, as, one by one, they 
appeared in their wonderful uniforms of gray and 
gold, thrilling the hearts of those who loved them 
so dearly with a feeling of unutterable intensity, 
a mixture of pride and dread which only those 
having experienced it can know. 

As these boys were all members of one com- 
pany, there arose a great desire in the hearts of 
the girls to do something big for them, something 
which might add to their glory, if possible. Thus, 
the idea was conceived to make them an individual 
flag, one which would express something of the 
thoughts which impelled their acts. So the flag, 
of which I shall tell you, was the result of the 
love in the hearts of those dear little Southern 
girls of fifty years ago. 

The time was short. The call “To arms” and to 
“go into action” might come at any moment. As 
these girls knew they could not engrave the in- 
signia with silken thread and loving fingers as 
they desired to do, so brush and paint were used 
instead. Following is a minute description of this 
emblem of love : 

It is made of dark blue silk, with a lighter blue, 
heavy silk fringe. It measures 3 feet, 7 inches 


by 31 inches. The fringe is upon the end and 
bottom; the edge is bound with the lighter blue 
and every stitch put in by hand. Painted upon 
the one side, reading from top and left to right, 
in gold letters upon a painted scroll, it reads: 
“Our battle cry,” and upon a like scroll at the 
bottom, “Liberty or death.” These two scrolls 
form a circle in the center upon which is painted 
at the top an old-style gun, and below it as two 
swords crossed; in the very center is a large red 
star, measuring 7 inches each way and upon 
either side of the star are the letters “S. C.” — in 
gold; encircling these emblems is a gold wreath, 
held together at the bottom by a hand which is 
pointing to the Star. 

Upon the other side, the scrolls at top and bot- 
tom are the same, with the exception of the read- 
ing upon the top one, which is: “Catawba 
Rangers.” In the center is a painted palmetto 
tree, with a snake stretched, ready to strike from 
the grass beneath. Encircling this emblem is a 
wreath of red stars and gold balls or beads. This 
flag is in a splendid state of preservation, with the 
exception of the paint having cracked the silk, as 
it naturally would do in this length of time. 

Following is the story handed down with this 
precious keepsake : 

“It was after one of the fiercest of battles, and 
I am sorry to tell you that the knowledge of just 
ivhich one has slipped my memory. But my fa- 
ther, a ‘Boy in Blue,’ was among those sent out 
to care for the wounded but still living ‘Boys in 
Gray.’ The battle had raged long into the night, 
for it was moonlight, but towards dawn they for- 
got everything but that there were boys, like them- 
selves, out there in the open who needed help and 
they must go to them — which they did. Many 
were the heartbreaking sights which these ‘Boys 
in Blue’ saw, but one in particular is connected 
with my story. 

“Feeling their way cautiously among the dead, 
to ascertain whether or not some might still be 
living, my father was attracted to a form which 
was huddled in a bunch, rather than lying down 
as others were, and upon turning him over, he 
opened his eyes and smiled. He was gently raised 
and water placed to his lips, and as he was about 
to be lifted to the stretcher, he told them it was 
useless, the end was near. He asked to be left 
there beside his pal, who had died during the 
night. His words came in whispers and with 
great effort, but he slipped his hand beneath his 
shirt front and pulled forth this selfsame precious 
flag and haltingly told the ‘Boy in Blue’ the story. 


171 


^oi)federafc^ l/eterai). 


but before he had spoken any names or given any 
directions, he writhed in agony, gasped, opened 
his eyes and smiled a farewell; and as the Boy 
from the Northland stood over the Boy from the 
Southland, hot tears coursed down his cheeks and 
he stooped and pressed a kiss upon the brow of 
someone’s precious son; and as he left that field 
of gruesome horror, he knew he could never fire 
his gun again into the midst of such as these — 
and he did not, for, having some knowledge of 
surgery and medicine, he was detailed with the 
Hospital Corps and spent his entire time relieving 
the suffering of the boys, no matter which uniform 
they wore. 

“Yes, this flag is dear to the writer, but if, per- 
chance, there are those who may have been of that 
little village or even descendants of the very mem- 
bers of this company, who may know about the 
flag, I am willing to give it into their keeping, 
that they may pass it down as a relic, ever to be 
cheerished, for the sakes of those who bore it so 
valiantly into the jaws of death. 

“My father’s name was E. Maynard Burgess 
(M.D.), 13th Michigan Infantry.” 

The Maj. Hugh G. Gwyn Chapter, U. D. C., 
through Mrs. H. W. Merkeley, 3575 Fourth Street, 
San Diego, Calif., would like to hear from any one 
having knowledge of this flag, or of a descendant 
of one of the Catawba Guards. This article was 
given to California’s Director of Publicity for the 
Confederate Veteran, with the request that she 
endeavor to acquire information. 


IN THE JUNIOR RESERVES. 

BY WILLIAM FRANKLIN ELKINS, PLAINVIEW, TEX. 

I was born on March 14, 1847, in Cabarrus 
County, N. C., and reared in Concord, the county 
seat. Consequently, my fifteenth birthday came 
just before the opening of the War between the 
States in 1861. 

On April 21, 1861, Sunday morning, at five 
o’clock, the fife and drum aroused the citizens to 
get ready to march with the boys to the depot 
to see them off for the seat of war. These com- 
panies were commanded by men who had organ- 
ized military companies prior to the war. One 
known as the Cabarrus Guards was commanded 
by Capt. Nelson Slough, who had served in the 
war against Mexico, 1846-48. He had a fine 
military turn of mind. It will be interesting to 
know just what was the uniform of the men of his 
company, which was dark blue dress coats, with 


light blue pants, all belt trimmings white, and 
caps that were topped with red, white, and blue 
plumes. Each man looked full six feet tall with 
his plumes. The combined uniform was the most 
attractive I have ever seen. 

During the war. Captain Slough became famous 
as the commander of the 20th North Carolina 
of Clingman’s Brigade. Captain Slough trained 
his men before the war according to the tactics of 
General Scott. Well do I remember that while 
Captain Slough trained his men, we boys, with 
sticks for guns, learned to go through the drills 
quite correctly. 

The other company was called the “Black 
Boys” Company of Cabarrus County. Part of 
these boys were the descendants of a set of 
youngsters that played a well-remembered trick. 
When Lord Tryan was provincial governor of 
North Carolina, at one time he had run short of 
powder, and sent to Charleston to get a supply. 
Hearing of this, these youngsters blacked them- 
selves like negroes so they might not arouse sus- 
picion on the part of the guards until they could 
dispose of it. Then they began to fit a fuse out of 
wagon sheets and such. Setting fire to this they 
lay watching behind rocks and trees awaiting re- 
sults. The names of the “ancestors” were Alexan- 
der, White, Farr, McCurdy. After the Revolu- 
tionary War, the organization was revived, and 
when the War between the States started, they 
were in full trim. They were armed and trained 
by the tactics of Gen. William H. Hardee, which 
were used throughout the war. 

Reared under these conditions, I was a well- 
trained young soldier from observation. When 
our beloved Governor, Zeb B. Vance, saw fit, he 
called us boys, seventeen years old, to report to 
our respective county sites and then to Raleigh, 
the capital, where the Governor ordered us to 
Camp Holmes, and assigned us to quarters. 

One evening we w’ere ordered out to drill 
grounds, and the next morning put under drill 
masters, who began giving us the schooling of a 
soldier. Soon after, guns were issued to fit our 
size. 

Morning and evening we drilled arid were as- 
signed all kinds of camp duties. Toward the end 
of the struggle, our company was ordered to face 
Sherman at Bentonville and Averasboro. Short- 
ly after that. General Johnson surrendered and 
the war was over. 

The field and company officers of my command 
were as follows: Second Regiment Junior Re- 


172 


QoQfederat^ l/eterai). 


serves, Company E, commanded by Col. John 
Anderson, Major Beasly and Adjutant Hunter, 
Captain Carl, Lieutenant Sheen, Lieutenant Hines, 
Lieutenant Rogers, and Orderly Sergeant, Kelop 
Louder. 


SURGEONS OF THE CONFEDERACY. 
James A. Harrold, Chaplain, Surgeon-Major, 
C. S. A., First Virginia Regiment. 

September 11, 1861. Appointed from Virginia 
as Chaplain; to report to 1st Virginia Regiment. 
(Report, A. 0.) 

February 17, 1862. Appointed April 17, 1862, 
from Alabama, as Surgeon; to rank as Major. 
February 17, 1862, to report to Surgeon General. 

Hospital Duty. 

March 10, 1862. Says he reported this date for 
duty as Surgeon at General Hospital at Char- 
lottesville, Va. (Per Papers March 16, 1862.) 

March 10, 1862. Resignation accepted as Chap- 
lain, 1st Virginia Volunteers, July 3, 1862, to take 
effect March 10, 1862. (S. 0. 153 (22), A. G. 0.) 

July 6, 1863. Surgeon, ordered to relieve Sur- 
geon Ed. Lea, Examining Board 1st Congression- 
al District of North Carolina. (S. 0. 159 (3), 
A. G. 0.) 

September 10, 1863. Surgeon relieved from con- 
script duty in North Carolina and ordered to re- 
port to Surgeon Cro'well, Medical Doctor at Char- 
lottesville. (S. O. 215 (2), A. G. 0.) 

October 30, 1863. Surgeon, assigned to 3rd 
North Carolina Hospital, Department South Caro- 
lina, Georgia, and Florida. (S. O. 225-Beaure- 
gard.) 

April 1, 1864. Surgeon, relieved from charge 
of 3rd North Carolina Hospital, Charleston, S. C., 
and will proceed to establish a General Hospital, 
at Monticello, Fla. (S. 0. 91-Beauregard.) 

April 8, 1864. Relieved from duty Board of 
Examiners, Charleston, and ordered to Monticel- 
lo, Fla. (S. 0. 98-Beauregard.) 

September 14, 1864. Surgeon, ordered to re- 
port to Medical Director, T. L. Ogier, Jr., at Char- 
leston, S. C., for duty in prison hospital. (S. 0. 
218 (20), A. G. 0.) 

October 16, 1864. Tenders resignation and signs 
as Surgeon in charge of Prison Hospital, Colum- 
bus, S. C. (Per Papers.) 

November 3, 1864. Resignation accepted as 
Surgeon, P. A. C. S. (S. 0. 262 (1), A. G. 0.) 


The above military record as quoted from the 
“Official Records of the War,” printed and issued 


by the War Department, United States Govern- 
ment, in many volumes, shows most conclusively 
how tremendously and completely James Albert 
Harrold served his country, both as Chaplain and 
Surgeon, C. S. A., from beginning to end of war. 
But, as a military record, it does not tell half the 
story of much that happened in between or even 
during terms of duty. For nearly all his service 
was in the “Field” or in charge of three of the 
most important hospitals during the war. Many 
vivid instances were related only to his family in 
after-years, which some of his letters written to 
his wife and children corroborate. And at this 
late day, only a few fragments left of those vivid 
letters tell something that may add interest to 
the memories of those veterans or womenkind 
still left behind. 

James Albert Harrold, M.D., D.D., graduated 
from the College of Physicians and Suregons in 
Baltimore, Md., and, while practicing medicine 
in North Carolina, where he married the young- 
est daughter of the Hon. Henry Skinner, of Piney 
Woods Plantation, Perquimans County, N. C., be- 
came interested in the saving of souls, as well as 
their bodies, and was ordained there by the Bish- 
op of the Episcopal Church. 

This accounts for his two services both as 
Chaplain and Surgeon, C. S. A. 

Reverend and Doctor Harrold was the warm, 
personal friend of President Davis, who, know- 
ing of his work and record as surgeon, sent for 
him and asked him — indeed, almost ordered him 
— to “come and serve as Surgeon in the war,” as 
he was badly in need of all surgical help. 

His devoted and unselfish wife, with their five 
little children, followed Dr. Harrold all through 
his campaign, and domiciled as near his hospital 
work as was permitted, by the authorities at Char- 
lottesville, Va., Charleston, S. C., and Tallahas- 
see, Fla. As the result of changing and insani- 
tary housing or camping, four of those little chil- 
dren caught fever germs and were buried where 
they died. 

So well were his hospitals kept and so faithfully 
he attended each patient that these hospitals be- 
came noted and known even to the Federal army, 
and many Federal officers asked to be sent to Dr. 
Harrold’s hospitals when attention was needed. 
Friendships thus formed lasted through life, as 
in after years he baptized and officiated at the 
marriages of their children. 

Dr, Harrold’s private diary, kept day by day 
throughout the war, gives some interesting and 


173 


^oi>federat^ l/eterai). 


even amusing items, for he was blessed with a 
keen sense of humor and fine health. He often 
said that the rigors of war cured him of dyspep- 
sia and a delicate throat. But it never cured him 
of a cheerful and happy nature, or a tolerance of 
the weaknesses of human nature. 

His diary notes that in February, 1861, he 
“left Charlottesville to attend the inauguration 
of President Davis, C. S. A.; arrived at 9 P.M.,” 
next day, “Saturday — rain and cloudy weather 
not propitious for ceremony; but was a large 
crowd. President’s manner impressive and 
solemn. In evening attended ‘levee’ at the Presi- 
dent’s House.’’ 

During 1861, speaks of “churches closed for 
services and used to house the wounded,” “cold 
and snowy and rain always.” He seems to have 
been from “Camp in Centerville” and “by wagon 
to Manassas, but got no place to sleep, and went 
on to Gainesville.” “Preached on Sunday for the 
Maryland Regiment.” And next day “appeared 
before Medical Board at Manassas for examina- 
tion — passed.” While waiting for appointment as 
surgeon, preached in Richmond, Va., at old “St. 
Paul’s, and Ashland, Va., and to troops in Field.” 
At another date he speaks of “violent storm — 
Yankee fleet at sea — all praying for its dispersion 
and destruction” ; while “in camp the storm 
abated — but great confusion — with tents blown 
down.” 

While in “Camp near Centerville on November 
30, 1861,” he writes to his children of an interest- 
ing ceremony “which occurred on the 28th of 
August”: “You must know that our Army has 
a new flag for the battle field, the old flag being 
so much like the Federal flag as to have been mis- 
taken at a distance on the battle field of Manas- 
sas, and thus caused confusion. The new banner 
is of bright red silk, in the ground, with a large 
blue, St. Andrew’s (X) from end to end — this 
cross decked with twelve (12) silver stars, the 
present number of the Confederate States. This 
flag was presented to General Longstreet’s Di- 
vision on the day named. The day was bright 
and the army of ten thousand men of that Di- 
vision marched to a high plain near Centerville 
and was drawn up in battle array. There were 
nine flags planted in the ground, by threes; 
around these were assembled General Beauregard 
and staff, Johnston and staff, Longstreet and 
staff, Ewell and staff, Jones, Bonham, Van Dorn, 
and others, all dressed in brilliant uniform of 
gray and gold. The army formed in a square 
in front, and different bands of music stirred the 


air with sweet and martial strains. At a signal, 
a Colonel rode forward and read to the Army the 
‘orders’ of the new banner — then General Long- 
street rode forward with the Rev. Dr. Harrold 
(your dad), whom he presented to the Army as 
Chaplain for the day. I was requested to make 
a speech, and then to bless the neiv ivar banner; 
all of which I did. At the conclusion the bands 
struck up the ‘Marseillaise Hymn,’ and thousands 
of voices rent the air in loud and long huzzas. 
The crowd sang out for Beauregard ; he, mounted 
on a fine black charger, rode along the lines and 
the men shouted, and the bands of music played, 
‘Dixie’; then Johnston was called out, with the 
same ; then Longstreet, and so on. 

“The flag was presented by Beauregard to each 
Colonel, who received it, making a short speech. 
The Army then went off to quarters and all the 
officers went to General Longstreet’s quarters, 
where we spent the day in festivities. It was a 
great day; I was much complimented; had the 
honor of a long talk with General Beauregard, 
and introductions to many of the Generals.” 

On December 14, 1861, from Camp near Cen- 
terville he writes again to his children : “My last 
letter gave you some idea of the ‘pomp and cir- 
cumstance of glorious war’; now I give you an 
account of some of the war’s sterner circum- 
stance in the execution of its discipline — I allude 
to a Military Execution! On Monday last, 9th 
inst., two of the Louisiana Tigers Battalion suf- 
fered the extreme sentence of military law in hav- 
ing been shot to death by an order of Court Mar- 
tial. You have often heard of the ‘Tigers,’ a wild, 
desperate set of men from the city of New Or- 
leans, and commissioned by Major Wheat. They 
have the reputation of outlaws and desperadoes, 
though brave and valorous in battle, as was 
proved at Manassas. They are often imprisoned 
in the Guard House for stealing and insubordina- 
tion. Sometime since one of them killed, or at- 
tempted to kill, a man, for which he was im- 
prisoned. Two of his Tiger friends attempted 
to release him from the Guard House; they made 
an attack upon the officer of the Guard, knocked 
him down, seized the arms of the guard, and re- 
leased the prisoner. This was a high offense, it 
being the penalty of death for a private to strike 
his officer. The two ‘Tigers’ were caught and 
tried by court-martial, and condemned to be shot 
to death. This was done on the last Monday 
morning at 11 o’clock. Fancy a large open field 
upon a high hill — on all sides surmounted by the 
glittering rows of thousands of white tents where 


^oi)federat^ l/eterai). 


174 

our brave soldiers await their enemies. It is a 
bright and beautiful morning — the sun shines 
warm, inspiring everything with new life and 
vigor. A large crowd of horsemen and persons 
on foot are seen wending their way from even 
surrounding camps across the field to the one par- 
ticular spot. You follow the long train, and soon 
arrive upon the field where a vast army of peo- 
ple are gathered, standing in columns of scores, 
deep in the form of a hollow square, with the end 
of the square open. Around you gleam the arms 
of the men on the champing and neighing horses; 
and from thousands of bayonets and sabers the 
light of the sun is thrown in brilliant flashes, 
whilst rich uniforms of gold and gray add to the 
life and interest of the scene. At one end of the 
square the battalion of ‘Tigers,’ in full uniform 
and drawn up with their rifles in hand. An im- 
pressive silence seems to rest upon all — when, 
suddenly, at the open end of the square, a cov- 
ered wagon, drawn by four horses appears, and 
slowly advances into the open space, where it 
stops for a while; then six men get put of the 
wagon — two ‘Tigers,’ a Catholic priest in long 
black cassock and three-cornered cap, and three 
officers. These step forward a little when the 
Colonel rides up to them and, speaking to the 
‘Tigers,’ reads to them the charges of which they 
have been found guilty and the sentence of the 
court condemning them to death. The two ‘Tigers’ 
have their hands tied behind them with rope. 
They are then led backward a short distance 
and made to kneel with their backs resting against 
two strong posts driven into the ground, about 
twenty or thirty yards apart; their hands are 
also tied tightly behind them to the posts. The 
priest is seen going constantly from one to the 
other of the two criminals, comforting them in 
preparing them for the awful death, which is so 
soon to shut out from them the light of the beau- 
tiful sun which is shining about them. He holds 
to their lips a crucifix, which they passionately 
kiss and over which they pray. In a few mo- 
ments the signal is given, the priest leaves them 
alone with an officer, who puts a bandage over 
their eyes and then retires. An officer gives a 
signal in silence, and directly twenty-four of the 
‘Tigers,’ in their striking costume of a scarlet 
Turkish cap, gray half jacket, red shirt, short 
zouave pants of white and blue stripes, long blue 
and white striped stockings and russet leather 
half boots, advance within twenty steps of the 
two kneeling men, with rifles in hand; one-half 
are in front of each man — you can hear the faint- 


est whisper of the wind. The commanding of- 
ficer of the squad of ‘Tigers,’ in a long scarlet 
tunic, with a sword in his hand, steps out a few 
paces and commands ‘Aim! Fire!’ .... Poor 
fellows ! they fought bravely at Manassas, driving 
back the enemy. I wept bitter tears for them arid 
suffered intensely and prayed all the while for 

them There, where they were shot, were 

they laid to rest, side by. side You think it 

cruel that their comrades were made to be their 
executioners, but no one of the soldiers who fired 
ever knew who of them shot the men, for the 
rifles are loaded half with blank cartridge by 
some officer who gives them to another officer 
who hands them to the executioner, not know- 
ing himself which of them have guns loaded with 
ball or which are blank.” 

After the foregoing events. Dr. Harrold passed 
his examinations for Surgeon and received his 
appointment on March 10, 1862. His duties from 
thereon in hospitals in Virginia, South Carolina, 
and Florida kept him busy, and apparently too 
busy to keep a diary. When, in November, 1864, 
he resigned from the Confederate Southern 
Army, he again took up his duties as a clergyman 
in civil life, in South Carolina and in Florida, 
finally going to Washington, D. C., doing much 
work in that diocese from 1872 till the day of his 
death in 1903, organizing three parishes, preach- 
ing and teaching God’s word and work, thus ful- 
filling his busy and vigorous life, serving others, 
his Lord, and his country. 

[This sketch of a Confederate surgeon was con- 
tributed by Mrs. Caroline H. Chase, daughter of 
Dr. Harrold, of New York City.] 


As the marsh-hen secretly builds on the watery 
sod. 

Behold, I will build me a nest on the greatness of 
God; 

I will fly in the greatness of God as the marsh-hen 
flies 

In the freedom that fills all the space twixt the 
marsh and the skies ; 

By so many roots as the marsh grass sends in the 
sod, 

I will heartily lay me a-hold on the greatness of 
God. 

Oh, like to the greatness of God is the greatness 
within 

The range of the Marshes, the liberal Marshes of 
Glynn. — Sidney Lanier. 


^opfederat^ l/eterai). 


175 







fmt»iiTrr«T 




iit;ii4i Mill I ni I •«• * I r«*i| 
uiiiiiiiiUAttn. impliff 




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(’ourh'sy Thi* Uiclini(m<l >fnf;A/lne 


THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT, RICHMOND, VA. 






176 


^OQfederat^ Uetera^. 


JEB STUART— FIGHTING MAN. 

BY THELMAR WYCHE COX, SHREVEPORT, LA, 

“If you want to have a good time, 

Jine the cavalry !” 

Through forest paths, through country lanes, 
through sunny Virginia valleys, men hummed that 
lilting ditty as they galloped along after young 
James Ewell Brown Stuart, with his rollicking 
voice booming out on the chorus, and long-legged, 
laconic Joe Sweeney’s gifted fingers thumping out 
the accompaniment on the strings of his captured 
Yankee banjo. 

Major General young Stuart was, and serving 
under the immortal Jackson, but to the men in 
gray who followed where he led he was romance 
incarnate. No march too long, no force of enemy 
too overwhelming for them if Jeb Stuart rode at 
their head, with his ostrich feather fioating in the 
wind and the tassels of his yellow sash beating 
against the high tops of his polished boots — and 
his merry blue eyes challenging them to follow. 

All the Launcelots and Galahads are gone. Not 
even the bravest would dare to wear a sash and a 
plumed hat these days, and wars are fought by 
men dressed as much alike as possible, and bat- 
tles led by generals miles in the rear. Cavalry 
is practically obsolete, and the world has become 
stodgy and commonplace since that gay feather 
fell in the dust of Yellow Tavern. 

But while it yet adorned a broad-brimmed felt, 
men knew that the world was still a good place in 
which to live, and that nothing was important 
save honor and courage and a good stiff fight, a 
gallant death, and a blanket shroud. 

A short life in the saddle. Lord, not long life 
by the fire! It might have been their motto — 
those men who rode in Stuart’s cavalry, for only a 
handful of them lived to see that black April at 
Appomattox Court House when Lee rode by them 
with hat in hand, that gray head of his proud even 
in defeat, and the pitiful remnant of his army gaz- 
ing at his beloved face with sorrowing eyes that 
were striving to impress his likeness on loyal 
hearts that would never forget that day. 

They carried back to their firesides memories 
that could soften the blow of defeat. Through 
dark days that tried their souls, their hearts still 
rode through Virginia in that long Kne with Jeb 
Stuart at their head. 

They knew him. And some of those who had 
been with him put down on paper his deeds, his 
words, the way he laughed, the teasing light in 


his blue eyes, so that posterity of theirs might 
know that a man had lived. 

Prosaic histories give accounts of his military 
campaigns. The eyes and the ears of Lee’s army, 
they call him, but not even their weighty words 
can quite conceal the glamor of the man himself. 

He was so young. Men don’t become generals 
these days at twenty-eight, even men who finish 
at West Point as he did, but at that age Stuart 
was a seasoned soldier and had smelled the smoke 
of battle and been wounded in an Indian skirmish. 
Already he had shown the resource and courage he 
possessed, so that when he offered his sword in 
defense of his native State, it v;as a great day for 
the Confederacy. 

They sent him to serve under Jackson in the 
Shenandoah, and in the space of five months he 
was promoted from lieutenant colonel to briga- 
dier general, and Union soldiers slept uneasily 
in their camps and dreamed that that laughing, 
fighting devil of a Stuart was after them. 

He became a nightmare to Union generals as- 
piring to fame and glory — and promotion. They 
saw their high hopes vanish ; they saw their lines 
falter and fall back before a mere handful of Reb- 
els inspired to superhuman courage by a mad- 
man who charged at their head with flashing 
sword and laughter on his lips, and in his eyes 
the joy of martial combat. 

Useless to explain to the newspapers, useless to 
try to make “Old Abe” understand that they 
couldn’t stop a man like that! Wars aren’t won 
by excuses, and when superior numbers can’t con- 
quer, something must be wrong with the gen- 
eral. Jackson and Stuart, advancing, retreating, 
in that beautiful Valley of the Shenandoah, keep- 
ing two armies at bay while the world looked on 
in amazement, and writing military history that 
excites the admiration of men even today, was 
something the North hadn’t planned for. 

But it was sport for young Stuart. War was 
an amusing game that he played to the best of his 
ability, and he was willing to pay for it when fate 
should demand an accounting. He had martial 
blood in his veins — and he had Irish blood. It 
was inevitable with a heritage such as that that he 
should love the smell of powder; inevitable that 
he should play the role of cavalier to the end. 
There is a potency, a color, about Irish blood that 
lends a glamor to the history of the world. It 
has helped to dye the soil of so many battle fields ; 
will fertilize the grass roots of many more. 

Hot Irish blood that loves a merry song and a 
good fight, and yet has its deep undercurrent of 


177 


Q09f€<lcrat^ l/eterai>. 


faith in God and love of fellow-man — Stuart was 
all that. 

His men said that they had never heard him 
use an oath, and though many women admired 
him, theirs, too, was the tribute that womankind 
always pay to a fighting man. 

No scandal ever touched his name. One woman 
he loved, and that one he had married. She was 
his darling wife, and so he addressed her in let- 
ters from many a camp fire, and, when life for 
him was over, with May sunshine outside his win- 
dow and the guns just beyond Richmond boom- 
ing in his ears, he sighed that he must go out to 
join his beloved old Stonewall without one last 
'sight of her cherished face. 

He was made of wire and steel, and sleep didn’t 
figure in his plans. While his soldiers slept the 
sleep of exhaustion from long wearying rides over 
incredible distances, Stuart, accompanied by 
Sweeney with his banjo under his arm, would set 
out for some home in the neighborhood. 

The news would spread, and some old darky 
who knew how to make a fiddle talk would come 
up from the quarters to play with Sweeney, and 
soon a dance would be in full swing, just as if 
Yankee troops weren’t encamped a few rods away, 
just as if the old plantation life with its balls, its 
white-columned old homes, its grinning Negro 
servants, its easy hospitality, hadn’t come to an 
end. Just as if the Bonnie Blue Flag would wave 
forever over the capitol at Richmond. 

Stuart and Sweeney were always welcome. 
Sweeney’s supply of ballads was almost inex- 
haustible, and sometimes the young General 
would join in — “Sweet Evelina,” “Faded Old Let- 
ters,” “Bonnie Blue Flag,” and ending up with 
“Jine the Cavalry !” Sweeney, minstrel to a knight- 
errant, the airs he plunked from his banjo made 
long miles drop away as if by magic under the 
horses’ feet. 

Like the great leader he was, Stuart taught his 
men to trust him. Had they been afraid of his 
judgment, the story of his career would not have 
been so breath-taking. But they were with him 
to a man. They followed his feather, as they said. 
Around McClellan’s army they went after that 
gay plume, almost constantly in sight of the 
enemy, exposed to great danger, but safe through 
their own daring. 

When they hesitated to ride by a gunboat ly- 
ing in the James, he led them in an attack on it, 
and his battery soon forced the ship to up-anchor 
and drift down the river, since its own guns could 


do no damage to the attackers at such short range. 

With light hearts they followed him on his raid 
into Pennsylvania, confident that somehow their 
Jeb would get them back onto Dixie soil safely 
again. Miles into the enemy country they went, 
with Washington shaking in its boots and the 
order out to stop that fellow Stuart at any cost, 
guard every ford of the Potomac and not let him 
back across it. 

But with the boldness characteristic of him, 
he outguessed them and crossed at a ford miles 
below where he was expected and nearest the 
greatest number of enemy ! He brought with him 
a large party of horses conscripted from the Penn- 
sylvania countryside, and he left behind him peo- 
ple who praised the gentlemanly conduct of his 
men. 

There had been no plundering, and for the 
horses and clothing seized, Stuart had commanded 
that receipts be given so that redress might be 
asked of the United States Government. 

In a day that prided itself on its gentlemen, 
young Stuart was admittedly the pride of Virginia 
chivalry. A great friend of his said that the 
young general’s head was one that a helmet should 
have graced, and men much older than he envied 
him the brain under that feathered hat of his. 

He outwitted the enemy on more than one oc- 
casion, and, at such times, that brain of Stuart’s 
made up for superior forces before him. It served 
him in good stead at Fredericksburg, when the 
day went against his small band and defeat 
seemed certain. Confronted by troops almost four 
times as many as his own, he stationed men with 
banners in the rear so that it seemed he had 
several regiments in reserve. Then, leading the 
charge himself, he swept them on to victory. 

But in spite of his military genius, and no one 
who reads the accounts of his maneuvers can 
doubt it for a moment, the man himself was very 
human, and it was that picture of him his men re- 
membered and smiled mistily over for long years 
afterward. 

He was their comrade. He slept with them, 
ate with them, joked with them, and grieved with 
them. They idolized him and knew in their 
hearts that they couldn’t be beaten as long as they 
had him with them. 

He had pet names for some of them, and the 
slang they quote hym as using smacks of a much 
later date than the sixties. Men growing old re- 
membered, long after that deep voice behind the 
heavy auburn beard was silent forever, how he 
would lean back in his saddle and roar at a joke. 


178 


^opfcderat^ l/eterai). 


He really meant it when he sang that if you 
wanted to have a good time you should join the 
cavalry. For Stuart had a grand time. Old 
enough to realize the seriousness of the war, but 
young enough to take it as it came and not quar- 
rel with fate over the decision, his smiling face 
under the quizzical eyebrows never betrayed to 
his men any anxiety he might feel. 

When the joke was on him, he laughed just as 
loudly. The enemy came so near to capturing him 
one morning when he imprudently slept on the 
porch of an old, abandoned house near Verdiers- 
ville without a picket, that he escaped only by 
leaving his hat and coat behind and leaping a 
fence. ‘ 

But the Northern general didn’t laugh long 
over the possession of Stuart’s hat and coat, for, 
some nights later, the young Rebel led a night at- 
tack on the general’s camp while that worthy 
man was sound asleep. The poor general es- 
caped in his night clothes, and Stuart, in great 
glee, took back with him the general’s whole 
uniform! A store in Richmond displayed it in 
its shop window while the whole Confederacy 
chuckled. 

And even Lincoln had to laugh at his impru- 
dence when Stuart, after capturing a telegraph 
station and intercepting messages of the gravest 
importance, had his operator send in a complaint 
about the poor grade of mules being furnished the 
Union army. “They caused me great hindrance 
in removing my captured wagons,” Stuart said. 

He was a dozen men rolled into one, for they 
could never be sure just where he’d show up next, 
and so they were never easy. To the men in blue 
he was a devil who never slept. Hard to con- 
vince them that he was just a boy with a bushy 
beard that he was very proud of — riding half 
across the State of Virginia with a couple of bird 
pups on his saddle that some one had given him ! 

But at last they molded the bullet with his 
name on it. He had been sure that they would 
some day, but, like Jackson, he had been fatalis- 
tic about it. He believed that he had a destiny 
to fulfil and that he would be spared to complete 
it. 

Battle after battle the shells flew thick and fast 
about his gallant head, and men he loved fell all 
around him, but he remained untouched. Through 
three hard years he gave of his best, and men 
fought under his blood-red battle flag and died 
with the picture of his smiling face in their 
hearts. 

Three years exactly that day in May the bul- 


let found him. The star of the Confederacy was 
setting. Stuart had twice saved Richmond; she 
would need him sorely again, but his destiny had 
run its course. Lee, with his best generals dead 
and his army ragged and starving, couldn’t hold 
out much longer. A kind fate meant that Stuart 
should be spared that. 

His men wavered when they saw that he had 
fallen in the charge. They responded to his ral- 
lying cry as he was carried from the field, but 
hope died within them that day at Yellow Tavern. 

“I have done my best for my country ! See that 
you do yours !” said their invincible leader to them 
for the last time. “I had rather die than be 
whipped !” 

And so they took him into Richmond to die 
in that city where he had known gaiety and 
laughter and love. 

Only thirty-one he was as he lay there with the 
sands of his life running low, and though the 
guns sounded in the distance, the flag he had 
fought for, shed his precious blood for — the beau- 
tiful folds of the Bonnie Blue Flag still floated 
over his beloved Richmond when he closed his 
eyes for the last time. 

And there in a public place stands today his 
bronze likeness looking out across a city that still 
speaks of his gallantry and courage, after sixty- 
eight years. 

Time tarnishes the brightest name, but it will 
be long before the nation — a united North and 
South — forgets Jeb Stuart. For the whole world 
loves a fighting man — one who plays the game 
squarely, one who fights for what he thinks is 
right, gives his life’s blood gladly, and dies with 
laughter on his lips. For such a one there are no 
lost causes. 


DEFENSE OF THE SOUTH ANNA BRIDGE, 

BY JUDGE W. A. DEVINE, OXFORD, N. C. 

Traveling northward from Richmond, Va., by 
rail, one crosses a stream of no very great size 
which bears the rather unusual name of the South 
Anna River. The momentary clatter of the car 
wheels over the bridge is hardly noticed, and but 
few, if any, recall that this was once the scene 
of a fierce and sanguinary conflict during the 
War between the States, and that here the blood’ 
of Oxford and Granville County men once crim- 
soned the shelving banks and dyed the waters of 
the swiftly flowing stream. 

Nearly sixty-seven years have elapsed since the 
Confederate battle flags were furled forever, and 
the Southern Cause passed into history; but it is 


179 


^opfederat^ l/eterai>. 


never too late to recount deeds of gallantry and 
heroism, and it is not inappropriate that we take 
time to recall that in this instance the actors were 
all men of our own county and that their deeds 
are worthy to be remembered. This glory should 
not be permitted to remain undeclared and their 
spirit forgotten. 

We read history and retain in our memory 
many unusual things done in other lands and by 
other people, yet frequently overlook highly dra- 
matic and stirring exploits, deeds of courage, dar- 
ing and endurance which have been performed by 
men from our own little corner of the world. 
Granville County history furnishes many inci- 
dents that often lift its record out of the ordinary 
and the commonplace, and sometimes into the 
heroic. We need to study these records and teach 
them to our children. In no period, I think, will 
we find our history richer than during the trag- 
ic years of the War between the States. 

We are all familiar with the course of that long 
and exhausting struggle, and have a general idea 
of the many battles waged as the tides of con- 
flict ebbed and flowed. North Carolina’s large 
share in it is a matter of history. We are justly 
proud of the heights to which she mounted, of 
her greatness and her sacrifices in time of stress 
and storm; of the steadfastness of her sons and 
daughters in supreme trial. But too often we fail 
to recognize and accord the meed of praise and 
fame due for the heroic conduct of her sons on 
many unusual and striking occasions. Our fail- 
ure in this respect is not due to lack of ability to 
appreciate what is great, but doubtless for lack 
of skilled artists to paint in the high lights with 
the tragic shadows. Paul Revere is immortal 
not so much because his galloping steed brought 
timely warning to the patriots, but rather be- 
cause a great poet sang his praises in immortal 
verse. The gallantry and dash of Stuart, Ashby, 
Mosby, Morgan live in song and story, for our 
youthful ardor was stirred by the martial ro- 
mances of John Esten Cook. 

There are those who sprang from Granville 
County soil worthy to mingle in this goodly com- 
pany. Let us help to resurrect from our own 
forgetfulness the history of an extraordinary 
occurrence, unsurpassed anywhere, and place here 
a wreath of fadeless laurel. So I am recording 
an instance of unusual gallantry and unconquer- 
able courage displayed by a band of Granville 
County Confederate soldiers dominated by the 
spirit of their resolute and fearless leader. Col. 


Taswell L. Hargrove, in the defense of the South 
Anna Bridge, in June, 1863. Their conduct on 
that occasion is worthy to be told wherever the re- 
cital of high courage in a supreme trial stirs the 
blood of a brave people and particularly to an Ox- 
ford audience. The theater on which these men 
acted was small, but their performance was un- 
paralleled. 

Here let me tell something of the background 
of the leader whose dauntless spirit inspired these 
men that day to their remarkable action. 

In the good year 1742, there came out of the 
State of Virginia into North Carolina one Richard 
Hargrove, styled “gentleman” in the ancient 
deeds, of English ancestry, who acquired a large 
body of land on Nutbush Creek in northeastern 
Granville County, near the present site of the 
town of Townsville, and built there his home. 
Succeeding generations of Hargroves occupied 
the same homestead, and lived the lives of baro- 
nial, slave-owning Southern planters, accumulat- 
ing substantial wealth in land and houses and 
slaves. This plantation still remains in the pos- 
session of a member of the Hargrove family. I 
have been told that these Hargroves were all men 
of fiery temper and untamed spirit, and that they 
still adhered to the ancient code of the duel, but 
that their word was their bond. 

April 6, 1830, on this plantation there was born 
to Israel and Nancy Hargrove a son whom they 
named Taswell Lee. The latest scion of the Har- 
grove lineage proved no exception to the rule. 
Taswell was educated at Randolph-Macon College, 
graduating in 1848. Later he studied law at the 
University of North Carolina and at the famous 
Law School of Richmond Pearson in Yadkin 
County. Coming to the bar of his native county, 
he resided in Oxford and took up the practice of 
his profession. He entered politics in the fateful 
years before the War between the States, and be- 
came a fierce Democrat, an uncompromising Se- 
cessionist, and a disciple of John C. Calhoun. 
It was characteristic of him that he vigorously 
opposed his own uncle, John Hargrove, a Senator 
from Granville County, who was a staunch Whig. 
Taswell Hargrove was a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1861 which adopted the Or- 
dinance of Secession, and sat in the first assem- 
bly after North Carolina joined the Confeder- 
acy. 

But the call to arms and to the more stirring 
scenes on the battle field was too strong for the 
hot blood of Taswell Hargrove, and early in 1862 
he raised a company of Granville County men 


180 


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which was assigned to the newly formed 44th 
North Carolina Regiment. Early recognition of 
his courage and leadership brought him promotion 
to Major and then to Lieutenant Colonel. He saw 
service on many fields in Eastern Carolina, and 
then led his Regiment to join Lee’s Army in Vir- 
ginia, where he participated in the movements 
of the Army of Northern Virginia. Let us pic- 
ture him as a tall, slender young Confederate Col- 
onel, with his gray uniform and rattling saber, 
with fierce eyes and fiercer mustache, with proud 
and imperious bearing, every inch the soldier, one 
whom you would instinctively select to lead a for- 
lorn and desperate hope. 

In June, 1863, flushed by the victory of Chan- 
cellorsville, Lee undertook the invasion of the 
North, and led his undefeated army across the 
Blue Ridge, along the Shenandoah, by way of 
Harper’s Ferry, through the Maryland hills deep 
into the hostile territory of the State of Pennsyl- 
vania. Marching parallel with him moved the 
great hosts of Meade to repel the invasion. And 
thus the two armies approached the fateful field 
of Gettysburg. 

Now, it was not in accord with the nature 
of the chivalrous and high-minded Lee to levy trib- 
ute on unarmed people, or take by force the sup- 
plies needed for his army, so there extended in 
his rear an ever lengthening line of communica- 
tions whereby food and ammunition and supplies 
must constantly pass from the Confederate base 
at Richmond. It was necessary to guard this 
line of communications, and it fell to the lot of the 
gallant 44th North Carolina Regiment to do this 
work. 

To be left behind when the decisive battle of the 
war was in prospect, to cool their heels far in the 
wake of the stirring happenings at the front, was 
enough to make these young fighting men bewail 
their fate. But they little dreamed that fortune 
would single them out for a glorious achieve- 
ment, for a battle worthy to be remembered where- 
ever brave deeds are sung, and for a service of 
prodigious magnitude to Lee’s army and to the 
Confederacy. 

In this covering duty. Colonel Hargrove took 
post with a single company, Company A, his old 
company, composed entirely of men from Gran- 
ville, Capt. R. L. Rice, sixty-two strong, at the 
railroad bridge over the South Anna River. To 
the northwest, some distance away, along the rail- 
road, was Company G, composed of men from 
Orange County. At Hanover Junction, still far- 
ther away, were other units of the 44th Regi- 


ment, including Maj. Charles M. Stedman. These, 
however, were too far away to render assistance 
to those who held the bridge. Not only was the 
maintenance of the bridge vital to Lee’s communi- 
cations, but there were stored near there thirty 
thousand stands of arms and a large depot of 
supplies of ammunition and food. 

Now this long line of communications naturally 
tempted the Federal commanders to try to break 
it, and thereby harass and impede Lee’s invasion 
of the North. So a formidable force was organ- 
ized and dispatched to strike at this vital joint in 
the long snake and to destroy the South Anna 
railroad bridge. June 26, 1863, Colonel Spears, 
with fifteen hundred Pennsylvania and California 
Cavalry and two guns, landed near the “White 
House” and rode swiftly to a surprise attack from 
an unexpected quarter from the south. But the 
Confederates were alert. On the approach of the 
enemy. Colonel Hargrove moved his small force 
to the north side of the river, and took cover un- 
der its banks and behind the bed and crossties of 
the railroad. A small earthwork and a watch- 
man’s hut formed a part of his defense. He so 
skilfully maneuvered his men, making use of 
every vantage point the ground afforded, as to 
give his adversary the impression that a much 
larger force opposed him. Colonel Spears brought 
up his guns, dismounted a portion of his cavalry, 
and, after a vigorous shelling of the Confederate 
position, charged repeatedly with both cavalry 
and footmen. 

But the little band held their ground. The odds 
were more than twenty to one, but Colonel Har- 
grove knew the value of time, the importance of 
the bridge to Lee’s communications; knew the 
necessity of holding the bridge at all hazards, 
and the command was that there must be no 
retreat. There must be no surrender. They 
must stay there and die if need be. There was 
only the grim necessity of selling their lives as 
dearly as possible. And there they stayed all 
that long June afternoon. Their leader’s cool- 
ness, self-possession, resourcefulness, and grim 
determination inspired and steadied his men. 
They clung to their position with unshakable te- 
nacity ; they fought like men possessed — four 
hours — attacked repeatedly in front, on both 
flanks— in the rear — finally surrounded; for the 
Federals had found a crossing two miles below 
and were on both sides of the river now. A part 
of Company G, eighteen men, under command 
of Capt. Robert Bingham, had arrived and taken 


181 


Qoijfederat^ l/eterap. 


position two hundred yards from the bridge in an 
effort to protect the rear of Colonel Hargrove’s 
position. They were immediately attacked by 
four hundred enemy in furious assault. The men 
of Orange joined their comrades from Granville 
in time to share their fate. But the Confederates 
did not give way. They fought with furious de- 
termination, with rifles, sabers, pistols, clubbed 
muskets, and, at last, hand to hand, in murderous 
madness, in inextricable confusion, in undistin- 
guishable melee, until every single man was killed, 
shot down or wounded, or incapacitated. Col- 
onel Hargrove, covered with blood from a saber 
cut on his head, was struck from the rear and fell 
unconscious. Not a man was left on his feet. 
The battle was over. The little band and its in- 
trepid leader became a total casualty. But their 
purpose was accomplished, their sacrifice was not 
in vain. They had held the bridge long enough 
to prevent its destruction. The surprise attack 
had failed. After attempting ineffectually to burn 
the bridge, the Federal Commander, taking his 
wounded and wounded prisoners, withdrew with 
all speed lest his own retreat be cut off. The 
situation was saved. Trains went forward un- 
hindered over the bridge bearing supplies to en- 
able Lee to fight for three days his great battle 
in Pennsylvania and to insure his leisurely re- 
treat. 

Every man who fought at the South Anna has 
now passed away. The wounded survivors rare- 
ly talked about it. The scenes enacted there that 
day were not pleasant subjects of conversation. 
They know what price the glory. 

I have seen two accounts of this memorable de- 
fense written by men who bore their share of 
gallantry in that day’s fight. One of them wrote 
it thirty years after, but did not publish it. The 
son found it among his papers after his death and 
gave it to the press. That man was Capt. Alex- 
ander S. Peace, father of Oxford’s present Post- 
master, and of Col. Willis Peace, who rendered 
distinguished service in the late World War as 
an artillery commander in France. 

Captain Peace, in the hand to hand fjghting at 
the South Anna, was wounded by a ball from a 
pistol fired so close that his clothing was set on 
fire, and, falling unconscious, was left for dead. 
A portion of his description of the final scenes of 
this desperate struggle is given here : “The enemy 
had gained our rear. We were completely sur- 
rounded. Men in ranks and out of ranks, mounted 
and on foot, armed and disarmed, were on all 
sides, while horses without riders ran wild in 


every direction through the fields. We would now 
have been an easy prey if the enemy had kept 
ranks and stood off from us, but, being too eager, 
they rushed in on us, more than ten to one, and 
were too close and crowded to use their sabers to 
advantage. A pistol shot was more dangerous to 
them than to us. Nor could those Federals who 
remained in ranks do more than stand on the out- 
side and wait for an opportunity. On the inside 
there was bloody work going on. Colonel Har- 
grove, his sword broken, is knocked down wdth a 
saber cut. His assailant is felled across him. An- 
other Federal soldier just above him, with up- 
lifted saber endeavoring to strike his head, is 
clubbed in the mouth by a Confederate soldier 
and at the same time is shot through the heart by 
Sergeant Strum and falls dead across our Colonel. 
Now a mass of humanity, both gray and blue, is 
piled above and about him grappling for the lives 
of each other. Still Colonel Hargrove’s voice 
rang out encouraging his men to fight to the last.’’ 
Of course, it was impossible for Captain Peace 
to see all that took place in this Homeric struggle. 
Certain glimpses remained fixed in his memory. 
He sees Satterwhite receive a blow on the back of 
his head, knocking his gun flying from his hands. 
He crawls to where a saber is lying, seizes it, and 
before he has fully straightened himself up 
strikes down the man before him. Corporal 
Knott captures two men and disarms them. Ser- 
geant Hayes, a man of powerful muscle, runs 
amuck through the crowded ranks, knocking 
down two men at a stroke, but is himself felled by 
a blow from a carbine. Sergeant J. R. Buchanan 
(whom I knew as a kindly, soft-spoken old gen- 
tleman) constantly fired his rifle into the ranks of 
the enemy until he is himself shot through the 
lungs and captured after a desperate struggle 
with half a dozen Federals. Another Confederate 
with clothes on fire is furiously attacking with 
the butt of his gun the columns of the enemy’s 
ranks. Private Cash (a boy of fifteen, taking his 
father’s place) finds himself face to face with 
Colonel Spears, who orders him to surrender. 
“Not until my Colonel commands me,’’ replied 
the intreprid youth, and, lunging with his bayo- 
net at the body of the Federal Commander, is by 
him shot through the heart and falls dead at his 
feet. And so it continued until not a man was 
left on his feet. 

Colonel Spears was so impressed by the un- 
conquerable courage of Colonel Hargrove and his 
men that he paid them a high tribute in his for- 


182 


^OQfederat^ l/eterai). 


mal report. He states that the resistance made 
by the Confederates was the most stubborn he 
had known during the war, and that he supposed 
he was fighting four hundred infantry instead of 
eighty, and that his expedition had entirely 
failed of its object, which was to cut General 
Lee’s communications with Richmond. 

In a letter to the Land We Love magazine, 
in 1867, Colonel Robert Bingham made this refer- 
ence to the defense of the South Anna Bridge : 

“I saw in the January number of your magazine 
reference to the fight made by part of the 44th 
North Carolina at the South Anna Bridge. Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Hargrove did the fighting. He 
commanded two companies, A and G, about eighty 
men, and fought fifteen hundred Yankees for four 
hours. He was himself knocked down, twice 
wounded in two places by saber, in two places 
with bayonet, and, after firing all the loads in his 
pistol, threw it at a Yankee and knocked him 
down. He had sworn never to surrender and he 
never did, and only after he was severely 
wounded, knocked down and overpowered, was he 
captured.” And so the defense of the South Anna 
Bridge passed into history. 

Colonel Hargrove was wounded four times, be- 
came unconscious, and was carried away captive. 
He survived his wounds and languished in a Fed- 
eral prison on Lake Erie during the remainder of 
the war. But even in prison his spirit was un- 
tamed. The gray uniform he wore became thread- 
bare and offered but little protection against the 
chill wind that blew across Lake Erie. The prison 
commander sent him some blue clothing to wear, 
but he disdained the offer, and proudly wore his 
ragged and tattered gray throughout his im- 
prisonment. 

Judge Robert Winston said of him, “He was 
the most unreconstructed Rebel I ever knew.” 

Major Stedman said, “He was the bravest of 
the brave.” 

Colonel Bingham said, “He was the most fear- 
less man I ever knew.” 

After the war. Colonel Hargrove returned to 
Oxford and resumed his place as a lawyer at the 
bar of his county. He was a member of the 
Legislature of 1870, and was candidate for Speak- 
er, but was defeated. In 1872, he was elected 
Attorney General of the State, and, after his term, 
returned to Oxford and continued to practice law 
there until his death on December 16, 1889. 

On March 17, 1868, he was married to Miss 
Mary Augusta Lamb, of Eastern Carolina, of dis- 
tinguished North Carolina ancestry. Her great- 


grandfather was a member of the Constitutional 
Convention which met at Fayetteville and ratified 
the Constitution of the United States in 1789. 
She long survived her husband, a sweet, cultured 
lady, who was for many years my closest neighbor 
and warm personal friend. Always Colonel Har- 
grove was her hero. On the walls of her home 
hung his portrait and his saber and, draped 
above them, the Stars and Bars. 

He was not an old man when he died. Doubtless 
his end was hastened by the wounds he received 
in battle and as result of his confinement in a 
Northern prison. You will find spread on the 
records of the Granville Superior Court the me- 
morial resolutions adopted by the Bar at the term 
succeeding his death. 

He sleeps in the old family burying ground 
near Townsville. Upon the marble shaft that 
marks his resting place is inscribed these words : 
“The Defender of the South Anna Bridge.” 
“And so he passed over, and all the trumpets 
sounded for him on the other side.” 

There his comrades have all joined him, and 
they, with him, have “Spread their tents on fame’s 
eternal camping ground.” 

He belongs to the noble company of those of 
whom Thucydides wrote, 

“Who dared beyond their strength. 

Who hazarded against their judgment 
And in extremities were of excellent hope.” 


THE PROTEST OF NEW JERSEY. 

[From Tyler’s Quarterly Historical and Genea- 
logical Magazine, October, 1931.] 

No more terrific indictment of Lincoln by any 
Southern man was ever made that what one reads 
in the Resolutions of the Legislature of New 
Jersey, adopted in the name of the people of that 
State, March 18, 1863, and which are republished 
below. They accuse him of dishonoring his word, 
of breaking the constitution, of advocating seces- 
sion (in the case of West Virginia), after de- 
nouncing it in his messages, and of many other 
things. In the debunking now going on in this 
country of Lincoln’s meretricious fame, these reso- 
lutions should receive attention. Especially 
noticeable is it that the Jersey Legislature in these 
resolutions urged the Federal Government to take 
steps for a Peace Conference. Mr. Davis had al- 
ready made overtures to that effect, and had been 
repulsed with haughty disdain. It was only in 
1864, when the tide turned against Lincoln, that 


183 


^opfederat^ l/eterai). 


he gave any countenance to missions of peace. 
But as soon as the dangers attending his re-elec- 
tion were over, he expressed himself in his mes- 
sage as entirely opposed to making any new at- 
tempt. The weariness felt by the people of the 
North over the war continued, however, and 
Lincoln was forced to turn again to peace, but it 
was General Grant's influence that persuaded him 
to go in person to Old Point. In 1861, it will be 
remembered, he refused to hold any conference 
with Rebels. 

The following protest on the part of New Jersey 
was passed March 18, 1863 : 

“Be it resolved by the Senate and General As- 
sembly of the State of New Jersey, That this 
State, in promptly answering the calls made by 
the President of the United States, at and since 
the inauguration of the war, for troops and means 
to assist in maintaining the power and dignity of 
the Federal Government, believed and confided 
in the professions and declarations of the Presi- 
dent of the United States, in his inaugural ad- 
dress, and in the resolutions passed by Congress 
on the 25th day of July, 1861, in which, among 
other things it was declared ‘that the war is not 
waged for conquest or subjugation, or interfering 
with the rights or established institutions of the 
States, but to maintain and defend the supremacy 
of the Constitution, with the rights and equality 
under it unimpaired, and that as soon as these 
and that, relying upon these assurances, given 
objects shall be accomplished war ought to cease,’ 
under the sanctity of official oaths, this State 
freely, fully, and without delay or conditions, con- 
tributed to the assistance of the Federal Govern- 
ment her sons and her means. 

“2 And be it resolved, That this State, having 
waited for the redemption of the sacred pledges 
of the President and Congress with a patience and 
forbearance only equaled in degree by the un- 
faltering and unswerving bravery and fidelity of 
her sons, conceives it to be her solemn duty, as it 
is her unquestioned right, to urge upon the Presi- 
dent and Congress, in the most respectful but de- 
cided manner, the redemption of the pledges under 
which the troops of this State entered upon and to 
this moment have continued in the contest; and 
inasmuch as no conditions have delayed nor hesi- 
tation marked her zeal in behalf of the Federal 
Government, even at times when party dogmas 
were dangerously usurping the place of broad na- 
tional principles and executive and Congression- 
al faith; and as the devotion of this State to the 
sacred cause of perpetuating the Union and main- 


taining the Constitution has been untainted in any 
degree by infidelity, bigotry, sectionalism, or par- 
tisanship, she now, in view of the faith originally 
plighted, of the disasters and disgrace that have 
marked the steps of a changed and changing pol- 
icy, and of the imminent dangers that threaten 
our national existence, urges upon the President 
and Congress a return and adherence to the orig- 
inal policy of the administration as the only 
means, under the blessing of God, by which the 
adhering States can be reunited in action, the 
Union restored, and the nation saved. 

“3 And be it resolved. That it is the deliberate 
sense of the people of this State that the war 
power within the limits of the Constitution is 
ample for any and all emergencies, and that all 
assumption of power, under whatever plea, be- 
yond that conferred by the Constitution is without 
warrant or authority, and if permitted to continue 
without remonstrance will finally encompass the 
destruction of the liberties of the people and death 
of the Republic ; and, therefore, to the end that, in 
any event, the matured and deliberate sense of the 
people of New Jersey may be known and declared, 
we their representatives in Senate and General 
Assembly convened, do, in their name and in their 
behalf, make unto the Federal Government this 
our solemn 

“Protest. 

“Against a war waged with the insurgent States 
for the accomplishment of unconstitutional or 
partisan purposes; 

“Against a war which has for its object the 
subjection of any of the States, with a view to 
their reduction to a territorial condition ; 

“Against Proclamations from any source by 
which, under the plea of ‘military necessity,’ per- 
sons in States and Territories sustaining the Fed- 
eral Government, and beyond necessary military 
lines, are held liable to the rigor and severity of 
military laws; 

“Against the domination of the military over 
the civil law in States, Territories, or Districts, 
not in a state of insurrection. 

“Against all arrests without warrants; against 
the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus in 
States and Territories sustaining the Federal 
Government, ‘where the public safety does not re- 
quire it,’ and against the assumption of powers 
by any person to suspend such writ except under 
the express authority of Congress. 

“Against the creation of new States by the 
division of existing ones or in any other manner 
not clearly authorized by the Constitution, and 


184 


Qoijfederat^ l/eterai). 


against the right of secession as practically ad- 
mitted by the action of Congress in admitting as 
a new State a portion of the State of Virginia. 

“Against the power assumed in the proclama- 
tion of the President made January 1, 1863, by 
which all the slaves in certain States and parts 
of States are forever set free ; and against the ex- 
penditure of the public money for the emancipa- 
tion of slaves or their support, at any time, under 
any pretense whatever. 

“Against any and every exercise of power upon 
the part of the Federal government that is not 
clearly given and expressed in the Federal Consti- 
tution — reasserting that ‘the powers not delegated 
to the United States by the Constitution, nor pro- 
hibited by it to the States, are reserved to the 
States respectively or to the people.’ 

“4 And he it resolved, That the unequaled 
promptness with which New Jersey has responded 
to every call made by the President and Congress 
for men and means has been occasioned by no 
lurking animosity to the States of the South or 
the rights of her people, no disposition to wrest 
from them any of their rights, privileges, or prop- 
erty, but simply to assist in maintaining, as she 
has ever believed and now believes it to be her 
duty to do, the supremacy of the Federal Consti- 
tution; and while abating naught in her devotion 
to the Union of the States and the dignity and 
power of the Federal Government, at no time since 
the commencement of the present war has this 
State been other than willing to terminate peace- 
fully and honorable to all a war unnecessary in 
its origin, fraught with horror and suffering in 
its prosecution, and necessarily dangerous to the 
liberties of all in its continuance. 

“5 And be it resolved, That the Legislature of 
the State of New Jersey believes that the appoint- 
ment of commissioners upon the part of the Fed- 
eral Government to meet commissioners similarly 
appointed by the insurgent States to convene in 
some suitable place for the purpose of consider- 
ing whether any, and if any, what plan may be 
adopted consistent with the honor and dignity of 
the National government, by which the present 
civil war may he brought to a close, as not incon- 
sistent with the integrity, honor, and dignity of 
the Federal Government, but as an indication of 
the spirit which animates the adhering States, 
would in any event tend to strengthen us in the 
opinion of other nations; and hoping as we sin- 
cerely do that the Southern States would recipro- 
cate the peaceful indications thus evinced, and 
believing as we do that, under the blessing of God, 


great benefits could arise from such a conference, 
we most earnestly recommend the subject to the 
consideration of the government of the United 
States, and request its co-operation therein. 

“6 And be it resolved, That his Excellency, the 
Governor, be requested to forward copies of these 
resolutions to the government of the United 
States, our Senators and Representatives in Con- 
gress, and to the governors and legislators of 
our sister States, with the request that they give 
the subject proposed their serious and immediate 
attention. 

“7 And he it resolved, That the State of New 
Jersey pledges itself to such prompt action upon 
the subject of these resolutions as will give them 
practical effect, immediately upon the concur- 
rence or co-operation of the Government and 
Legislatures of Sister States.” 


THE LINT BRIGADE. 

A LITTLE DRAMA OF THE WAR BETWEEN THE STATES. 

BY MISS ELIZABETH HANNA. 

Time, 1863. Place, anywhere in the South. 

The home of Mrs. Howard, wife of Colonel 
Howard, commanding his regiment, the Florida 
Grays, in Virginia. 

Stage Setting. 

A dining room. Dining table in middle of the 
room. Chair at head and foot, and other chairs 
at sides. Sideboard with plates, dishes, etc. Small 
table in one corner, on which are books and maga- 
zines. Portrait of Lee on the wall. Other acces- 
sories. 

On the dining table a large work basket, on the 
floor at side of table a large box. In the center 
of table a pile of squares (four by four) of linen 
cloth. Box of table knives for scraping lint. 

Cast. — Mrs. Howard, wife of Colonel Howard. 

Girls. — Jennie, Mary, Alicia, Florida, Caroline, 
and Virginia. 

Boys. — George, a young schoolboy; John, 
James, and Henry, preparing to go to the front. 

Mattie. — A negro maid. 

Enter Mattie, brandishing a large feather dust- 
er. 

Mrs. Howard. — Good morning, Mattie. I’m 
glad to see your duster. This room needs dusting, 
badly. 

Mattie. — Mornin,’ Miss Ellen. Whar you see 
any dust? I’se a dustin’ and er scrubbin’ from 
daylight ter dark, an’ nuthin’ ever stays clean. 
What all dem gals gwine do ter dis room fore 
deys thru a pullin’ an’ er messin’ wid dese here 


185 


Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 


rags? (Picks up a square of cloth and begins to 
pull out the threads.) 

Mrs. Howard . — That will do, Mattie. Go on 
with your dusting, and I will step out and see if 
I can sight any of them up the road. (Exit.) 
Mattie dusts vigorously and sings. 

Re-enter Mrs. Howard. No sign of them yet. 
Step up the road, Mattie, and notice if you see or 
hear anything of them. 

Mattie . — Lord, Ole Miss, don’t worry yerself, 
’em gals wont miss dis here Lint Pickin’ fer 
nuthin.’ 

A sound of voices, singing and laughing. 

Deys dun come. Ole Miss. 

A knock at the door, Mattie opens door, greets 
the girls, and exits. 

Enter six girls. All carry bundles. All salute 
Mrs. Howard and take seats at the table. 

Mrs. Hoivard . — Pm so glad to see all of you, 
girls. Not a single member of the Lint Brigade 
absent from duty. Lay your bundles on the table, 
and we will get to work at once. 

Jennie (opens bundle shows cloth ). — Mrs. How- 
ard, Ma’s last clover-leaf tablecloth is in this 
bundle. She looked at it a long time before she 
rolled it up. Then she drew a long breath — 
sounded more like a sigh — and said it had to go. 

Mrs. Howard . — She has my sympathy, Jennie. 
Fine table linen, to a Southern matron, is a cher- 
ished possession. You seem to have a rather large 
bundle, Mary. 

Mary . — Yes, Mrs. Howard. Mother laughed 
when she took it out of the closet. “Here,” she 
.said, “I lay my last linen sheet on the altar of my 
country.” It hurt, but she' tried not to show it. 

Alicia (pretends to blush). — Now, girls, don’t 
be shocked ; here is my last unmentionable. From 
this time on to the close of the war. I’ll wear cot- 
ton, or go without. 

Florida (shows robe). — Mother cried when 
she gave me this, John’s baby christening robe. 
John is her baby, and he is with Lee in Virginia. 
“Take it,” she said, with tears in her eyes. “Our 
boys must be cared for, and our hospitals need 
lint.” 

Mrs. Howard . — That appeals to us all, Florida. 
We know how your mother felt, we must be brave, 
and make many sacrifices. 

Caroline . — Well, father’s on the fighting line, 
and it will be a long time before he needs a linen 
shirt, so here I dedicate his last fine garment to 
the cause. 


Virginia . — We have no linen, Mrs. Howard, but 
Mother read in the Atlanta Constitution that an 
old lady and a party of girls went out to the scene 
of a recent battle and found stretched upon the 
ground a number of soldiers whose wounds had 
not been dressed. “Why,” cried the old lady, 
“have these wounds not been bandaged?” “Be- 
cause, my dear Madam,” said the Surgeon in 
charge, “we have no bandages.” “No bandages,” 
said the old lady, and she hustled the girls behind 
some bushes, and in ten minutes the surgeons had 
all the bandages they needed. 

Caroline . — As for the girls, “their petticoats 
were cut all round about” like the little old wom- 
an in Mother Goose. 

Mrs. Howard . — I judge from your anecdote, 
Virginia, that you and your mother have been 
equally patriotic and sacrificed your petticoats to 
supply bandages for the hospital box. 

Virginia . — Yes, Mrs. Ho'v\’ard, and rolled them, 
too. See how nice and firm they are (shows 
bandages). 

Mrs. Hoivard . — Hurrah for the patriotic Lint 
Brigade. (She rises and waves a small Confeder- 
ate flag.) Hurrah for Dixie, Hurrah for South- 
ern Rights! All rise and sing the Bonnie Blue 
Flag. 

Song ended. 

Mrs. Howard . — Now, all be seated, and let’s get 
busy. (Distributes squares of cloth and knives 
for scraping.) 

Virginia . — Mrs. How’ard, I am just a new re- 
cruit. Please show me how to make this lint. 

Mrs. Hoivard . — Gladly, Virginia. She takes a 
square of cloth, draws the threads, lays them 
carefully side by side, takes a knife and scrapes 
the lint. As she works she carefully explains the 
process. 

Florida and Caroline . — Here, Mrs. Howard, is a 
box of lint which we made at home. (Shows box.) 

Mrs. Hoivard . — Thank you, girls. That is a 
wonderful help. What a blessing this box will be 
to some poor soldier who, perhaps but for our 
help, would suffer with wounds not dressed. 

Caroline . — Is there no other way for them to 
get help? 

Mrs. Howard . — The Federal Government makes 
all medicines, surgical instruments, and other aids 
to the sick and wounded, contraband of war. 

Jennie . — Contraband of war! What does that 
mean, Mrs. Howard. 

Mrs. Howard . — The Federal Government siezes 
and confiscates every thing that could be of any 
help to the South in time of war. In the case of 


186 


Qopfederat^ l/eterar>. 


medicines and other things for the sick, this is 
contrary to the laws of civilized warfare, if there 
could be such a thing, but it is in keeping with 
many other things equally as inhuman. 

Mary . — This seems to me a very cruel thing. 
There are many Northern soldiers prisoners in 
the South. Must they suffer, too? And then the 
sick in Southern homes. Is there no relief for 
them? 

Mrs. Hoivard. — None, dear Mary, but take 
courage. We have in the South some wonderful 
botanists whose skill and knowledge enables them 
to find in our fields and forests nature’s remedies 
to meet our needs. Now, while we work, let us 
have some songs, and recitations. Jennie is go- 
ing to recite the “Home-Spun Dress.” 

(Here follow other songs and recitations.) 

After the last song, the box is placed on the 
table and packed. The table is cleared. Mrs. 
Howard rings a small call bell. Enter Mattie 
with tray of refreshments. 

(Knock at the door.) 

Enter George and three young soldiers in gray 
uniforms. 

Mrs. Hoivard. — Welcome, young gentlemen. 
You have come just in time to take lunch with us. 
George, the box is packed and ready. 

George. — Mrs. Howard, if your Brigade works 
as heartily as they sing I shall have a heavy load. 

(Lifts the box as if with difficulty). 

Mrs. Howard . — Help yourselves, young gentle- 
men. Girls, see that your guests are served. Will 
one of you young soldiers give us a toast? (All 
fill glasses.) 

James . — I speak for all of us, Mrs. Howard: 
The South, God bless her. May she never lack 
true hearts to love her and brave ones to defend 
her. (All repeat the toast.) 

Mrs. Howard . — Our Flag: May your brave 
deeds so cover it with glory that it will live forever 
in song and story. (All lift glasses and repeat 
toast.) 

George . — May I give a toast, Mrs. Howard? 

Mrs. Howard. — Gladly, George. 

George . — Our Women. The fairest and bravest 
in the world, God bless them. 

James . — Let me add to that toast, Mrs. How- 
ard. Our Women: God bless them. Our inspi- 
ration in war, and our reward in peace. 

Mrs. Howard . — We thank you, young gentle- 
men, for these beautiful sentiments. Now, let us 
close this meeting by singing that soul-stirring 
song, “Maryland, My Maryland.” 


They rise and sing, and at the last stanza they 
retire from the stage, girls escorted by the young 
soldiers, George carrying the hospital box. 

Curtain falls as the song is heard in the dis- 
tance. 

Note. — Miss Hanna contributes this little 
sketch of one feature of woman’s work during the 
War between the States, and it can be used with 
effect by U. D. C. or C. of C. Chapters at their 
meetings or for school programs. Southern his- 
tory can be most attractively taught by plays and 
pageants, and copies of these will be appreciated 
and used to best effect. Constant calls are being 
made for just such short plays, and much local 
history may be preserved in this way. Division 
Historians are being urged again to stress this 
phase of our historical work. 

In sending this little play. Miss Hanna writes : 
“Although my father was Captain of a company 
during the War between the States, I have always 
felt that the best service he rendered was as agent 
for the hospitals, in which capacity he collected 
medicines, surgical instruments, and all kinds of 
supplies needed by the sick and wounded. Many 
boxes, such as I mention in this little play — 
though much larger and very valuable — have I 
seen packed and sent to the front. The process 
of lint-making was as is described in the play. 
My sister and I were busy all our spare time. 
We went about with a square of linen pinned to 
the front of our dresses, and filled up our spare 
time in pulling threads and scraping them to make 
the lint. Such information might prove interest- 
ing and instructive to our young people The 

length of the performance would depend upon the 
number of songs and recitations introduced.” 

[Mrs. John H. Anderson, Historian General, 
U. D. C.] 


Didn’t Know His Onions. — During the War 
between the States, John Morgan’s men were in 
camp at Lookout Mountain. One day some of 
the men rode out to buy what they could find to 
eat. Coming to a house, they asked for onions, 
and the lady said: “I have no onions, but I have 
some mighty fine ‘Shellots.’ ” “My dear lady,’ 
came the reply, “I am mighty hungry, but I don’t 
believe I could eat any ‘shelled oats.’ ” Such had 
been the soldier’s understanding of her offering 
of a certain kind of onion — Eschallot. 

(Contributed by Mrs. S. C. Bittick, Forsyth, 
Ga.) 


187 


^opfederat^ l/eterai). 


MRS. GREEN HOW, CONFEDERATE SPY. 

[The following is an interesting bit of infor- 
mation on an interesting figure in Confederate, 
history, as written by Carrol Dulaney, columnist 
of the Baltimore Neivs and the American.'] 

A farewell letter written by Mrs. Rose O’Neal 
Greenhow, famous Confederate spy, to Jefferson 
Davis, President of the Confederacy, on the eve 
of her departure for Europe on a secret mission 
— a mission which cost her her life — has recently 
come into the possession of a Baltimore collector. 

The letter is in an envelope addressed “To the 
President, Richmond, Va.,” and marked “Priv- 
ate.” The envelope is postmarked Wilmington, 
N. C., August 31, and also bears the stamp “Ship.” 
There is no stamp, but the figure “12” is written 
in the upper right-hand corner of the envelope. 

The letter, on a double sheet of paper 5 by 8 
inches, is written in a large, flowing hand and 
reads : 

“Wilmington, August 4, 1863 
“To THE President: 

“My Dear Sir: In a few hours I shall be aboard 
the Phantom, the tide being now favorable. To- 
night Captain Porter intends to make the attempt 
to get out. Of course, I am anxious, for Forts 
Warren or Delaware are hovering in the distance. 
The Yankees are reported as being unusually 
vigilant, a double line of blockaders block the way. 
Still, I am nothing dauted and hope, by the bless- 
ing of Providence, to get out in safety. I think 
I should brave any fate rather than remain here 
two days longer. It is the hottest and most dis- 
agreeable place in the world, and the very atmos- 
phere seems laden with disease. The better class 
of the inhabitants have left the city. A great 
many people are here for the purpose of running 
the blockade — and am surprised to see among the 
number so many men who ought to be in the 
army. 

“Dr. Gwin and Lucy are going, I think, on the 
Ella and Annie. The captain of the Phantom 
would only take me as passenger on his ship. I 
saw General Whiting last evening, and in the 
course of the conversation he said he thought that 
he could be able to raise a brigade of cavalry 
among persons about here whom he knew if he 
were able to promise that the officers selected 
would be commissioned. 

“I have a letter this morning from an intelli- 
gent gentleman. Colonel Jones, who started some 
twenty days since for Matamoras, who has been 


obliged to return to Mobile, as he represents 
Louisiana and Mississippi to be completely in 
possession of the Yankees. 

“And now, my dear sir, I must say goodbye. I 
can never sufficiently thank you for your good- 
ness to me. May He ever guard you, sir, and keep 
you in health, is my most fervent prayer. 

Rose O’N. Greenhow.” 

According to historians, Mrs. Greenhow gave 
General Beauregard the information which en- 
abled him to concentrate the widely scattered Con- 
federate forces in time to meet and defeat Mc- 
Dowell at Manassas. 

During the Buchanan administration, Mrs. 
Greenhow was one of the social leaders of Wash- 
ington. A widow, beautiful, accomplished, 
wealthy, and noted for her wit, her home was a 
rendezvous for those prominent in official life. 
President Buchanan was a close friend, and so 
was William H. Seward, then Senator from New 
York and later Lincoln’s Secretary of War. Her 
niece, a granddaughter of Dolly Madison, was the 
wife of Stephen A. Douglas. 

On August 23, 1862, Mrs. Greenhow was ar- 
rested at her home by Allan Pinkerton, then a 
Federal Secret Service officer. Held a prisoner in 
her own home under strong guard until January 
18, she was then removed to the old Capitol 
Prison. Tried for treason, she was sentenced to 
exile, and, on May 31, 1863, she was brought to 
Baltimore and sent through the Confederate lines. 

One historian says that if the story of the re- 
mainder of Mrs. Greenhow’s life could be told it 
would reveal much of the secret history of the 
Confederacy. What her mission abroad was is 
not known, but it must have been important. 

Returning to the Confederacy on the blockade- 
runner Condor, which ran aground, Mrs. Green- 
how told the captain she had important dispatches 
for President Davis and insisted that she be put 
ashore at once. 

She was put in a small boat, which started for 
shore, but the boat was upset in the rough surf 
and Mrs. Greenhow was drowned. Two days 
later — September 8, 1864 — her body was washed 
ashore. The dispatches were recovered and for- 
warded to Richmond, and her body was buried in 
the cemetery at Wilmington. 

She was the only woman to die in the service 
of her country in the Civil War if we except the 
nurses who died of disease contracted on duty. 


188 


^opfederat^ Ueterao 



Sketches in this department are ?iven a half column of space without 
charge extra space will be charged at 20 cents a line. Engravings, 
$3.00 each. 


Capt. John H. Thorpe. 

In the passing of Capt. John H. Thorpe, of 
Rocky Mount, N. C., another of “The Thin Gray 
Line” now rests “under the shade of the Trees.” 

Captain Thorpe 
was the last but one 
of Company A, 47th 
North Carolina Regi- 
ment, which p e r- 
formed such brilliant 
service in the War 
between the States. 

He was born in Nash 
County, N. C., Oc- 
tober 2, 1840 (dur- 
ing the administra- 
tion of Marinin Van 
Buren, the eighth 
President of the 
United States ), and 

died February 22, 

1982, at Rocky capt. john h. thorpe 

Mount, N. C. He enlisted in the Confederate 
army April 18, 1861, as a member of the Edge- 
combe Guards under Capt. John L. Bridgers, 
serving with that command for some time, but 
later returned to Nash County, and was made 
Captain of Company A, 47th North Carolina 
Regiment, in which capacity he served until the 
close of the war, this Company having been on 
the front line at Gettysburg, and thereafter with 
the Army of Virginia until the end. 

Captain Thorpe was a member of one of North 
Carolina’s prominent families. He entered the 
University of North Carolina in 1856 and gradu- 
ated in 1860. Prior to his death, he was the old- 
est alumnus. 

After graduation, he taught school in Rocky 
Mount for about a year. He then studied law un- 
der Judge Pierson at Log Town, and received 
his license to practice law in 1866. He followed 
his profession in Rocky Mount until 1875, when 
he gave up his practice and engaged in farming 


until about 1900, when he came to Rocky Mount 
to live with his only son, Henry R. Thorpe. He 
was married shortly after the war to Miss Sallie 
Bunn, who died some eight years, ago. 

Captain Thorpe was a member of the Board of 
Trustees of the University of North Carolina at 
the time of its reopening in 1875. He was also 
a member of the State Senate in 1887. 

Captain Thorpe was a high type of Christian 
gentleman. He loved his God and his fellow- 
man, was gentle and courteous in manner, loyal 
to his friends, and charitable to all men. He read 
a great deal, keeping abreast with the times, but 
in his latter days his mind dwelt very much in 
the past. He had a keen mind and a retentive 
memory. In the passing of this good man has 
gone one of the old order; for a brave soldier 
“taps” has sounded. 

[Mrs. L. M. McIntyre, Rocky Mount, N. C.] 

Capt. B. F. Weathers, U. C. V. 

The passing of Capt. Benjamin Franklin 
Weathers, on March 18, at his home in Roanoke, 
Ala., removed one of Alabama’s old and dis- 
tinguished citizens — a man who did his part in 
making history, serving his country as a soldier 
in the sixties and taking a prominent part in civil 
life in later years. He had reached the great age 
of ninety -two years, and is survived by two daugh- 
ters, eight grandchildren, and one great-grand- 
child. 

Born in Fayette County, Ga., November 8, 
1839, his parents moved to Randolph County, Ala., 
in 1843, and in that State his life was spent, his 
residence in Roanoke covering sixty-seven years. 

His service as a soldier began with his enter- 
ing the State service in August, 1861, as second 
lieutenant. Company E, Dowdell Rangers, and the 
Confederate service in September following, with 
the same rank in Company E, of the 17th Ala- 
bama Regiment. Promoted to Captain in April, 
1862; took part in battles at Pensacola, Shiloh, 
Atlanta, and Franklin, Tenn. Taken prisoner 
at Franklin, he was released June 17, 1865, from 
Johnson’s Island, Ohio. In July, 1863, he was 
detailed as drill master of heavy artillery at Mo- 
bile, by order of General Buckner. 

At the organization of Akin-Smith Camp, 
No. 293, tl. C. V., at Roanoke, Ala., June 24, 
1893, Captain Weathers was made Lieutenant 
Commander. There were four Weathers brothers 
in the Confederate army, one of whom survives, 
J. A. Weathers, of Wedowee, Ala. 





189 


QoQfederat^ l/eterai). 


Calvin Edwin Montgomery. 

Calvin Edwin Montgomery, a native of Missis- 
sippi, and the only veteran of the Confederate 
army living in Lee County, Ark., died at his home 
in Marianna on February 17, 1932, at the age of 
eighty-four years. He is survived by a daughter 
and a son. 

Born at Fayette, Miss., August 28, 1847, he 
went out with a company organized in Amite 
County, which later became a part of the 11th 
and 17th Regiments of Arkansas. He took part 
in a number of campaigns, though only eighteen 
when the war ended. In 1893, he was married to 
Miss Sarah Lucinda Palmer, of East Feliciana 
Parish, La. 

For many years he served as bookkeeper for 
the State at the East Louisiana Asylum for the 
Insane, at Jackson, and for some thirty-one years 
he was a cotton planter in Tensas Parish, moving 
to Marianna, Ark., last October, in order to be 
near his son. He was the last veteran of the Con- 
federate army in Tensas Parish, La., as well as 
in Lee County, Ark. 

His funeral was from his home in Marianna, 
and he was buried in Cedar Heights Cemetery at 
that place. 

W. G. Looney. 

William Guy Looney, one of the oldest citizens 
of the Ninnekah Community, near Chickasha, 
Okla., died at his home there on February 29, in 
his ninety-second year. Just sixteen days be- 
fore, his devoted wife had died, and he was laid 
by her side in Rose Hill Cemetery at Chickasha. 

Comrade Looney was born at Springfield, Mo., 
May 24, 1840, the son of John and Elizabeth 
Littleton Looney. He went with his parents to 
Grayson County, Tex., some seventy-three years 
ago, and the family settled near Whitesboro. 
There he was married to Miss Martha Ann Wil- 
liams, whose parents were old friends and neigh- 
bors in Missouri and had also moved to that com- 
munity. Seven children were born of this union — 
two sons and five daughters, all surviving him. 
There are also twenty-four grandchildren and 
twenty-seven great-grandchildren. 

William Looney enlisted for the Confederacy in 
Company H, 34th Texas Regiment, early in the 
war and served to the close. He was a faithful 
member of the Grady County Camp, No. 1854, 
U. C. V., at Chickasha. 

In 1886, Comrade Looney took his family to 
Love County, Okla., and later located at Ardmore, 
then at Duncan, going in 1903 to Ninnekah, where 
he operated a hotel until some five years ago. 


He joined the Methodist Church when a child and 
had always been interested in its Sunday school 
work. 

(J. S. Downs, Chickasha, Okla.) 

F. G. Jamison. 

F. G. Jamison, successful merchant, banker, 
and civic leader of Whitesboro, Tex., died on 
September 18, 1931, after a short illness. He had 
been a resident of Whitesboro since 1875, with 
the exception of six months in Pilot Point. 

Going to Texas from Mississippi, where he was 
born in Lee County, July 19, 1847, he became a 
school-teacher, then went into the mercantile busi- 
ness, which engaged his attention for thirty-two 
years. Later he served as President of two banks 
there, retiring from business three years ago. 

Mr. Jamison was a veteran of the War between 
the States, enlisting January 1, 1865, at the age 
of seventeen in Company B, Alabama Cavalry. 
He was awarded the Southern Cross of Honor by 
the Mildred Lee Chapter, U. D. C. 

Mr. Jamison married Miss Armanda Quillian, 
of Whitesboro in January 1880, and six chil- 
dren were born to them. He is survived by his 
wife and four sons, and six grandchildren. 

He was an elder in the Presbyterian church for 
many years, a member of the Knights of Pythias, 
of the Whitesboro “Seventy” Club, and of the 
United Confederate Veterans. 

James W. Stubbs. 

James William Stubbs, who died in his home 
in Norfolk, Va., on April 2, 1931, was born at 
Old Springhill, Ala., August 14, 1848. 

As a schoolboy of fifteen, he joined the Con- 
federate Army and served in a company called 
“Hatch’s Babies,” under General Forrest, until 
the close of the war. 

James W. Stubbs was married to Miss Willie 
Owen Moody, niece of General Y. M. Moody, who 
joined the Confederacy as Captain of the com- 
pany he had formed, and took General Grade’s 
place at the time of his death. Their golden wed- 
ding was celebrated in December five years ago. 
He moved to Virginia soon after marriage, and 
engaged in the contracting business. He was 
honorary member of Foreign Wars Legion, and 
deeply interested in anything pertaining to the 
Confederacy, also a consistent member of the 
Presbyterian Church. His beloved wife joined 
him in the Great Beyond on October 22, 1931, 
six months after his death. He is survived by 
two daughters, two sons, and six grandchildren. 

[Mrs. C. A. Pitts.] 


190 


^oi^federat^ l/eteraQ. 


lElniteb 2)augbtec8 of tbe Confebecac^ 

Mrs. William E. R. Byrne, President General 

Charleston, W. Va. 


Mrs. Amos H. Norris First Vice President General 

City Hall, Tampa, Fla. 

Mrs. Chas. B. Faris Second Vice President General 

4469 Westminster Place, St. Louis, Mo. 

Mrs. R. B. Broyles Third Vice President General 

6721 Fifth Court, South, Birmingham, Ala. 

Mrs. W. E. Massey Recording Secretary General 

738 Quapaw Avenue, Hot Springs, Ark. 

Mrs. L. U. Babin Corresponding Secretary General 

903 North Boulevard, Baton Rouge, La. 


Mrs. George Dismukes % Treasurer General 

1409 Chickasha Avenue, Chickasha, Okla. 

Mrs. John H. Anderson Historian General 

707 West Morgan Street, Raleigh, N. C. 

Mrs. a. S. Porter, Hotel Monroe, Portsmouth, \ a.. . Registrar General 

Mrs. J. W. Goodwin, Allendale, N. J Custodian of Crosses 

Mrs. j. L. Medlin Custodian of Flags and Pennant 

1541 Riverside Avenue, Jacksonville, Fla. 


All communications for this Department should be sent direct to Mrs. R. H. Chesley, Official Editor, 11 Everett Street, Cambridge, Mass. 


FROM THE PRESIDENT GENERAL. 

To the United Daughters of the Confederacy: 
The summer season is approaching when the 
Chapters will suspend active work until fall. Be- 
fore you do this, it will be well if each Chapter 
would take inventory of the work accomplished 
and the work still to be done. 

When meetings are resumed in September, the 
time is short until the meeting of the Annual 
Convention, and work left until that time is apt 
to be left undone. 

I wish to call your attention to Article VII, Sec- 
tion 2, of the By-Laws: “Each Chapter shall on 
or before the first day of March pay into the Gen- 
eral Treasury, through the Division Treasurer, 
the annual per capita fee of twenty cents (20 
cents) for every registered member, with a typed 
list of each member for whom the per capita tax 
is paid.” I am calling special attention to the 
fact that the list of members must be forwarded. 
Your representation at the Convention depends 
upon your compliance with this By-Law. 

Take the minutes of the Jacksonville Conven- 
tion and read carefully the By-Laws that you may 
not overlook any of the requirements. 

Those Divisions which have not completed their 
quota to the Jefferson Davis Historical Founda- 
tion should certainly make an effort to finish it 
this year. 

The same is true of the Mrs. L. H. Raines Me- 
morial Scholarship Fund and the Lee-Startford 
Memorial Fund. 

Mrs. J. C. Abernathy, Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Southern Literature for Home and For- 
eign Libraries, writes me that she is somewhat 
disappointed at not receiving more replies to the 
circular letter she has sent to her Division Di- 
rectors. This is an important Committee and the 
Chairman is entitled to have her letters answered 
promptly. No better historical work can be done 


than the placing of books of Southern history, 
biography and research in libraries where they 
are available to both graduate and undergraduate 
students. Donations to this Committee should be 
in money that selections of books may be wisely 
made. 

Mrs. Broyles, Third Vice President General, 
writes me that work with the C. of C. is progress- 
ing nicely. 

It has been my pleasure since my last letter to 
visit the Lexington Chapter, Lexington, Ky., on 
Maj*ch the 8, and the Dixie Chapter, Columbus, 
Ohio, on March 14. 

The Lexington Chapter entertained with a tea 
in my honor, at which members from Louisville, 
Danville, Frankfort, and Paris Chapters were 
present. The visit to Transylvania College to see 
the bust of President Davis and hear the words 
of appreciation expressed by members of the 
faculty of the honor of having it in the school was 
one of the pleasures of the visit, as was the visit 
to the home of John Hunt Morgan. 

In Columbus, I was entertained at a luncheon 
by Mrs. Marcus Wade Crocker, President of the 
Ohio Division. On the afternoon of the 15th, the 
Dixie Chapter entertained with a tea in my honor, 
and on the evening of the 16th, their Annual 
Spring Meeting, always open to members and 
their friends, was held. The form of entertain- 
ment was two interesting one-act plays, most 
cleverly put on. 

Faithfully yours, Amanda Austin Byrne. 


“What did they lack that conquerors should have 
Save history’s purchased page to call them 
great? 

A wider field? A consecrated grave? 

Their hopes were not less high, their souls 
were full as brave.” 


191 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai}. 


U. D. C. NOTES. 

California — California Division, with its scores 
of earnest, energetic members, has routed the first 
two letters of “Depression,” making of the re- 
mainder their slogan to “Press-On.” Were it 
otherwise, California Division, with the untiring 
efforts of Mrs. W. J. Chichester and her Confed- 
erate Home Committee, could not independently 
sustain Dixie Manor, our own Confederate Vet- 
erans’ Home, with its spacious, well-kept grounds 
and happy surroundings, where our veterans re- 
ceive the love and care of Daughters and friends 
and the spiritual guidance of the retired ministers 
from Monta Vista Grove. Nor could our Division 
President, Mrs. Helena Thorpe Riche, who, during 
the past few months, has traveled from San Diego 
in the South to the Bay Cities of the North, while 
visiting twenty-six of the thirty California Divi- 
sion Chapters, report: 

“My visits to Chapters throughout the State 
have been inspirational. At each meeting I found 
the heartiest cordiality and enthusiasm. Two 
Chapters have evening meetings, and they prove 
very satisfactory. One Chapter meets forenoons 
— has its business meeting, then lunch, then cards. 
They like this way, and I think it novel and fasci- 
nating. The S. A. Cunningham Chapter, of Oak- 
land, has for its C. of C. leader Miss Evelyn Bos- 
tic, who is only nineteen years of age. She is the 
youngest Children’s Chapter Director in our Di- 
vision, and probably the youngest in the entire 
organization. She is a captivating young lady, 
and I predict much success for her. 

“It is certainly gratifying to find all Chapters 
so well organized, so comprehensive, so willing to 
do the proper thing and to learn how to do it 
right. This work and close association with the 
Chapters has enchanted me, and I wish I could 
have the pleasure of meeting with them much oft- 
ener. I look forward with joyous anticipation to 
visiting the other four Chapters before our State 
Convention in May.” 

This enthusiasm has invaded the Children’s 
Chapters also, for our Division Director, Mrs. 
W. G. Prickett, reports the reorganization of the 
Dixie Lee Chapter, auxiliary to the Gen. Joe 
Wheeler Chapter. The Chapter has been duly 
chartered, as has also the Winnie Davis Chapter, 
auxiliary to the John H. Reagan Chapter, which 
has acquired several new members. 

[May Blanks Killough, Director]. 


Colorado . — The members of the Colorado Di- 
vision held their semiannual luncheon at the 
Argonaut Hotel, Denver, Tuesday, January 19, to 
commemorate the birthdays of Gen. Robert E. Lee 
and Stonewall Jackson and Commodore Matthew 
Fontaine Maury. 

Mrs. John H. Campbell, Division President, 
was assisted by the Presidents of Margaret Da- 
vis Hays, Robert E. Lee, and Stonewall Jackson 
Chapters, of Denver, and Nathan Bedford For- 
rest Chapter of Pueblo. 

Mrs. W. J. Morris, of Stonewall Jackson Chap- 
ter, acted as social chairman. 

Mesdames Don M. Lemen, E. C. Burke, and J. 
A. Carter had arranged a beautiful musical pro- 
gram appropriate to the occasion. 

Mrs. Campbell, Division President, gave a most 
interesting address paying tribute to the great 
heroes in whose honor the meeting was held. 

Dr. W. W. Grant, who holds the great honor of 
having served his country in the War between the 
States, Spanish-American War, and World War, 
was the honored speaker of the day, paying trib- 
ute to George Mason. 

More than one hundred guests were present. 

[Mrs. Alonzo Fry]. 

Florida . — The Chapters of the Florida Division 
are active and sponsoring the most interesting 
programs with splendid speakers and well pre- 
pared talks by the members. The two chapters 
in Gainesville — Kirby-Smith, Mrs. H. H. Mc- 
Creary, President, and J. J. Finley, Mrs. G. M. 
Strickland, President — sponsored instructive pro- 
grams on Lee-Jackson-Maury days in January. 

In February, the Kirby-Smith chapter gave 
programs on George Washington and Lee-Strat- 
ford Memorial; in March, a fine address was 
made by Dr. U. S. Gordon on “Gen. Nathan Bed- 
ford Forrest.” 

On February 22, the N. DeV. Howard Chapter, 
Sanford, gave a George Washington Tea. The 
honor guest was the President of Florida Divi- 
sion, Mrs. Marion Dickson, of Tampa. After the 
Tea, the Chapter participated in the Tree Plant- 
ing exercises held on the Lake Monroe Boulevard, 
when twenty-eight organizations planted Wash- 
ington Memorial Palms. This Chapter planted 
two palms at the entrance to the Junior High 
school on February 29, the first palm dedicated as 
a Washington Memorial ; the second palm was the 
gift of Francis Roumilat and was dedicated by 
him also as a Washington Memorial, and he read 
the poem, “The Palm,” written by Mrs. J. T. 


192 


QoQfederat^ l/eterai). 


Jacobs. The palms were accepted by Mr. Jacobs, 
principal of the school. 

The Apalachicola Chapter, Mrs. J. P. Hickey, 
President, held a program of music and addresses 
at the high school on January 19. Mrs. Robert 
Grady, of Savannah, Ga., a gifted speaker gave 
a most inspiring talk to the pupils. 

Daytona Beach Chapter, Mrs. J. W. Sessums, 
President, gave a benefit card party at the John 
Cheek residence, and the sale of the tickets placed 
the Chapter in the one hundred per cent column 
of all U. D. C. endeavors. 

Confederate Gray Chapter, Leesburg, held the 
February meeting at the home of Mrs. F. L. Ezell, 
with a program in honor of George Washington 
bicentennial. Rev. R. F. Blackford gave an ad- 
dress on “Washington as a Christian and Church- 
man.” The entire afternoon’s program centered 
in the Washington Bicentennial, with the hand- 
some picture of Washington on an easel, and the 
flag of the United States. Pictures of Washing- 
ton were displayed, and a large map showed the 
homes of Washington, their locations and his- 
torical facts about them. 

Miss Mary Lowry played several piano selec- 
tions of British folk tunes and music enjoyed in 
the days of the Revolution. 

[Mrs. F. L. Ezell, Publicity Chairman.] 

Kentucky . — On February 20, the Richard 
Hawes Chapter of Paris, Mrs. R. L. Wilson, Presi- 
dent, gave a patriotic program in celebration of 
the Bicentennial of George Washington. Special 
mention was made of the important happenings 
in his life that occurred during this month, and 
the history of Washington portraits was given, 
with a round table discussion of various facts 
connected with his life. 

The Paris Chapter joined with Lawrenceburg, 
Danville, Frankfort, Louisville, Cynthiana, and 
other chapters of Central Kentucky in greeting 
the President General, Mrs. W. E. R. Byrne, 
when she was the guest of the Lexington Chap- 
ter at the March meeting. Mrs. Byrne’s address 
covered the varied phases of the general work, 
stressing the many things accomplished and many 
yet to be completed. She spoke especially of the 
Mrs. L. R. Raines Memorial and the Janet Ran- 
dolph Fund for Needy Confederate Women, and 
praised the organization for finishing in one year 
the project of placing a bust of Jefferson Davis 
in Old Transylvania College. Mrs. Byrne visited 
the school and viewed the bust, being greatly 
pleased with the power and mysticism portrayed 


by Lukeman in the bronze. Mrs. George R. Mas- 
tin, to whose enthusiasm and labor is due the 
completion of this memorial, was chairman of 
program for March and brought together a nota- 
ble group of Daughters for the occasion which, 
was colorful and beautiful. Two silver cups won 
by the Chapter in recent years were displayed. 
Mrs. Josephine M. Turner, of Louisville, State 
President, Mrs. John L. Woodbury, General 
Chairman of Jefferson Davis Highway, gave in- 
teresting and instructive talks. Greetings were 
given by past State Presidents, Mrs. W. T. Fow- 
ler, Miss Annibelle Fogg, of Frankfort, and Mrs. 
Mary Dowling Bond, of Lawrenceburg. Mrs. 
Thomas Floyd Smith, of Louisville, Director for 
Stratford, made a splendid appeal for that cause, 
and others made splendid talks. Mrs. Graham 
Price, of Danville, gave a gratifying report of 
the work of the E. M. Green Children’s Chapter 
of Danville. Other patriotic organizations were 
represented by leaders who were introduced. 

The long-planned marker at the birthplace of 
Albert Sidney Johnson at Old Washington will be 
dedicated in April, as announced by the Chair- 
man, Mrs. John L. Woodbury. 

Great praise was given to the Daughters who 
again “saved the Confederate Home” at Pewee 
Valley by visiting the Legislature and using their 
persuasive powers on a representative who had 
introduced a bill to abolish it and care for the 
veterans in some hospital. 

Miss Julia Hughes Spurr, President of the 
Lexington Chapter, presided at this meeting, 
which was most successful in every way. 

Virginia — Among Chapter reports this month 
two are outstanding in accounts of work accom- 
plished. The Greenville Chapter, at Emporia, 
has presented to the Emporia High School Li- 
brary over one hundred books on Southern Litera- 
ture, reference books, biographies, with Confed- 
erate book plate in each volume. It has also pre- 
sented to every white school in Greenville Coun- 
ty copies of Horton’s History, a Confederate flag, 
and several copies each of Dr. Lyon G. Tyler’s 
Confederate Catechism; and in all of these 
schools, essays have been written on both the 
Catechism and Horton’s History. 

Honor Roll Blanks have been filled out and 
sent to the Confederate Museum for every soldier 
from Greenville County. 

For four years prizes have been offered by this 
Chapter in every white school of the county for 
essays on Confederate History. 


193 


QoQfederat^ l/eterai). 


For three years, a prize has been offered in the 
Colored High School for the best essay on 
“Causes Leading to the War between the States,” 
based on Horton’s History. There were splendid 
results each year. 

For the past three years, the Greenville Chap- 
ter has won the prize offered to the Chapter re- 
porting the greatest amount of historical work 
done in the schools during the year. Mrs. F. L. 
Palmer, Virginia Historian, is also Historian of 
the Greenville Chapter. 

The Highland Chapter, Monterey, held a Me- 
morial tree planting in the grounds of the Monte- 
rey Courthouse in March. Mrs. George P. Mc- 
Coy, Chapter President, called the meeting to or- 
der and explained the object of the day’s pro- 
gram in honor of George Washington and at the 
same time to plant another tree in memory of 
those who had once been members of the chapter 
and had “passed on” to a richer life, four of 
whom had been charter members. The exercises 
were characterized by simplicity. The address 
of the occasion by Hon. E. B. Jones was on trees; 
Mrs. G. J. Hiner read a poem entitled “Trees,” 
and several songs on trees were rendered. 

As the Memorial Roll was read, members placed 
the earth around the trees, two beautiful and 
evenly matched sugar maples. 

[Claudia M. Hagy, Editor.] 

,West Virginia . — In song and story the birth- 
days of Gens. Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jack- 
son were commemorated by the Parkersburg 
Chapter at a dinner. The address of the evening 
was given by William G. Peterkin, who contrasted 
the characters of these two great men. 

An honored guest was Capt. James R. Mehen, 
one of the two surviving veterans in Parkersburg 
and chief aide of the United Confederate Veter- 
ans. A beautiful tribute was paid to him and to 
Capt. George Watson, the other veteran, who was 
unable to be present, in an original poem written 
by Miss Katherine Creighton Hays, entitled, “The 
Sentinel at the City Park.” 

Other honor guests were the three oldest mem- 
bers of the Chapter — Mrs. Maria Amiss, aged 
95; Mrs. Emma Raleigh, aged 87; and Mrs. Ruth 
Stephenson, aged 84. Mrs. Roberta Cling, of 
Chicago, and Mrs. Eva Robinson, of Woodstock, 
Va., a member of Shenandoah Chapter, were also 
guests of honor. 

At the February meeting of the Parkersburg 
Chapter the memory of George Washington was 
honored. 


McNeill Chapter, of Keyser, gave a Washing- 
ton Program at the February meeting in accord- 
ance with the Bicentennial. A gavel made of 
wood from a tree planted by General Washington 
in the Valley of Virginia was presented to the 
Chapter by Mrs. Jennie McNeill Alkire, who or- 
ganized the Chapter twenty-six years ago. 


FOR GENERAL OFFICES. 

The Georgia Division presents the name of Mrs. 
J. J. Harris, former President of the State Divi- 
sion, for the office - of Custodian General of 
Crosses. 

The North Carolina Division presents the name 
of Mrs. Glenn Long, President of the State Di- 
vision, for the office of Recording Secretary Gen- 
eral. 

Both of these candidates are well known 
throughout the organization for their ability and 
efficiency, and have been widely indorsed in 
their State Divisions. 


(See page 198 for Registrar General’s Letter). 


SppartmFnt, H. S. (£. 


Motto: “Loyalty to the Truth of Confederate History.” 
Keyword: “Preparedness.” Flower: The Rose. 
Historian General: Mrs. John Huske Anderson. 

Aims for 1932: To know your work — a fuller knowl- 
edge of the facts of our Confederate history. 


HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS OF THE CONFED- 
ERATE PERIOD. 

With Southern Songs 

June, 1932. 

Radio Talks: Birthday of President Davis, June 3. 
His Rightful Place in History. Refute False Statements. 

Memorials to the South’s Chieftain — The Jefferson 
Davis Highway and the Jefferson Davis Historical Foun- 
dation (material from State Directors). 

Poem: “The South in the Union” (James Barron Hope, 
Veteran for November, 1931). 

Song: “The Bonnie Blue Flag” (Harry McCarty). 


June, 1932. 

June 3, Birthday of Jefferson Davis, President of the 
Confederate States. 

A Memorial — The Jefferson Davis National Highway. 
(Material from State Highway Director.) 

Shaft at His Birthplace, Fairview, Ky. 

Song: “Bonnie Blue Flag.” Harry McCarthy. 


194 ^oi)federat^ Ueterai). 

Confebecateb Southern /Ihemorial Hssociation 


Mrs. a. McD. Wilson President General 

209 Fourteenth Street, N. E., Atlanta, Ga. 

Mrs. C. B. Bryan First Vice President General 

1640 Peabody Avenue, Memphis, Tenn. 

Miss Sue H. Walker Second Vice President General 

Fayetteville, Ark. 

Mrs. J. T. Hight Treasurer General 

Fayetteville, Ark. 

Miss Daisy M. L. Hodgson.... Secretary General 
7909 Sycamore Street, New Orleans, La. 

Mrs. Bryan Wells Collier Historian General 

College Park, Ga. 

Miss Willie Fort Williams Corresponding Secretary General 
Atlanta, Ga. 

Mrs. Virginia Frazer Boyle Poet Laureate General 

653 South McLean Boulevard, Memphis, Tenn. 

Mrs. Belle Allen Ross Auditor General 

Montgomery, Ala. 

Rev. Giles B. Cooke Chaplain General 

Mathews, Va. 

Mrs. L. T. D. Quinsy National Organizer 

Atlanta, Ga. 



STATE PRESIDENTS 

Alabama — M ontgomery Mrs. R. P. Dexter 

Arkansas— Little Rock .-. Mrs. Sam W^assell 

District of Columbia — W ashington Mrs. N. P. Webster 

Florida— G ainesville..' Mrs. Townes R. Leigh 

Georgia — A ugusta Mrs. Os well R. Eve 

Kentucky— 

Louisiana— N ew Orleans Mrs. James Dinkins 

Maryland Mrs. D. H. Fred 

Mississippi— B iloxi Mrs. Byrd Enochs 

Missouri — S t. Louis Mrs. G. K. Warner 

North Carolina— A sheville Mrs. J. J. Yates 

Oklahoma — Oklahoma City Mrs. James R. Armstrong 

South C.arolina — C harleston Mrs, S. Cary Beckwith 

Tennessee — M emphis Mrs. Mary H. Miller 

Texas — D allas Mrs. T. A. Bnford 

Virginia — R ichmond Mrs. B. A. Blenner 

West Virginia — H untington Mrs. D. D. Geiger 


All oommunications for this Department should be sent diroet to Mrs. Ada Ramp Waubn, Editor, Box 692, Augusta, Ga. 


A MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT 
GENERAL. 

Our Day of Memories draws near, and once 
again the call comes to gather the fairest flowers 
of spring to wreathe the monuments to our sacred 
dead, and to pay tribute to the valor and match- 
less heroism of those who sacrificed for the prin- 
ciples which they knew to be just. 

Let us make of this an outstanding occasion 
that shall proclaim to the world anew that while 
they sacrificed for us, we hold in reverent and lov- 
ing memory “the story of the glory of the men 
who wore the gray,” and shall pass on to future 
generations the torch that shall light the way to 
shrines that inspire to emulation of highest 
patriotism. 

^ ^ ^ 

Mrs, Oswell R. Eve, of Augusta, Ga., has ac- 
cepted the appointment as State President for 
Georgia, she is a daughter of Gen. Clement A. 
Evans, and has for ten years served the Ladies’ 
Memorial Association of Augusta; has a Junior 
Association with 172 members. She will take a 
^ood delegation to Richmond with her. 

* ♦ * 

The Reunion and our C. S. M. A. Convention 
in Richmond, Va., June 21, 22, 23, 24. If you 
have not already made your reservations at the 
hotels, do so at once, for the slogan is “On to 
Richmond!” and the largest crowd in years is 
predicted. Providence permitting, I hope to meet 
many old friends there and to make many new 
■ones. 

Yours in loving service, 

Margaret A. Wilson. 

(Mrs. A. McD. Wilson). 


C. S. M. A. NOTES. 

BY ADA RAMP WALDEN, EDITOR. 

The appointment of Mrs. Oswell R. Eve, of 
Augusta, to fill the vacancy caused by the recent 
death of Mrs. William A. Wright, of Atlanta, 
State President Confederated Southern Memo- 
rial Association, meets the unanimous approval of 
every association in the State, and of other States 
where Mrs. Eve is known. Since childhood, she 
has been an indefatigable worker in the Ladies’ 
Memorial Association of Augusta and of the 
U. D. C. She was President of the Association 
of Augusta for a number of years; and also of 
Chapter A., U. D. C. Although retiring from the 
presidency of the former, because of ill health 
at the time, never have her enthusiasm and pa- 
triotic interest waned. The Junior Memorial As- 
sociation, with more than 135 members, was 
named the Mary Lois Sibley Eve Association in 
her honor, because of her intense interest in the 
little organization from its incipiency. 

=(: * * 

As early as January 9, 1864, was a special day 
given to the decoration of graves of Confederate 
soldiers in New Orleans. A young lady visiting 
that city at the time described the day as follows : 
“On All Saints’ Day, every Confederate grave 
was beautifully decorated. Not one was neglected. 
They presented a glorious contrast to the graves 
of the Federals, some of which were covered with 
weeds that almost obscured the headboards. We 
wondered why the Union ladies here did not deco- 
rate them. In the center of the Confederate burial 
ground, which is in Cypress Grove, was placed a 
cross seven feet high, covered with black velvet 
and spangled with gold. In golden letters on the 
front of the cross were these words: ‘To Our 


195 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 


Southern Brothers. By the Ladies of New Or- 
leans.’ On the opposite side were three wreaths, 
the one in the center in white, the two on the ends, 
red. The top of the cross was surmounted with a 
wreath of olive. Every name, regiment, and 
place of death is inscribed on the headboards. 
Each board was entwined with wreath of ever- 
green interspersed with white flowers, while the 
grave themselves, on which there is not a blade 
of grass, were planted with red and white flow- 
ers.” 

* * * 

Mrs. James R. Armstrong, State President 
Oklahoma C. S. M. A., sends the following: “To 
members and workers of the C. S. M. A., Okla- 
homa sends love and greetings. We are giving 
of our time these strenuous days to our beloved 
veterans, their wives and widows, trying to bring 
into their lives pleasure and happiness; and also 
placing markers or headstones on the graves of 
our Confederate soldiers. Our hearts were torn 
in December by the passing of our much beloved 
chaplain, Mrs. W. C. Richardson, whose presence 
is sadly missed at our meetings. The time is 
drawing near for our general convention, and we 
are looking forward to seeing our dear President 
General, Mrs. A. McD. Wilson, and all others 
who are carrying on our work.” 

* * * 

Just 135 girls and boys joined the Mary Lois 
Sibley Eve Junior Memorial association of Au- 
gusta, Ga., during the recent reorganization di- 
rected by Mrs. J. S. Carswell and Mrs. R. J. 
Wilkinson. The meeting that followed was in- 
deed enthusiastic; and the little organization had 
prominent part in the Memorial Day exercises, 
April 26. As usual, the exercises were most in- 
teresting, and the memorial procession was 
viewed by several thousand spectators. At the 


section in which several hundred Confederate 
soldiers are buried, the exercises were held, with 
William H. H. Jones, World War veteran and de- 
scendant of a Confederate soldier, delivering the 
inspiring address. He was introduced by Dr. 
Charles Francis, veteran of the Spanish-American 
War, who in the morning received his Cross of 
Military Service from Chapter A, U. D. C., being 
the first veteran of that war to be so honored in 
the county. 

Misses Emma Perkins and Martha Bailie were 
elected as delegates from the Juniors to attend 
the reunion and convention of the C. S. M. A., 
in Richmond; Anne and Charles Hammett, Jose- 
phine and Clinton Wheeler, alternates. 


IN MEMORI AM— MRS. WILLIAM A. WRIGHT, 
State President Georgia C. S. M. A. 

Not only Atlanta and Georgia, but the South 
has sustained a loss in the passing of Mrs. Wil- 
liam A. Wright, beloved State President and for 
ten years President of the Atlanta Ladies Me- 
morial Association, whose sudden going was a 
shock to countless friends. 

A rare spirit, thrilled with the fire of deepest 
loyalty — typical of the Old South with all of its 
graciousness and charm characteristic of the ante 
bellum period — she was truly an example of its 
beautiful life. Her services for ten years as 
President of the Atlanta Ladies Memorial As- 
sociation and her zeal and patriotic devotion in- 
spired every organization to thrill with pride in 
being a part of the mile long procession that an- 
nually wended its way to the City of the Dead, 
where paeans of praise and mounds covered with 
flowers bespoke the love of the South for her 
matchless heroes. 

We shall meet, but we shall miss her. 

Margaret A. Wilson. 



MUSEUM AS PLANNED FOR THE MANASSAS BATTLEFIELD THIS MOVEMENT ORIGINATED WITH THE MARY TALIAFERRO 
THOMPSON MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION, C. S. M. A., OF W’ASHINGTON, D. C. 



196 


^opfederat^ UeteraQ. 


Sons of Confeberate Veterans 


Dr. George R. Tabor, Commander in Chief, Oklahoma City, Okla. 


GENERAL OFFICERS. 

Walter L. Hopkins, Richmond, Va Adjutant tn Chief 

j. Edward Jones, Oklahoma City, Okla. . . /Tupector in Chief 
Maj. Marion Rushton, Montsomery, Ala. Judge Advocate in 
Chief 

C. E. Gilbert, Honston, Tex Hietorian in Chief 

Dr. W. H. Scudder, Mayersville, Miss. . . . Surgeon in Chief 
Edward Hill Courtney, Richmond, \a. . .Quartermaater in 
Chief • 

Arthur C. Smith, Washington, D. C, . Commissary in Chief 
Maj. Edmond R. Wiles, Little Rock, Ark.. Publicity Director 
in Chief 

Rev. Nathan A. Seaglb, New York. . ..Cfcaplain in Chief 


EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 


Dr. George R. Tabor, Chairman Oklahoma City, Okla. 

John Ashley Jones, Secretary Atlanta, Ga. 

Dr. William R. Dancy Savannah, Ga. 

Robert S. Hudgins Richmond. Va. 

Judge Edgar Scurry Wichita Falls, Tex. 

John M. Kinard Newberry, S. C. 

Walter H. Saunders St. Louis, Mo. 


COMMITTEE CHAIRMEN. 


Arthur H. Jennings, Historical Lynchburg;, Va. 

A. W. Taber, Relief Austin, Tex. 

H. K. Ramsey, Monument Atlanta, Ga. 

Lucius L. Moss, Finance Lake Charles. La. 

Dr. Mathew Page Andrews, Textbooks Baltimore. Md. 


Rufus W. Pearson. Manassas Battle Field. .Washingrton D. C. 



VICE COMMANDERS IN CHIEF. 

Dr. Wiluam R. Dancy, Savannah. Ga. . . Army of Tennessee 
Robert S. Hudgins, Richmond, Va. 

Army of Northern Virginia 
Walter H. Saunders, St. Louis, Mo. 

Army of Trans-Mississippi 

DIVISION COMMANDERS. 


Maj. Jere C. Dennis, Dadeville Alabama 

J. S. Utley, Little Rock Arkansas 


Eujah Funkhouser, 7522 East Lake Terrace, Chicago, 

Illinois 

Fred P. Myers, Woodward Building, Washington, D. C., Dis- 
trict of Columbia and Maryland 
H. B. Grubbs, 320 Broadway, Eastern Division, New York 


John Z. Reardon, Tallahassee Florida 

Dr. William R. Dancy, Savannah Georgia 

Jambs B. Anderson, Glengary Farm, Lexington .. Kentucky 

Joseph Roy Price, Shreveport Louisiana 

W. F. Riley, Sr., Tupelo Mississippi 

James H. White, Kansas City Missouri 

J. M. Lentz, Winston-Salem North Carolina 

J. O. Parr, Oklahoma City OUahoma 

Dr. John Parks Gilmer, Pacific Division, San Diego, 

California 

William J. Cherry, Rock Hill South Carolina 

Claire B. Newman, Jackson Tennessee 

C. E. Gilbert, Houston . Texas 

R. M. Colvin, Harrisonburg Virginia 

George W. Sidbbottom, Huntington West Virginia 


All communications for this department should be sent direct to Edmond R. Wiles, Editor, 1606 W. 22nd St., Little Rock, Ark, 


GENERAL NEWS AND NOTES. 

CHAIRMAN HISTORY COMMITTEE. 

Special Order No. 7. 

1. Mr. Arthur H. Jennings, of Lynchburg, Va., 
having resigned as Chairman of the Historical 
Committee, a vacancy therefore exists in said 
position. 

2. Upon suitable recommendations, and in 
obedience to and by and under the authority 
vested in the Commander-in-Chief by Article VII, 
Section One, of the General Constitution, Judge 
W. W. Robertson, 400 East 15th Street, Okla- 
homa City, Okla., is hereby appointed chairman 
of the Historical Committee, to rank as such from 
April 1, 1932. He will at once take over the 
duties of this office and make such reports as he 
may deem necessary at our Convention, which 
will be held in Richmond, Va., June 21-24, 1932. 

By order of : George R. Tabor, 

Commander-in-Chief, S. C. V. 

Official: 

Walter L. Hopkins, 

Adjutant-in-Chief, S. C. V. 

Walter William Robertson, a native Virginian 
and son of Major Robertson of the cavalry of the 
Army of Northern Virginia in the War between 
the States, was reared in Appomattox County, 
about three miles from the present courthouse 
at Appomattox Depot. He was educated in- the 
public schools of Appomattox County, spent four 


years under Mr. C. H. Chilton at Union Academy, 
and later graduated from Randolph Macon Col- 
lege, taking special work following his gradua- 
tion at the University of Virginia. For some years 
he taught in Virginia, later being Superintendent 
of Schools at Harrisonburg, Va., and for nine 
years Superintendent of Schools in Staunton. He 
has held many positions of honor and responsi- 
bility, since his removal to the West, in New Mexi- 
co and in Oklahoma, his present home. 

The Virginia Division. 

A resolution unanimously adopted by Stone- 
wall Jackson Camp, No. 981, S. C. V., of Rich- 
mond, concerning the adoption of Muzzey’s His- 
tory by the State Board of Education of Virginia, 
expresses with deep regret that the Board saw fit 
to adopt this history in the schools of Virginia in 
face of the fact that it has been on the black 
list in Southern States by Confederate organiza- 
tions for some years past, due to its unfair repre- 
sentation of the causes leading up to the War be- 
tween the States from the South’s viewpoint. Not- 
withstanding the corrections made by Mr. Muz- 
zey, it is still regarded as being unsuitable for use 
in the public schools of the South, where the youth 
would likely receive an erroneous impression of 
the causes leading up to the conflict between the 
North and South. 

Special Order No. 6: The Commander-in-Chief 
has named the following Committee, whose re- 


197 


QoQfcderat^ l/cterai). 


sponsibility will be to submit a report at the Thir- 
ty-seventh Annual Convention, Sons of Confed- 
erate Veterans, to be held in Richmond, Va., in 
June, covering the future activities of the organi- 
zation and also to cover the Way and Means Com- 
mittee report, these two committees being simi- 
lar in their duties : 

Major Edmond R. Wiles, Chairman, Little 
Rock, Ark. ; Col. John Z. Reardon, Tallahassee, 
Fla. ; J. Roy Price, Shreveport, La. ; J. Edward 
Jones, Oklahoma City, Okla. ; Col. R. G. Lamkin, 
Roanoke, Va. 

CONTRIBUTED BY C. E. GILBERT, HOUSTON, TEX. 

Albert Sidney Johnston Camp, No. 67, S. C. V., 
at a recent meeting voted to offer a prize of $10 
for the best paper on the Life and Character of 
Jefferson Davis written for the Camp by a pupil 
of Jefferson Davis High School of this city. The 
Camp also voted a similar prize of $10 for the 
best paper on the Life and Character of Albert 
Sidney Johnston written by a pupil of Albert Sid- 
ney Johnston High School. Commander C. E. 
Gilbert wrote the proposal to the Superintendent 
of each school, and it was acknowledged by the 
Superintendents with expressions of apprecia- 
tion, and the offer was printed in the School Bul- 
letin. In July, the Camp will have the papers 
read at a general meeting of the pupils of the high 
schools, and the awards will be made, and the win- 
ning papers published. 


OLD SACRAMENTO. 

The following comes from A. L. Maxwell, of 
Lexington, Mo., R. No. 1, and any one having in- 
formation wanted will please communicate with 
him. He writes : 

“Bledsoe’s Battery, recruited mainly of La- 
fayette County (Mo.) men, went the whole way 
from Missouri to South Carolina under the same 
captain. Recently I found a letter in an old 
copy of the Veteran written in September, 1901, 
by a member of this battery, Mr. John B. Sant- 
myer, in which he states that ‘Old Sac,’ the Mexi- 
can cannon captured by Bledsoe and other Lafay- 
ette County men at Sacramento Creek, Mexico, 
in 1847, and used in the Missouri State Guard 
until fatal Pea Ridge, Ark., was in September, 
1863, lying dismounted in the arsenal at Mo- 
bile. Ten years ago this same gentleman told his 
son that he had word that the old gun was still 
there. The citizens of Lexington, Mo., now want 
to make a search for this gun, and I would like 
to know if the old cannon is yet in Mobile.’’ 


THE LONELY GUNS. 

[At Fort Taylor, Key West, Fla.] 

Like Nelson’s lions couched, we lie and dream 
Of mighty songs our brothers sang afar 
On bloody fields of old when Freedom’s star 
From Valley Forge to Yorktown shed its gleam; 
Alone we watch by day, and by the beam 
Of tropic moon along the channel bar; 

Not ours to raise the ancient chant of war 
To roll across our Gulf’s eternal stream. 

0 Eagle’s sons who set us here to guard. 

Forget us not, whose brothers made you free; 
Nor hark to treason’s insolent demand 
That no more shall keep our watch and ward. 
Remember, Peace and Happiness shall be 
Where Freedom’s stalwart sons about her stand. 

— A. R. Wiggin. 

[The writer of these lines states that they were 
“suggested by the guns of our fortress at Key 
West, which have a rather pathetic look of loneli- 
ness about them,” that, he visions, is caused by 
the pacific trend of the present day ; and he adds, 
“How they learn of these things, I don’t know, 
unless they feel their kinship with the guns of the 
Revolution and of Trafalgar which, in a way, 
spoke a message of freedom. Their kinship to 
the guns of 1812, 1848, 1861 (whose burial Thom- 
as Nelson Page sang in a glorious prose epic), 
1898, and 1917, they probably feel also, but the 
limits of a sonnet don’t permit them to enlarge 
on these.] 


Seeks a Comrade. — S. J. Eales, 107 South Pop- 
lar St., Hutchinson, Kans., now past ninety years 
of age, would like to hear from any survivor of 
his company, regiment, or brigade. He writes: 
“I served in the 5th Kentucky Infantry, of the 
Orphan Brigade; had a brother killed by my side 
in the battle of Chickamauga ; was in all the bat- 
tles and skirmishes with my regiment and brigade 
from Dalton to the fall of Atlanta; was severely 
wounded in the battle of Jonesboro, August 31, 
1864, and spent the fall and winter in different 
hospitals. In March, 1865, still on crutches, I 
made my way to Augusta, Ga. In the meantime 
the Orphan Brigade had been mounted and was 
fighting in South Carolina until ordered to Wash- 
ington, Ga., to surrender, where we received our 
discharges on the 6th of May, 1865; each soldier 
was then his own commander. I was a thousand 
miles from my old Kentucky home, on crutches, 
and no money.” 


198 


^oi)federat^ Ueterai). 


HUMOR IN SOLDIER LIFE. 

(Continued from page 169) 

say you’ve got the spondulix. The old man tvill 
jump up and rear and swear at you, but when he 
does you just pat him on his bald head, and say: 
“Oh, yes; I knew you would do this, but I’m one 
of the boys. I don’t talk ; you can count on me.” 
Ben went over, while Eulah and Dave Rowland 
waited on the other side. In about three minutes, 
Ben rushed into the street, his canteens rattling, 
making a great noise as he ran down the street. 
The guards were after him, but Ben was too 
fleet, and he reached the “Rockets” ahead of all 
pursuers. General Winder rushed to the sidewalk 
and ordered the guards to shoot him. 

When Ben patted the old man on the head, he 
knocked his glasses off, and this was the only 
thing that saved him. Ben reached camp about 
daylight, but he brought nothing back but the 
canteens and an empty stomach. 


U. D. C. NOTES. 

(Continued from page 193) 

TO CHAPTER PRESIDENTS. 

During the past month, I have mailed to each 
Chapter, U. D. C., three copies of “Instructions 
for Correct Registration for Use of Chapter and 
Division Registrars” to Presidents, Secretarys, 
and Directors of C. of C. Chapters. A copy was 
sent to each Chapter Registrar early in the year 
through the Division Registrars. 

When Chapters change their officers, will they 
please pass on these little “Red Books” to their 
successors? The edition is limited; there will be 
no second edition printed. The instructions in 
these books are very helpful in preparing applica- 
tions for membership correctly. 

Owing to several important changes made by 
amendment to the By-laws at the last General 
Convention after these books were printed. Chap- 
ter officers will have to consult the last copy of 
Minutes for proper instruction regulating the 
payment of initiation fees for new members, also 
for a transfer of membership. I regret very 
much that these changes do not appear in the 
“Red Books.” 

If any other person other than officers of Chap- 
ters desire a copy of these instructions, they may 
be obtained from the Registrar General, U. D. C., 
at the price of ten cents per copy. 

Faithfully yours, 

• Mrs. Albert Sidney Porter, 
Registrar General, U. D. C. 


“THE SOUTH IN AMERICAN LIFE AND 
HISTORY .” . 

The book by Mrs. E. E. Selph, of Nashville, 
Tenn., on “The South in American Life and His- 
tory” has been widely commended, and one of the 
latest letters referring to it comes under date of 
March 30, 1932 : 

“My dear Mrs. Selph: I personally own a copy 
of your wonderful book, “The South in American 
Life and History,” and I could not do without it, 
as it is the most helpful of all my reference books. 
I keep it always at hand. I had my Chapter here 
buy a copy for the High School Library, and I 
recommend its use for all libraries both school 
and public. In the Historical Year Book of the 
Virginia Division, you will notice it included in 
the list of approved books for schools libraries. 
I am telling you this that you may know I heart- 
ily approve of it, and have done my bit toward 
getting it distributed. Hope that you will not 
only be able to sell the second edition promptly, 
but many more as well. It is terribly needed to 
counteract some of the harmful propaganda which 
is being spread over the country. When I think 
of the gigantic task awaiting us, I am sometimes 
discouraged, until I remember the thousands who, 
as you and I, are willing to continue the battle 
until the South has justice in history. 

“Wishing you all success with your great book, 
and with kindest personal regards for yourself, 

“Sincerely, Mrs. F. L. Palmer, Historian, 
Virginia Division, U. D. C.” 

This book is especially valuable as a work of 
reference, many historic happenings being given 
in concrete form and making it convenient for 
those seeking light on points of history which 
would otherwise require exhaustive research. The 
edition is nearly exhausted, but copies may still 
be procured from Mrs. F. E. Selph, 5007 Michi- 
gan Avenue, West Nashville, Tenn., at $2.50, post- 
paid. Order promptly. 


From Massachusetts. — The Veteran has some 
good friends in Massachusetts, one of whom is 
Mr. Walter H. Wilcox, of Woburn, who is inter- 
ested in advancing the Veteran through sub- 
scriptions as well as otherwise, and writes re- 
cently, in reporting a new subscriber: “I have 
taken the Veteran for many years, and in re- 
sponse to your recent request for new subscrip- 
tions have now sent you two. If your Southern 
friends all do as well, your success is assured. 
From a Yankee friend.” 


Qopfederac^ l/eterap 


199 


PICTURES OF CONFEDERATE LEADERS. 

The following pictures are commended as being most suitable for presenta- 
tion purposes, as their good quality is fine insurance. These pictures are: 

The Three Generals. — Group showing Generals Lee, Jackson, and Joseph 
E. Johnston. A fine steel engraving some 19 by 22 inches, price $10. With an 
order for this picture, a year’s subscription to the Veteran is allowed. 

Picture of Gen. R. E. Lee. — A fine steel engraving printed in soft brown 
tones; in good size. Picture highly commended by General Lee’s daughter as 
a good likeness. Price, $5. 

Picture of Jefferson Davis. — A handsome print, showing him in the flush 
of maturity, just before the war. Can be had in different sizes, as follows: 
16 X 20 inches, double weight paper, $4; mounted on cardboard, $4.50; 20x30 
inches, $7; mounted, $7.50; 30x40 inches, $10; mounted, $10.50. 

Address the Confederate Veteran, Nashville, Tenn. 


From Mrs. R. A. Jarvis, Stinnett, 
Tex.: “I intend to take the Veteran 
as long as I live. My husband was 
a soldier under General Forrest; has 
been dead thirteen years.” 

»N * * 

John W. Bonee writes from Nash- 
ville, N. C., in renewing subscription: 
‘T am now in my ninetieth year — 
partly deaf and blind; almost the last 
of the Confederate soldiers of Nash 
County; but I expect to take the 
Veteran as long as I live, if I can.” 

* * * 

Dr. T. C. Sexton, of Fremont, 
Nebr., sends subscription and com- 
pliments on “the successful accom- 
plishment in producing so valuable 
and, to the old Confederates, such an 
interesting magazine.” 

* * * 

Anyone knowing the war record 
of J. H. Wiggins will confer a favor 
by writing to W. E. Long, 719 N. 
Main St., Rusk, Tex., who is inter- 
ested in securing a pension for the 
widow of this comrade. Jim Higgins 
was born in Oxford, N. C., in 1848, 
and moved to Texas in 1854, going 
into the Confederate army at Rusk. 
He was so young that Capt. Frank 
Taylor used him as a courier. 

* * * 

Inquiry comes for a copy of “The 
Partisan Rangers of the Confederate 
Army,” by W. J. Davis, also “Noted 
Guerrillas,” by John N. Edwards. 

Anyone having these books for sale 
will please communicate with the Vet- 
eran, stating price and condition. 

9|C 9fC % 

Miss Mary D. Carter, Upperville, 
Va., is interested in collecting news- 
paper clippings of articles on the 

War between the States period, which 
are to be preserved by one of the 
Southern universities. There are 


many valuable articles in this form 
that would otherwise be lost, and 
anyone having such clippings will 
be helping to preserve our history by 
co-operating with Miss Carter in mak- 
ing this collection. 

* * * 

“Best of luck. You are doing a 
wonderful job to keep us posted on 
the South,” writes W. McMillan Lewis 
from St. Louis, in renewing subscrip- 
tion. 

* * 

“Always glad to help the Veteran 
out,” is the message from Gen. H. 
Oden Lake, of Washington, D. C., 
one of our Spanish War veterans — 
and he renews for two years. 

* * * 

Mrs. H. A. Crenshaw, of Salisbury, 
N. C., continues the subscription or- 
der for the Chapter which bears the 
name of her father, Joseph J. Davis, 
and says: “I am glad to tell you that 
the Chapter enjoys at each meeting 
extracts from the Veteran — indeed, 
it sometimes provides the program 
to a great extent.” 


Miss Mabel Brooke Blum, 1300 
Page Street, San Francisco, Calif., 
would like to hear from some one who 
knew her uncle, George Gibson 
Brooke, Brigade Chaplain with Gen. 
J. D. Imboden Cavalry Brigade, 
Lomax’s Division, C. S. A. 


Confederate Catechism. — By Lyon 
Gardner Tyler. Price, 20 cents. For 
fifty copies, or more than fifty, 10 
cents each. Address, L. G. Tyler, 
Holdcroft, Va. 


“I get a thrill of genuine patriotism 
from each number,” writes Mrs. J. 
M. Johnson, of Louisville, Ky., in re- 
newing her subscription. 


J. A. Joel & Co. 

SILK AND BUNTING 
FLAGS AND BANNERS 
D. S., CONFEDERATE. 
AND STATE FLAGS 
SPECIAL FLAGS AND 
BANNERS MADE TO 
ORDER AT SHORT 
NOTICE 


147 Fulton street, New York, N. Y. 


R. W. Griffith, History Department, 
Mississippi Heights Academy, Blue 
Mountain, Miss., is collecting data on 
the members of Company I, 11th 
Mississippi Regiment — Van Dorn’s 
Reserves — and he is very anxious to 
get in communication with any sur- 
viving members or others who can 
.give information on the service of any 
member or members, and incidents of 
their service. 


LEADING A BETTER LIFE. 

A State health officer in Virginia 
relates in The Survey the story of a 
farmer who was delivering vegetables 
to a public sanitarium. A patient sa- 
luted him. 

“You’re a farmer, ain’t yuh?” 

The farmer allowed that he was. 

“I used to be a farmer once,” says 
the guest of the State. 

“Did youh?” 

“Yes. Say, stranger, did youh ever 
try bein’ crazy?” 

The farmer never had, and started 
to move on. 

“Well, you oughta try it,” was the 
ex-farmer’s parting shot. “It beats 
farmin’ all hollow.” 


Mrs. J. W. Hall, of Denver, Colo., 
renews for two years and writes: “If 
all Southern people realized how 
much Southern history is contained 
in each number of the Veteran, it 
would be swamped with subscrip- 
tions.” 


TO BE PRESIDENT. 

“To be a satisfactory president of 
the United States,” says Grenville 
Kleiser, “a man must possess many 
qualifications.” He lists the follow- 
ing as vital: 

The patience of a Job. 

The perspicacity of a Plato. 

The strength of a Hercules. 

The wit of a Rabelais. 

The courage of a lion. 



?■ 1 


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July 17 LUCERNE August 

y«/y 18 GRAND ALPINE MOTOR August 
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July 19 INTERLAKEN August 

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July 22 VENICE 

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July 27 ROME August 


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z 








.5 



RICHMOND IN FLAMES 

The Richmond which will greet the United Confederate Veterans in their 42nd Annual 
Reunion, June 21-24, will have no retninder of the harrowing scenes following its evacuation, 
April 2, 1865. After successfully resisting the four years’ efforts of the Federal armies to 
capture the capital of the Confederacy, the fall of Petersburg necessitated the evacuation 
of Richmond. The above lurid scene gives an idea of what followed the evacuation, the 
warehouses and armories being set on fire and the bridges burned after the troops passed 
over. Photographed from an old painting by H. P. Cook, of Richmond. 


NO 


|UN 


932 


VOL 


XL 




202 ^opfederat^ l/eterai>* 


LEADING ARTICLES IN THIS NUMBER. 

PAGE 

The Reunion Program 203 

Jefferson Davis. (Poem.) By John Proctor Mills 204 

Educated Southern Youth 204 

Gen. Jo Lane Stern — In Memoriam 206 

Confederate Dad O’ Mine. (Poem.) By Grace Dupree Ridings 206 

Held as a Spy. By Capt. Eugene G. DeJarnette 207 

Not a Commissioned Officer. By James E. Payne 208 

Another Lee Biography. By Matthew Page Andrews ' 209 

Hereditary Vision. By Britta Coad 211 

The First Secession Meeting. By Lewis Perrin 212 

The South Justified in Secession. By Samuel B. Adams 215 

Heyday of King Cotton. By Jonathan Nagel 218 

The South and Education. By Mrs. John H. Anderson 220 

The Veteran’s Cross. (Poem.) By Mrs. Cara C. Caskey 223 

The Founders of Sigma Chi. By Mrs. May B. Killough 224 

In Memory of “Mother Crim” 224 

Ganialiel Bradford — A Friend. By Mrs. Ella G. Hoffman 225 

Departments: Last Roll 226 

U. D. C. 230 

C. S. M. A. 234 

S. C. V 236 

STANDARD WORKS ON CONFEDERATE HISTORY. 

Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government. By Jefferson Davis 

Two volumes $ 10 00 

Life of Jefferson Davis. By Frank H. Alfriend (Editor Southern 

Literary Messenger 4 00 

Prison Life of Jefferson Davis. By Dr. Craven 3 50 

Lee the American. By Gamaliel Bradford 3 00 

Lee’s Sharpshooters, or the Forefront of Battle. By Maj. W. S. Dun- 
lop. A “Story of Southern Valor that has never been told 3 50 

Lee and His Generals. By William Parker Snow. Rebound 4 00 

Life of Gen R. E. Lee. By James D. McCabe, Jr. With maps of Lee’s 

campaigns. Edition of 1870 4 00 

Life and Champaigns of Gen. N. B. Forrest. By Jordan and Pryor 5 00 

Johnston’s Narrative 4 00 

The American Bastille. By John A. Marshall. History of the illegal 
arrests and imprisonment of American citizens during the War be- 
tween the States 4 50 


J. R. Mathes, Lascassas, Tenn., 
Route No. 1, has reached the age of 
ninety-two years, and is still inter- 
ested in the Veteran. Wants to know 
how many other readers of the Vet- 
eran are older than he. A list of 
such readers would be of interest. 
Send in your names. 


Mrs. Nannie Haley, of Colorado, 
Tex., widow of J. H. (John H.) Haley, 
is trying to establish her husband’s 
record as a Confederate soldier, which 
will enable her to get a pension. He 
enlisted with Company D, 1st Louisi- 
ana Voluntary Infantry, as a private, 
in New Orleans, La., in April, 1861, 
and served through the full period of 
the war. Any one remembering his 
service as a soldier will please write 
to her as above. 


I. G. Bradwell, of Brantley, Ala., 
would like to communicate with any 
old Confederate who took part in the 
battle of Monocacy, Md., July 9, 
1864. 


Inquiry comes as to whether there 
is any foundation for the statement 
that the figure of a soldier on a Con- 
federate monument is always placed 
facing the north. This inquirer had 
noticed that those she had seen were 
so placed. Is there any reason for 
so placing them? 


Mrs. Isleta Kimbro Hunt, of Bisbee, 
Ariz., Box 196, is very anxious to es- 
tablish the war record of her father, 
John Kimbro, who, she thinks, did 
scout duty under Forrest. A very 
daring act of his is brought out in an 
article by W. H. King, of Murfrees- 
boro, Tenn., in the Veteran for No- 
vember, 1924. His service was also 
thought to have been under Capt. 
Dick McCann. The old Kimbro home 
is near Antioch, Tenn., and John 
Kimbro is buried at Mount Olivet, 
near Nashville. Any information 
would be appreciated. 


If I had to choose between a free 
government with a corrupt press, and 
a corrupt government with a free 


press, I would unhesitatingly choose 
the latter; for no government can long 
remain free with a corrupt press, and 
no government can long remain cor- 
rupt with a free press. — Thomas Jef- 
ferson. 


THE MOTHER'S SPHERE. 
“Do you do any literary work?’’ 
asked a neighbor of a mother. 

“Yes,” she replied. “I am writing 
two books.” 

“What are their titles?” 

“ ‘John and Mary,’ ” she answered. 
“My business is to write upon the 
minds and hearts of my children the 
lessons they will never forget.” 

Every mother is an artist and her 
material is not the perishable marble, 
but immortal souls. 

I took a piece of living clay 
And gently formed it day by day. 
And molded with my power and art, 
A young child’s soft and yielding 
heart. 

I came again when years were gone; 
It was a man, I looked upon. 

He still that early impress bore. 

And naught could change it any more. 

The greatest need of America to- 
day is Christian mothers who will 
bring up their children “in the nur- 
ture and admonition of the Lord.” 


REMEMBERED. 

Probably the only case of its kind 
in history is the tribute paid to the 
memory of Edward Colston, a philan- 
thropist buried in Bristol, England. 
The schools, homes, and hospitals 
which he founded have placed fresh 
flowers on his grave every week for 
the past 210 years! — British Ameri- 
can. 


“You know you’ll never have your 
name inscribed in the Hall of Fame.” 
“Perhaps not. But I’d rather have 
people asking why it isn’t there than 
why it is.” 


A small boy went to school for the 
first time. He came home and was 
questioned as to his experience. 

“Nothing much happened,” he said. 
“There was a woman there who 
wanted to know how to spell cat, and 
I told her.” — Exchange. 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai? 


PUBLISHED MONTHLY IN THE INTEREST OF CONFEDERATE ASSOCIATIONS AND KINDRED TOPICS. 


Entered as second-class matter at the post office at Nashville. Tenn., 
under act of March 3, 1879. 

Acceptance of maiing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec- 
tion 1 103, act of October 3, 1917, and authorized on July 5, 1918. 

Published by the Trustees of the Confederate Veteran, Nash- 
ville. Tenn. 



OFFICIALLY REPRESENTS: 

United Confederate Veterans, 

United Daughters of the Confederacy, 

Confederated Southern Memorial AssociATioNt 
Sons of Confederate Veterans. 






Though men deserve, they may not win, success; 

The brave will honor the brave, vanquished none the less. 



Price $1.50 Pe® Year, j 
Single Copy, 15 Cents. ( 

VoL. XL. 

NASHVILLE, TENN., JUNE, 1932 

No. 6 

( S. a. CUNNINGHAM 
1 Founder. 


UNITED CONFEDERATE VETERANS 

GENERAL OFFICERS. 

Gen. C. a. Db Saussure, Memphis, Tenn Comander in Chief 

Gen. H. R. Lee, Nashville, Tenn.. Adjutant General and Chief of Staff 
Mrs. W. B. Kernan. 1723 Audubon Street, New Orleans, La. 

Assistant to the Adjutant General 
Rev. Thomas K. Gorman, Skiatook, Okla Chaplain General 


DEPARTMENT COMMANDERS. 

Gen. Homer Atkinson, Petersburg, Va Army of Northern Virginia 

Gen. Sims Latta, Columbia, Tenn Army of Tennessee 

Gen. R. D. Chapman, Houston, Tex Trans-Mississippi 


DIVISION COMMANDERS. 


ALABAMA — Tuscaloosa 

Arkansas— R ussellville 

Florida — 

Georgia — S avannah 

Kentucky — R ichmond 

Louisiana — L aFayette 

Maryland — 

Mississippi — L iberty 

Missouri — S t. Louis 

North Carolina — A nsonville 

Oklahoma — O kmulgee 

South Carolina — S umter . . . 

Tennessee — U nion City 

Texas — F ort Worth 

Virginia — R ichmond 

West Virginia — L ewisburg., 
California — L os Angeles. .. 


Gen. John R. Kennedy 
, Gen. J. P. McCarther 
Gen. W. E. McGhagin 
. Gen. William Harden 
Gen. N. B. Deatherage 
Gen. Gustave Mouton 


Gen. W. R. Jacobs 

Gen. W. A. Wall 

Gen. W. A. Smith 

.. Gen. A. C. De Vinna 

Gen. N. G. Osteen 

Gen. Rice A. Pierce 

Gen. M. J. Bonner 

Gen. William McK. Evans 
. . Gen. Thomas H. Dennis 
Gen. S. S. Simmons 


HONORARY APPOINTMENTS. 


Gen. W. B. Freeman, Richmond, Va Honorary Commander for Life 

Gen. M. D. Vance, Little Rock, Ark Honorary Commander for Life 

Gen. R. a. Sneed, Oklahoma City, Okla.. .Honorary Commander for Life 
Gen. L. W. Stephens, Coushatta, La.. Honorary Commander for Life 
Rev. Giles B. Cooke, Matthews, Va. Honorary Chaplain General for Life 


FORT FISHER MEMORIAL. 

The North Carolina Division, U. D. C., has sent 
out invitations to the unveiling and dedication of 
the Fort Fisher Memorial at Fort Fisher, N. C., 
on Thursday morning, June 2. 


THE REUNION PROGRAM. 

The program for the Richmond Reunion fol- 
lows the usual lines in the convention exercises, 
which will' be held in the auditorium of The 
Mosque beginning Wednesday morning, June 21. 
In the afternoon of that day will be the formal 
dedication of the Richmond Battlefield Parks. The 
balls will be held in the armories of the Richmond 
Grays and Richmond Blues. For the grand pa- 
rade on Friday, all veterans are to report to their 
brigade and division commanders at the Con- 
federate Home to be assigned their places. The 
parade is to move at twelve o’clock. 

The Lee Monument. 

A mistake was made in the May number of the 
Veteran in stating that Mr. F. William Sievers, 
of Richmond, Va., noted sculptor, made the eques- 
trian statue of General Lee in that city. He writes 
a correction, stating that it is the work of An- 
tonin Mercie, the French sculptor, but he made 
the Stonewall Jackson equestrian statue in Rich- 
mond and also that magnificent memorial to Gen- 
eral Lee at Gettysburg, pictures of which have ap- 
peared in the Veteran. 

Another correction comes from Mr. William 
Palmer Hill, of Richmond, who adds that Monu- 
ment Avenue begins at the equestrian statue of 
Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, leads up to the Lee statue, 
on to that of President Davis, Stonewall Jackson, 
and then to Commodore Maury. 

The photographs from which the frontispieces 
of the April, May, and June numbers were made 
are from the studio of H. P. Cook, of Richmond, 
who doubtless has the largest known collection of 
photographs of Confederate leaders, many of 
them made during the war. 


204 


^opfederat^ l/eterai). 


Qo^federat^ l/etcrai). 

Office: Methodist Publishinc House Building. Nashville, Tenn. 
E. D. POPE, Editor. 


JEFFERSON DAVIS. 

(On a visit to Montgomery, Ala., April, 1886). 
I saw him pass in grand review that day. 

And in his eyes the fire of life burned bright; 

He stood a monument in manly height, 

No king more steady in his fine array. 

He smiled as he passed by, and smiled my way, 

I tipped my hat and waved with great delight; 
No word was said, but as a flash of light 
The message of his heart on my heart lay. 

The nobleness of his great soul was chiseled deep. 
For Time the master sculptor had his fling; 
And though the mighty cause met with defeat. 

He never cringed from duty, nor did creep. 

From history’s page all men in pride will sing. 
The glory of his life love shall repeat. 


(As he lay in State in the Capitol at Mont- 
gomery, Ala., May 29, 1893.) 

How cold in death I saw him lying there 
So silently upon his peaceful bier; 

My soul was as a weeping fount, a tear 
Surged from my heart and fell a whispered 
prayer. 

His noble brow, unfurrowed by a care. 

Shone as a bit of alabaster clear. 

No longer then of death I felt a fear. 

As his fine life it seemed had been my share. 

Upon the Book of Time is graven bright 
The mirror of his precious life well spent; 

And like a golden galleon on blue sea 

His thoughts shall travel on as rays of light. 

And for mysterious purpose he was sent. 

From every ghost of doubt the world is free. 

— John Proctor Mills. 


[It is of interest to know that the author of 
these tributes was born at Oxford, Mich., and had 
relatives in the Northern Army; but he went to 
Alabama as a little boy at the age of five, just be- 
fore (the fall) the visit of Mr. Davis in 1886, 
when the Confederate Monument corner stone was 
laid.] 


EDUCATED SOUTHERN YOUTH. 

It is well known that Alexander Stephens was 
a great advocate of education, and during his life- 
time he helped a good many young men to obtain 
an education. In the case of helping women, it 
was a gift ; but with young men it was understood 
that after going into business, their benefactor 
would be repaid whenever they were able to do so. 
These beneficiaries were rarely selected from 
among the children of friends or relatives, but 
whenever an appeal was made to him in behalf 
of a youth of promise, without means to acquire 
an education, he almost invariably responded. It 
was thought perhaps that few of these had shown 
any gratitude or repaid him, but in response to 
an inquiry of the kind, he wrote as follows, this 
being an extract from his letter : 

“I have assisted upward of thirty young men 
in getting an education. About a third of these I 
have taken from the stump and put through col- 
lege. The other two-thirds I assisted to gradu- 
ation, but most of them at a medical college. Out 
of the whole number only three who have lived 
have failed to refund the money. The three I 
have alluded to are, I think, scamps, except per- 
haps one. One who refunded I think is a scamp 
also, though he is a preacher. Nine of the num- 
ber I assisted are dead; five of these died before 
refunding; two died while at school. Only four 
of the number studied law. Six are preachers — 
four Baptists, one Presbyterian, and one Method- 
ist. One of them is (or was when last heard 
from) a man of distinction in Tennessee, a pro- 
fessor and author. Another is at the head of a 
high school in Mississippi, and another at the head 
of a high school in Georgia. Mr. , the preach- 

er, is, I think, a shabby fellow. He showed some 
ingratitude. The other three I spoke of I think 
shabby, but never heard of any ingratitude. Take 
the whole lot, all in all, I think very well of them. 
The per centum of black sheep in the flock is 
small ; not more than one in twelve or thereabouts. 
Of the number I assisted in getting medical diplo- 
mas, there are now living in the State six, all 
clever physicians of good standing. Two of the 
physicians died several years ago.” 

In a later letter, he said: “Fourteen of the 
number at one time, or sometime after quitting 
school, became teachers ; several of them are still 
teaching. It is proper also to state that none of 
them, that I am aware of, was ever addicted to 
intemperance except one. He sometimes drank 
too much, but he abandoned liquor entirely before 
he died. I ought to say also that the four I spoke 


205 


^09federat^ l/eterap. 


of as shabby fellows all maintain what is con- 
sidered respectable positions in society A 

great majority of those I have aided have done 
good in their day and generation in their quiet 
spheres of life. This is a source of great satisfac- 
tion to me.” 

Continuing this habit of aiding indigent youths 
to get an education, the number had increased to 
fifty-two at the time the next record was made. 


TOUR TO OLD SOUTHERN HOMES. 

BY MRS. L. U. BABIN, COR. SECY. GEN., U. D. C. 

Recently I was fortunate to have the opportu- 
nity to visit a picturesque city in a neighboring 
State — Natchez, Miss. — as a participant in a tour 
of old homes. This pilgrimage leaves a lingering 
delightful memory of glimpses of the past when 
the Old South existed in the full glory of its 
wealth and culture. 

Homes of different types added to the inter- 
est of the tourist, and new charms were constant- 
ly before him. Some places retained the old vir- 
tually undistributed in all its elegance — antique 
furniture, the same costly carpets on the floor, 
the original rich draperies, and lovely paper cov- 
ering the plastered walls, unchanged. Guests 
were greeted by hostesses in genuine, handsome 
costumes of the days of the sixties and Colonial 
period. The atmosphere of the past pervaded 
everywhere, with architecture, art treasures, oil 
paintings, marble mantles, steel engravings, or 
old silver and china and crystal reminding the 
visitors of days gone by. 

The most striking instance of an ante-helium 
home thoroughly repaired was “The Briars,” 
where Jefferson Davis married Varina Howell, 
his second wife. This house is typically south- 
ern, with its deep porches and classic architecture 
and charm of design. The view overlooking the 
Mississippi is the most beautiful in all this sec- 
tion, and the hill on the river front, perhaps, the 
highest. 

In many of the homes the tourist was attracted 
by handsome portraits of Confederate soldiers, 
members of the family, or their generals ; framed 
documents signed by a Confederate general or 
governor; and other evidences of loyalty to the 
Southland. 

In all, more than two dozen of these large and 
beautiful homes were open to the tourists, more 
than two thousand in number from more than 
thirty states. 


Although during the more than half century 
past some of the fine places have been destroyed 
by fire, the many that remain are fully worth the 
pilgrimage. Next year, for the second time, they 
will be open, and I am sure another large number 
of tourists will visit them and, better than read- 
ing volumes, enjoy the thrill of seeing these homes 
of the Old South. 


GENERAL FORREST NOT ILLITERATE. 

[The following excerpt from the Congressional 
Record’is a timely correction of the generally ac- 
cepted idea that Gen. N. B. Forrest was not an 
educated man. Though his schooling was limited, 
his natural intelligence took him out of the il- 
literate class.] 

Mr. Johnson, of Washington: From the gen- 
tleman’s own State of Mississippi, there came to 
the front in the War between the States, 1861 to 
1865, a private soldier who developed so rapidly 
in skill and tactics that he became a general — a 
man almost illiterate. That man probably worked 
more physical punishment on the Northern army 
than any other one man individually, and, with 
the aid of his troops, he played tremendous havoc. 
He was Gen. Nathan B. Forrest; and when he 
was asked to what he attributed his success in 
these combats which he had with the Northern 
armies and was asked for his tactics, he said: 
“The answer is simple: T got there fustest with 
the mostest men.” 

Mr. Rankin, of Mississippi : Will the gentlemen 
yield? 

Mr. Johnson, of Washington: I yield. 

Mr. Rankin, of Mississippi: I just want to say 
that General Forrest did not make use of the 
slang expression that has been attributed to him. 
What General Forrest said in answer to General 
Morgan was: “I took a short cut, and got there 
first with the most men.” 


R. Y. Leavel writes from Newberry, S. C., in 
renewing his subscription: “This is the thirty- 
third year that I have been taking the Veteran, 
and I have thirty-two years bound in book form. 
I was a ‘kid’ soldier of 1864-1865; am nearing my 
eighty-fifth year and still in business. I am Com- 
mander of Camp James D. Nance, No. 336, U. C. 
V., also a member of the Pension Board. We have 
only thirteen veterans left in the county at the 
present time; they are fast passing into their 
‘Great Expectation.’ ” 


206 


Qopfedcrat^ l/eterai). 


Gm. JO LANE STERN— IN MEMORIAM. 

A familiar figure at Confederate reunions will 
be missed from the gathering in Richmond this 
June, for Gen, Jo Lane Stern has gone to be with 
the great army in gray across the River. Death 
came to him on the morning of May 3, after 
some months of failing health, at the age of 
eighty-three years. He was Chairman of the En- 
tertainment Committee for this Richmond Re- 
union, a place which he was so eminently fitted 
for, and his passing means a loss in every sense 
of the word. 

Born in Caroline County, Va., December 23, 
1848, son of Levi and Elizabeth Hall Stern, who 
came to Virginia from Rockingham, N. C., Jo 
Lane Stern was educated in the private schools 
of his county, at Fountain Hill Academy, Squire’s 
School in Richmond, and at Washington College, 
now Washington and Lee University. General 
Lee was at the head of the College, and young 
Stern was admitted to the circle of the General’s 
family, and he also had the rare privilege of rid- 
ing that famous old war horse, Traveller. He 
graduated in law in 1869, and returned to Rich- 
mond, was admitted to the Virginia bar, and in 
1871 entered upon his practice of law, which con- 
tinued to his death. He was at one time Presi- 
dent of the Richmond Bar Association, and also 
became a leader in the military and social life of 
the city, holding the office of Inspector General 
(Lieutenant Colonel) from 1884 until 1918, when 
he was appointed Adjutant General of Virginia 
by Governor Westmoreland Davis, as which he 
served until 1922. He had been actively con- 
nected with the United Confederate Veterans 
since its organization, and was Chief of Staff, 
with rank of Brigadier General, for the late Gen. 
Edgar D. Taylor, then Commander of the Army 
of Northern Virginia Department, U. C. V. 

Too young to be regularly enrolled in ranks, 
Jo Lane Stern watched military preparations and 
operations from his father’s home near old Ches- 
terfield station, and listened with avid interest to 
the click of the telegraph instrument carrying 
messages of military import. Then he learned to 
send those messages and relieved the overworked 
operator. It was a proud day when he took a 
message for General Lee and delivered it to the 
General’s tent — and that brief acquaintance made 
him thereafter a devoted follower of a matchless 
man, that devotion taking him to Washington Col- 
lege when General Lee became its President. 

At the ripe age of sixteen years and three 
months, Jo Lane Stern returned from the scenes 


of war, a veteran, and when he had finished his 
education and returned to Richmond, he had de- 
veloped a social charm and leadership which gave 
him first place in the life of the city. He was a 
member of the prominent clubs of his city and 
State, of the Army and Navy Club of New York, 
a member of fraternities and Masonic Lodges, 
ever active in social and civic duties, eternally 
young in enthusiasm and physical status. “Life 
brought him many successes,” said the editor of 
the Richmond News Leader, “but few equal to 
that of keeping young ; and that success he honest- 
ly won by a daily discipline of courtesy and kind- 
liness that kept his heart young and his spirit 
cheerful. It is a dolorous thing to say farewell 
to that dauntless spirit.” 

General Stern never married, and is survived 
by a brother and nieces and nephews. 


CONFEDERATE DAD O’ MINE. 

BY GRACE DUPREE RIDINGS. 

For sake of one old man who wore the gray. 

I’m meeting you and greeting you once more ; 
Your handclasp tells me of that far-off day 
When he the Southern colors gladly bore. 

And marched to battle fields of Dixieland. 

With Lee and Jackson brave to fight nor yield 
The Stars and Bars, to take his valiant stand 
• With you and others on war’s blood-red field. 

For that brave old Confederate Dad o’ mine. 

My hands shall spread a table white for you ; 
Shall place sweet flowers, as the glad hours shine. 
Shall pray for you whose men rest ’neath earth’s 
dew. 

For that dear man who wore, and wears the gray, 
I shall be kind and try to light your way! 

And I shall work where you must bear your load. 
And lend a hand until you cross the bar. 

I shall go seeking heroes down life’s road. 

And tell them of the everlasting star ! 

For one old man, and for our Southern land, 

I bow to men who wear the ashen clothes. 

To wives today who sit and hold a hand. 

For Blue and Gray are now good friends, not 
foes. 

And for Dad’s dear sake, I sing the songs 
Of “Annie Laurie” and of “Dixie,” too. 

The while my wanton spirit ever longs 
For one old man, a hero brave and true. 

Who taught his orphan children lessons fine. 

A cameo — Brave Confederate Dad o’ Mine. 


207 


^OQfe<ierat^ l/etcrai). 


HELD A5 A SPY. 

[From papers of the late Capt. Eugene G. de 
Jarnette, of Richmond, Va.] 

In June, 1863, General Beauregard, wishing to 
know the number and class of troops which were 
being massed at City Point and Bermuda Hun- 
dreds for an attack upon our front, I was ordered 
by Maj. James F. Milligan, commanding the In- 
dependent Signal Corps, to select some half dozen 
of my best men to act as couriers, and to go to 
some place on the James River below City Point, 
and there, with our spyglasses, to observe care- 
fully the number of vessels coming up with troops, 
the size of the transports, the class of troops in 
transition, etc., and to send in a courier to head- 
quarters with details every few hours. 

Being somewhat familiar with the country, I 
left Petersburg by a road to the right of Bland- 
ford, and by a circuitous route struck James River 
at Cogin’s Point, eight miles below City Point. 
This place was well suited to our purpose, and we 
were sending satisfactory accounts to the Gen- 
eral Commanding, when, about 4 P.M. on the third 
day, that, on June 14, being quite unwell with a 
chill, I went into an unoccupied house, the resi- 
dence of a Mr. Edmond Ruffin, and lay down. I 
had not been there more than half an hour when 
a sudden noise like the ringing of sabers against 
saddles aroused me, and, before I had time to 
realize the fact, the yard and house were full of 
the enemy, and I was a prisoner. A squadron of 
the 4th Massachusetts Cavalry, commanded by 
Captain Ray, had dashed across the headland, and 
my reports for that time and place were at an 
end. Fortunately, only two of my men were “at 
home.” James Clark, of Surry, was at the glass 
and was captured; John G. Dew, of King and 
Queen County, Va., was at the spring. Upon hear- 
ing the commotion, he marched up the hill, but, 
taking in at a glance the situation, he promptly 
assumed a horizontal position and rolled down 
again. This maneuver saved him, and, after the 
enemy left, he made his way to Petersburg and 
gave information of our capture. 

It would be a useless task to attempt to describe 
the feelings of a captive ; only those who have felt 
it can know. I must say, however, that no per- 
sonal indignity was allowed toward me by Cap- 
tain Ray. The men were not allowed to search 
me, as was a common occurrence among the 
enemy, and I was thus enabled to save a valuable 
watch by slipping it down my boot leg so soon as 
night came on. About seven or eight o’clock p.m., 
we were dismounted before the quarters of 


Colonel Rand, commanding the 4th Massachusetts 
Cavalry, who questioned me closely, though re- 
spectfully, as to our forces, etc. Finding me some- 
what reticent, he ordered a file of negro soldiers to 
take me over to Gen. B. F. Butler’s command at 
Bermuda Hundred. There a very different recep- 
tion awaited me. In a coarse and violent manner. 
General Butler asked me my name, to what branch 
of the Confederate army I belonged, why I had 
struck a vidette outpost so far from any support, 
and so was captured. As I was a member of the 
Signal Service, he took it for granted that I was 
informed as to the number of the troops in and 
around Petersburg, their positions, etc., and he 
demanded the information in a very harsh and 
peremptory manner. These questions I parried 
as best I could, keeping him as far from the real 
truth as possible, for it is a well-known fact that 
at the time Petersburg was almost defenseless, 
not having troops enough to man one-half the 
works. At about this point in the interview, one 
of General Butler’s staff whispered something to 
him. He seemed startled for a moment, and then 
asked me to repeat my name. This I did, and, 
looking at me intently, one eye behind the other, 
he said, “You are the Rebel officer that whisked 
into Norfolk last fall and out again before we 
could get hold of you, but I’ve got hold of you now, 

and, d you, I’ll fix you. Take him off” (to the 

negro guard) . I felt that I was in a difficult posi- 
tion, and the character of the officer into whose 
hands I had fallen did not console me greatly. 

Life and liberty are very precious to youth, and 
I was only twenty. If each plan of escape I found 
that night could have taken me just one hundred 
yards from the enemy’s lines, I should have been 
many miles away and safe ere daylight. But it 
was not to be, and in a day or two I was taken 
down the James and safely lodged in one of the 
casemates of Fortress Monroe. 

About the first of July, I was notified by one 
Major Stackpole, Judge Advocate, that, by order 
of Gen. B. F. Butler, he must prefer charges 
against me as a spy, and the specification was that 
I had entered the city of Norfolk as such the fall 
previous ; that a trial upon such a charge involved 
life and death, and that I should be represented by 
competent counsel. 

Be it remembered that this whole proceeding 
of General Butler’s was contrary to the law and 
precedent, for I was not captured until eight 
months after the alleged offense had been com- 
mitted, and at my “court-martial,” which was 
held in Carrol Hall and lasted three days, it was 


208 


^opfederat^ l/eteraije 


in evidence that I had at the time named led a 
party of Confederate soldiers, in full Confederate 
uniform and well armed, through General Butler’s 
lines and back to our own in safety, which is a 
legitimate mode of warfare among all civilized 
people. 

Upon Major Stackpole’s suggestion as to coun- 
sel, I wrote to the Hon. Joseph Segar, who was 
known to members of my family, and had visited 
at my father’s home, and also to Hon. Lucius H. 
Chandler, of Norfolk. Mr. Segar wrote that he 
could not interfere in the difficulty I was in with 
his government. Mr. Chandler promptly replied 
in person, and though opposed in sentiment, ren- 
dered me efficient service to uphold the right ; and 
though that trial resulted in my perfect vindica- 
tion, yet the officers of the United States Govern- 
ment kept me in suspense for months, and failed 
to promulgate my innocence until I was ex- 
changed, which was sometime during that year. 


NOT A COMMISSIONED OFFICER. 

BY JAMES E. PAYNE, DALLAS, TEX. 

In the April number of the Veteran, in a death 
notice of comrade Ben Harvin, St. Louis Camp 
No. 731, U. C. V., occurs this statement: 

“In 1863, 1864, and 1865 Comrade Harvin rode 
with that gallant and dashing chieftain, Quan- 
trill, and he also served the true cause with George 
Todd, Dave Pool, “Bloody” Bill Anderson, and 
Jesse James.” 

This notice appearing in the Veteran affords 
a clear implication that Quantrill, Todd, Dave 
Pool, Bill Anderson, and Jesse James were Con- 
federate soldiers. 

An effort is made to employ truth in writing 
Confederate history. Let us have the truth con- 
cerning these men. 

In 1863, while the 6th Missouri Voluntary In- 
fantry, C. S. A., was camped near Grenada, Miss., 
William Quantrill, on his way back to Missouri 
from Richmond, where he had gone to ask Presi- 
dent Davis for a commission, paid us a visit. 
Sitting in front of Col. Erwin’s tent, I heard him 
make the statement that he had met Mr. Davis, 
asked to be commissioned either as Brigadier Gen- 
eral or Colonel, but had been refused, because he 
declined to place himself under the military au- 
thority of the Confederate government. Davis 
said: “Mr. Quantrill, if you will take the oath 
of allegiance to the Confederate government and 
place yourself under military authority, I will 
give you a Colonel’s Commission, but I will not 


give you an independent command.” “With that, 
said Quantrill, “I took my leave, and I am on my 
way back to my men, to fight the Yankees in my 
own way.” 

Capt. Maurice Langhorne was of General Joe 
Shelby’s staff. After the war was over, he came 
to Jackson County Mo., and along in the eighties 
became deputy county marshal at Independence. 
At the time, I was conducting the Independence 
Sentinel. Langhorne told me this story : 

When General Price reached Marshall (Mo.) 
in 1864, Quantrill and his men rode into camp. 
General Price sent for me, and when I arrived, 
directed me to go to Quantrill and tell him that 
he, his captains and all his men must take the 
oath of allegiance to the Confederate govern- 
ment, and submit to constituted military au- 
thority, or get out of camp. I went as ordered, 
and delivered Price’s edict. Quantrill and all his 
captains and their men, except George Todd and 
his men, refused and the next day rode away.” 

George Todd, up to the outbreak of war in 
Missouri, which was precipitated by Captain 
Lyon’s capture of Camp Jackson, had been a 
quiet, peaceful citizen. He and I had joined a 
company of the State Guard in December, 1860. 
When Captain Prince, of the regular army, landed 
at Kansas City with a force of infantry and caval- 
ry, Captain Gregory, of our State Guard company, 
practically disbanded it, and left Kansas City. 
Todd and several others, including the writer, 
went to Independence and joined the forces as- 
sembling there. Todd subsequently joined Gen- 
eral Price’s Provost guard, but when that was 
disbanded, upon Price’s accepting a Commission 
in the Confederate army, he returned to Jackson 
County and fell in with Quantrill. 

While scouting in Jackson County, he crept into 
Kansas City one night, met the attractive widow 
of his brother, who had been accidentally killed 
some two years before, took her to the parish 
priest, who duly married them. Even many of 
his enemies regretted his death. 

Wagner Post, G. A. R., at Independence is 
named for a Captain Wagner of the Iowa Cavalry, 
who was killed in a fight with Todd and his com- 
pany. Wagner, with twenty -two men, had gone 
on as scout to locate Quantrill. At the noon hour, 
he and his men dismounted in a small clearing 
about seven miles southeast of Independence. 
While eating their rations, unsuspecting danger, 
they were suddenly attacked by Todd and twen- 
ty-two of his men. Wagner and his men gained 
their mounts and there was fought one of the most 


209 


^oofederat^ l/eterai). 


sanguinary battles of the war. Quarters were 
too close for carbines, so only six shooters and 
sabers were the weapons used. Nine times the 
combatants rode back and forth across the clear- 
ing. I don’t know how many men Todd lost; 
many were wounded. Of Wagner’s men only one 
was left to carry the news of the battle back to 
Independence. 

ANOTHER LEE BIOGRAPHY. 

A REVIEW BY MATTHEW PAGE ANDREWS. 

By virtue of the Bobbs-Merrill Press, a new life 
of Lee has appeared, the author of which is Rev. 
Dr. William E. Brooks, a Northerner, who ap- 
proaches his subject in a fine spirit of liberality. 
With non-partisan sympathy, he writes of Lee’s 
character, achievements, and attainments — if not 
of Lee’s attitude. The style of the book is wholly 
pleasing and the volume itself is not at all ponder- 
ous, being some three hundred and forty-odd 
pages. 

The author lays emphasis (very properly) 
upon Lee’s great contribution to the Confederate 
cause in strengthening the coast defenses prior 
to the time he took command of the Army of 
Northern Virginia. Also, Dr. Brooks shows an 
unusual comprehension of the abilities of General 
McClellan, incidentally reporting Lee’s eulogistic 
comment on that commander. This appreciation 
is quite contrary to the accustomed superficiality 
of the majority of historians, biographers, and 
others, who make McClellan the scapegoat of the 
early failures in the plans of the Washington ad- 
ministration. 

The author’s tributes, in paragraph portraits, 
to the character and characteristics of Jackson 
and Stuart are unexcelled in brevity and force. 
Furthermore, Dr. Brooks appraises the true sig- 
nificance of the delinquencies of Longstreet as 
does no other Lee biographer. This is brought 
out prior to Gettysburg ; for Dr. Brooks refers to 
the campaign leading up to the second